focal adhesions

Summary

Summary: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.

Top Publications

  1. Shemesh T, Bershadsky A, Kozlov M. Physical model for self-organization of actin cytoskeleton and adhesion complexes at the cell front. Biophys J. 2012;102:1746-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The model recovers the asynchronous fluctuations and outward bulging of the cell edge, and the dependence of the edge protrusion velocity on the rate of the nascent adhesion generation, the membrane tension, and the substrate rigidity...
  2. Sun G, Cheng S, Chen M, Lim C, Pallen C. Protein tyrosine phosphatase ? phosphotyrosyl-789 binds BCAR3 to position Cas for activation at integrin-mediated focal adhesions. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:3776-89 pubmed publisher
    Integrin-mediated focal adhesions connect the extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton to regulate cell responses, such as migration...
  3. Shams H, Golji J, Mofrad M. A molecular trajectory of ?-actinin activation. Biophys J. 2012;103:2050-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may shed light on the role of ?-actinin in cellular mechanotransduction and focal adhesion formation...
  4. Lobert V, Stenmark H. The ESCRT machinery mediates polarization of fibroblasts through regulation of myosin light chain. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:29-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that, through their role in regulating integrin trafficking, ESCRTs regulate phosphorylation of MRLC and, subsequently, Golgi orientation and cell spreading...
  5. Oakes P, Beckham Y, Stricker J, Gardel M. Tension is required but not sufficient for focal adhesion maturation without a stress fiber template. J Cell Biol. 2012;196:363-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that compositional maturation of focal adhesions could occur even when myosin II-dependent cellular tension was reduced by 80%...
  6. Goel H, Pursell B, Standley C, Fogarty K, Mercurio A. Neuropilin-2 regulates ?6?1 integrin in the formation of focal adhesions and signaling. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:497-506 pubmed publisher
    ..The NRP2(high) population formed numerous focal adhesions on laminin that were not seen in the NRP2(low) population...
  7. Shibata A, Fujiwara T, Chen L, Suzuki K, Ishikawa Y, Nemoto Y, et al. Archipelago architecture of the focal adhesion: membrane molecules freely enter and exit from the focal adhesion zone. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). 2012;69:380-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Such an archipelago architecture would allow rapid FA formation and disintegration, and might be applicable to other large protein domains in the plasma membrane...
  8. Bate N, Gingras A, Bachir A, Horwitz R, Ye F, Patel B, et al. Talin contains a C-terminal calpain2 cleavage site important in focal adhesion dynamics. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34461 pubmed publisher
    ..that associates with the integrin family of cell adhesion molecules in cell-extracellular matrix junctions (focal adhesions; FAs), where it both activates integrins and couples them to the actin cytoskeleton...
  9. Ma X, Zhao Y, Daaka Y, Nie Z. Acute activation of ?2-adrenergic receptor regulates focal adhesions through ?Arrestin2- and p115RhoGEF protein-mediated activation of RhoA. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:18925-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that ?(2)AR regulates formation of focal adhesions, whose dynamic remodeling is critical for directed cell migration...

More Information

Publications72

  1. Trichet L, Le Digabel J, Hawkins R, Vedula S, Gupta M, Ribrault C, et al. Evidence of a large-scale mechanosensing mechanism for cellular adaptation to substrate stiffness. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:6933-8 pubmed publisher
    ..understanding is that traction forces exerted by cells arise mainly at mechanotransduction sites, called focal adhesions, whose size seems to be correlated to the force exerted by cells on their underlying substrate, at least ..
  2. Choi C, Webb B, Chimenti M, Jacobson M, Barber D. pH sensing by FAK-His58 regulates focal adhesion remodeling. J Cell Biol. 2013;202:849-59 pubmed publisher
    Intracellular pH (pHi) dynamics regulates diverse cellular processes, including remodeling of focal adhesions. We now report that focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a key regulator of focal adhesion remodeling, is a pH sensor responding to ..
  3. Beaumont K, Mrksich M. The mechanostability of isolated focal adhesions is strongly dependent on pH. Chem Biol. 2012;19:711-20 pubmed publisher
    This report demonstrates that the mechanical stability of focal adhesions exhibits a biphasic and sensitive pH dependence...
  4. Deakin N, Ballestrem C, Turner C. Paxillin and Hic-5 interaction with vinculin is differentially regulated by Rac1 and RhoA. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37990 pubmed publisher
    ..These data identify discrete roles for paxillin and Hic-5 in Rac1 and RhoA-dependent cell adhesion formation and maturation; processes essential for productive cell migration...
  5. Frith J, Mills R, Cooper White J. Lateral spacing of adhesion peptides influences human mesenchymal stem cell behaviour. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:317-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the ability of MSCs to form mature focal adhesions is reduced on substrates with increased lateral spacing...
  6. Kim D, Khatau S, Feng Y, Walcott S, Sun S, Longmore G, et al. Actin cap associated focal adhesions and their distinct role in cellular mechanosensing. Sci Rep. 2012;2:555 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identify a small subset of focal adhesions that terminate fibers in the actin cap, a highly ordered filamentous actin structure that is anchored to the ..
  7. Stehbens S, Wittmann T. Targeting and transport: how microtubules control focal adhesion dynamics. J Cell Biol. 2012;198:481-9 pubmed publisher
    ..remodeling of interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is mediated by integrin-based focal adhesions (FAs)...
  8. Tomar A, Lawson C, Ghassemian M, Schlaepfer D. Cortactin as a target for FAK in the regulation of focal adhesion dynamics. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44041 pubmed publisher
    ..Cortactin is an actin binding adaptor protein that can influence FA dynamics. FAK and cortactin interact, but the cellular role of this complex remains unclear...
  9. Wang Q, Siminovitch K, Downey G, McCulloch C. Ras-guanine-nucleotide-releasing factors 1 and 2 interact with PLC? at focal adhesions to enable IL-1-induced Ca(2+) signalling, ERK activation and MMP-3 expression. Biochem J. 2013;449:771-82 pubmed publisher
    ..factors) 1 and 2, but the mechanisms that link and localize IL-1-induced Ca2+ signalling to focal adhesions are not defined...
  10. Ludwig F, Schwab A, Stock C. The Na+ /H+ -exchanger (NHE1) generates pH nanodomains at focal adhesions. J Cell Physiol. 2013;228:1351-8 pubmed publisher
    ..step in the metastatic cascade, requires the formation and release of integrin-mediated cell-matrix contacts (focal adhesions)...
  11. Ciobanasu C, Faivre B, Le Clainche C. Integrating actin dynamics, mechanotransduction and integrin activation: the multiple functions of actin binding proteins in focal adhesions. Eur J Cell Biol. 2013;92:339-48 pubmed publisher
    b>Focal adhesions are clusters of integrin transmembrane receptors that mechanically couple the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton during cell migration...
  12. Kuo J. Mechanotransduction at focal adhesions: integrating cytoskeletal mechanics in migrating cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2013;17:704-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Focal adhesions (FAs) are complex plasma membrane-associated macromolecular assemblies that serve to physically connect the actin cytoskeleton to integrins that engage with the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM)...
  13. Bandyopadhyay A, Rothschild G, Kim S, Calderwood D, Raghavan S. Functional differences between kindlin-1 and kindlin-2 in keratinocytes. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:2172-84 pubmed publisher
    Integrin-?1-null keratinocytes can adhere to fibronectin through integrin ?v?6, but form large peripheral focal adhesions and exhibit defective cell spreading...
  14. Plotnikov S, Pasapera A, Sabass B, Waterman C. Force fluctuations within focal adhesions mediate ECM-rigidity sensing to guide directed cell migration. Cell. 2012;151:1513-27 pubmed publisher
    ..guide durotaxis, we characterized cell-generated forces on the nanoscale within single mature integrin-based focal adhesions (FAs)...
  15. Chen X, Nam J, Jean C, Lawson C, Walsh C, Goka E, et al. VEGF-induced vascular permeability is mediated by FAK. Dev Cell. 2012;22:146-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies establish a role for FAK as an essential signaling switch within ECs regulating adherens junction dynamics...
  16. Han S, Bielawski K, Ting L, Rodriguez M, Sniadecki N. Decoupling substrate stiffness, spread area, and micropost density: a close spatial relationship between traction forces and focal adhesions. Biophys J. 2012;103:640-8 pubmed publisher
    Mechanical cues can influence the manner in which cells generate traction forces and form focal adhesions. The stiffness of a cell's substrate and the available area on which it can spread can influence its generation of traction forces, ..
  17. Legant W, Choi C, Miller J, Shao L, Gao L, Betzig E, et al. Multidimensional traction force microscopy reveals out-of-plane rotational moments about focal adhesions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:881-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that shear tractions are centered under elongated focal adhesions whereas upward and downward normal tractions are detected on distal (toward the cell edge) and proximal (..
  18. Fogh B, Multhaupt H, Couchman J. Protein kinase C, focal adhesions and the regulation of cell migration. J Histochem Cytochem. 2014;62:172-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Thereafter, contractile and endocytic/recycling activities may facilitate migration and adhesion turnover. Focal adhesions, or focal contacts, are widespread organelles at the cell-matrix interface...
  19. Hoffman L, Jensen C, Chaturvedi A, Yoshigi M, Beckerle M. Stretch-induced actin remodeling requires targeting of zyxin to stress fibers and recruitment of actin regulators. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:1846-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings define a bipartite mechanism for stretch-induced actin remodeling that involves mechanosensitive targeting of zyxin to actin stress fibers and localized recruitment of actin regulatory machinery...
  20. Min J, Reznichenko M, Poythress R, Gallant C, Vetterkind S, Li Y, et al. Src modulates contractile vascular smooth muscle function via regulation of focal adhesions. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:3585-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These data point to the possibility that vascular focal adhesion proteins may be useful drug discovery targets for novel therapeutic approaches to cardiovascular disease...
  21. Wang Y, McNiven M. Invasive matrix degradation at focal adhesions occurs via protease recruitment by a FAK-p130Cas complex. J Cell Biol. 2012;196:375-85 pubmed publisher
    ..It is well established that focal adhesions (FAs) play an important role in regulating migration; however, whether these structures contribute to matrix ..
  22. Goldmann W. Mechanotransduction and focal adhesions. Cell Biol Int. 2012;36:649-52 pubmed publisher
    Cellular FAs (focal adhesions) respond to internal and external mechanical stresses which make them prime candidates for mechanotransduction...
  23. Okina E, Grossi A, Gopal S, Multhaupt H, Couchman J. Alpha-actinin interactions with syndecan-4 are integral to fibroblast-matrix adhesion and regulate cytoskeletal architecture. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;44:2161-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Syndecan-4 null mice have a complex wound repair phenotype while their fibroblasts have reduced focal adhesions and matrix contraction abilities...
  24. Carisey A, Tsang R, Greiner A, Nijenhuis N, Heath N, Nazgiewicz A, et al. Vinculin regulates the recruitment and release of core focal adhesion proteins in a force-dependent manner. Curr Biol. 2013;23:271-81 pubmed publisher
    ..intracellular actin cytoskeleton through a complex network of regulatory proteins that, all together, form focal adhesions (FAs)...
  25. Thievessen I, Thompson P, Berlemont S, Plevock K, Plotnikov S, Zemljic Harpf A, et al. Vinculin-actin interaction couples actin retrograde flow to focal adhesions, but is dispensable for focal adhesion growth. J Cell Biol. 2013;202:163-77 pubmed publisher
    In migrating cells, integrin-based focal adhesions (FAs) assemble in protruding lamellipodia in association with rapid filamentous actin (F-actin) assembly and retrograde flow. How dynamic F-actin is coupled to FA is not known...
  26. Hoshino D, Jourquin J, Emmons S, Miller T, Goldgof M, Costello K, et al. Network analysis of the focal adhesion to invadopodia transition identifies a PI3K-PKC? invasive signaling axis. Sci Signal. 2012;5:ra66 pubmed publisher
    ..We modeled the invasive transition as a theoretical switch between two cytoskeletal structures: focal adhesions and extracellular matrix-degrading invadopodia...
  27. Geiger T, Zaidel Bar R. Opening the floodgates: proteomics and the integrin adhesome. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2012;24:562-8 pubmed publisher
  28. Wehrle Haller B. Assembly and disassembly of cell matrix adhesions. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2012;24:569-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this review is to provide insight into the mechanisms leading to the progressive assembly of focal adhesions, how they are modulated in response to mechanical challenges and which mechanisms are used for their ..
  29. Tolde O, Rosel D, Janostiak R, Vesely P, Brabek J. Dynamics and morphology of focal adhesions in complex 3D environment. Folia Biol (Praha). 2012;58:177-84 pubmed
    b>Focal adhesions are specific types of cellular adhesion structures through which both mechanical force and regulatory signals are transmitted...
  30. Yang N, Tang Y, Wang F, Zhang H, Xu D, Shen Y, et al. Blockade of store-operated Ca(2+) entry inhibits hepatocarcinoma cell migration and invasion by regulating focal adhesion turnover. Cancer Lett. 2013;330:163-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of SOCE and STIM1 enhance focal adhesions and decrease the focal adhesion turnover, suggesting the therapeutic potential of SOCE and STIM1 as new ..
  31. Wu C, Asokan S, Berginski M, Haynes E, Sharpless N, Griffith J, et al. Arp2/3 is critical for lamellipodia and response to extracellular matrix cues but is dispensable for chemotaxis. Cell. 2012;148:973-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with this finding, cells depleted of Arp2/3 fail to globally align focal adhesions, suggesting that one principle function of lamellipodia is to organize cell-matrix adhesions in a spatially ..
  32. Zhong J, Baquiran J, Bonakdar N, Lees J, Ching Y, Pugacheva E, et al. NEDD9 stabilizes focal adhesions, increases binding to the extra-cellular matrix and differentially effects 2D versus 3D cell migration. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35058 pubmed publisher
    ..2D) surfaces is determined by the rate of assembly and disassembly of clustered integrin receptors known as focal adhesions. Different modes of cell migration that have been described in 3D environments are distinguished by their ..
  33. Thapa N, Sun Y, Schramp M, Choi S, Ling K, Anderson R. Phosphoinositide signaling regulates the exocyst complex and polarized integrin trafficking in directionally migrating cells. Dev Cell. 2012;22:116-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal how phosphoinositide generation orchestrates polarized trafficking of integrin in coordination with talin that links integrins to the actin cytoskeleton, processes that are required for directional migration...
  34. Chen B, Kemkemer R, Deibler M, Spatz J, Gao H. Cyclic stretch induces cell reorientation on substrates by destabilizing catch bonds in focal adhesions. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48346 pubmed publisher
    ..of cellular mechanosensing system that consists of a single stress fiber adhering on a substrate via two focal adhesions made of catch bonds is adopted to investigate the phenomena of cell reorientation on substrates induced by an ..
  35. Rossier O, Octeau V, Sibarita J, Leduc C, Tessier B, Nair D, et al. Integrins ?1 and ?3 exhibit distinct dynamic nanoscale organizations inside focal adhesions. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:1057-67 pubmed publisher
    Integrins in focal adhesions (FAs) mediate adhesion and force transmission to extracellular matrices essential for cell motility, proliferation and differentiation...
  36. Lyu J, Hu Y, Xu X, Zhang H. Dynamics of focal adhesions and reorganization of F-actin in VEGF-stimulated NSCs under varying differentiation states. J Cell Biochem. 2013;114:1744-59 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we demonstrate the different dynamics of focal adhesions (FAs) and reorganization of F-actin in NSCs during spreading and migration stimulated by VEGF...
  37. Brami Cherrier K, Gervasi N, Arsenieva D, Walkiewicz K, Boutterin M, Ortega A, et al. FAK dimerization controls its kinase-dependent functions at focal adhesions. EMBO J. 2014;33:356-70 pubmed publisher
    ..FAK dimerization requires local enrichment, which occurs specifically at focal adhesions. Paxillin plays a dual role, by recruiting FAK to focal adhesions and by reinforcing the FAT:FERM interaction...
  38. Hirata H, Tatsumi H, Lim C, Sokabe M. Force-dependent vinculin binding to talin in live cells: a crucial step in anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to focal adhesions. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2014;306:C607-20 pubmed publisher
    Mechanical forces play a pivotal role in the regulation of focal adhesions (FAs) where the actin cytoskeleton is anchored to the extracellular matrix through integrin and a variety of linker proteins including talin and vinculin...
  39. Möhl C, Kirchgessner N, Schafer C, Hoffmann B, Merkel R. Quantitative mapping of averaged focal adhesion dynamics in migrating cells by shape normalization. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:155-65 pubmed publisher
    The spatially ordered formation and disassembly of focal adhesions is a basic requirement for effective cell locomotion...
  40. Roca Cusachs P, Iskratsch T, Sheetz M. Finding the weakest link: exploring integrin-mediated mechanical molecular pathways. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:3025-38 pubmed publisher
    ..All these define mechanical molecular pathways in cells, which are emerging as key regulators of cell function alongside better studied biochemical pathways...
  41. Kaverina I, Straube A. Regulation of cell migration by dynamic microtubules. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2011;22:968-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss regulatory factors, potential feedback mechanisms due to functional microtubule-actin crosstalk and implications for cancer cell motility. ..
  42. Indra I, Undyala V, Kandow C, Thirumurthi U, Dembo M, Beningo K. An in vitro correlation of mechanical forces and metastatic capacity. Phys Biol. 2011;8:015015 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that traction stress, adhesion strength and rate of migration do indeed change as tumor cells progress in metastatic capacity and do so in a dimension-sensitive manner. ..
  43. Kim Kaneyama J, Takeda N, Sasai A, Miyazaki A, Sata M, Hirabayashi T, et al. Hic-5 deficiency enhances mechanosensitive apoptosis and modulates vascular remodeling. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2011;50:77-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanical stress also induced the alteration of intracellular distribution of vinculin from focal adhesions to the whole cytoplasm in SMCs...
  44. Cortesio C, Boateng L, Piazza T, Bennin D, Huttenlocher A. Calpain-mediated proteolysis of paxillin negatively regulates focal adhesion dynamics and cell migration. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:9998-10006 pubmed publisher
    ..Paxillin is an adaptor protein that localizes to focal adhesions and has been implicated in cell motility...
  45. Skalski M, Sharma N, Williams K, Kruspe A, Coppolino M. SNARE-mediated membrane traffic is required for focal adhesion kinase signaling and Src-regulated focal adhesion turnover. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1813:148-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that SNARE-dependent trafficking is required for integrin signaling through a FAK/Src/PI3K-dependent pathway. ..
  46. Kopecki Z, O Neill G, Arkell R, Cowin A. Regulation of focal adhesions by flightless i involves inhibition of paxillin phosphorylation via a Rac1-dependent pathway. J Invest Dermatol. 2011;131:1450-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that Flii modulation of focal adhesions and filamentous actin stress fibers is Rac1-dependent...
  47. Wang Y, Cao H, Chen J, McNiven M. A direct interaction between the large GTPase dynamin-2 and FAK regulates focal adhesion dynamics in response to active Src. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:1529-38 pubmed publisher
    Tumor cell migration is supported in part by the cyclic formation and disassembly of focal adhesions (FAs); however, the mechanisms that regulate this process are not fully defined...
  48. Liu J, He X, Qi Y, Tian X, Monkley S, Critchley D, et al. Talin1 regulates integrin turnover to promote embryonic epithelial morphogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:3366-77 pubmed publisher
    ..All together, these results suggest that talin1 binding to integrin promotes epiblast adhesion and morphogenesis in part by preventing integrin ?1 degradation. ..
  49. Nagano M, Hoshino D, Sakamoto T, Akizawa T, Koshikawa N, Seiki M. ZF21 is a new regulator of focal adhesion disassembly and a potential member of the spreading initiation center. Cell Adh Migr. 2011;5:23-8 pubmed
    Adherent cells migrate on extracellular matrices (ECM) by repeated spreading and contraction of the cell body. Focal adhesions (FAs) play a major role in the adherence of cells to the ECM and in the generation of the cellular forces that ..
  50. Diez G, Auernheimer V, Fabry B, Goldmann W. Head/tail interaction of vinculin influences cell mechanical behavior. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;406:85-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that vinculin's mechano-coupling function is dependent on its conformational state. ..
  51. Patla I, Volberg T, Elad N, Hirschfeld Warneken V, Grashoff C, Fassler R, et al. Dissecting the molecular architecture of integrin adhesion sites by cryo-electron tomography. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:909-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Focal adhesions are integrin-based multiprotein complexes, several micrometres in diameter, that mechanically link the extracellular matrix with the termini of actin bundles...
  52. Nguyen T, Uemura A, Shih W, Yamada S. Zyxin-mediated actin assembly is required for efficient wound closure. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:35439-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that, by recruiting VASP, zyxin regulates actin assembly at the sites of force-bearing cell-cell adhesion...
  53. Olberding J, Thouless M, Arruda E, Garikipati K. The non-equilibrium thermodynamics and kinetics of focal adhesion dynamics. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12043 pubmed publisher
    ..Free energy changes drive the binding and unbinding of these complexes and thereby controls the focal adhesion's dynamic modes of growth, treadmilling and resorption...
  54. Schiller H, Friedel C, Boulegue C, Fassler R. Quantitative proteomics of the integrin adhesome show a myosin II-dependent recruitment of LIM domain proteins. EMBO Rep. 2011;12:259-66 pubmed publisher
    ..by myosin II makes cells able to sense substrate stiffness and induce maturation of nascent adhesions into focal adhesions. In this paper, we present a comprehensive proteomic analysis of nascent and mature adhesions...
  55. van den Dries K, van Helden S, Te Riet J, Diez Ahedo R, Manzo C, Oud M, et al. Geometry sensing by dendritic cells dictates spatial organization and PGE(2)-induced dissolution of podosomes. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2012;69:1889-901 pubmed publisher
    Assembly and disassembly of adhesion structures such as focal adhesions (FAs) and podosomes regulate cell adhesion and differentiation...
  56. Sakwe A, Koumangoye R, Guillory B, Ochieng J. Annexin A6 contributes to the invasiveness of breast carcinoma cells by influencing the organization and localization of functional focal adhesions. Exp Cell Res. 2011;317:823-37 pubmed publisher
    ..To explain the loss in adhesion/motility, we show that vinculin-based focal adhesions in the AnxA6-depleted BT-549 cells are elongated and randomly distributed...
  57. Kaneko Y, Lecce L, Day M, Murphy C. ?(1) and ?(3) integrins disassemble from basal focal adhesions and ?(3) integrin is later localised to the apical plasma membrane of rat uterine luminal epithelial cells at the time of implantation. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2011;23:481-95 pubmed publisher
    The present study investigated the expression of integrin subunits that are known to be associated with focal adhesions, namely ?(1) and ?(3) integrins in rat uterine luminal epithelial cells during early pregnancy...
  58. Chien F, Kuo C, Yang Z, Chueh D, Chen P. Exploring the formation of focal adhesions on patterned surfaces using super-resolution imaging. Small. 2011;7:2906-13 pubmed publisher
    The formation of focal adhesions on various sizes of fibronectin patterns, ranging from 200 ?m to 250 nm, was systematically investigated by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and super-resolution imaging...
  59. Legate K, Takahashi S, Bonakdar N, Fabry B, Boettiger D, Zent R, et al. Integrin adhesion and force coupling are independently regulated by localized PtdIns(4,5)2 synthesis. EMBO J. 2011;30:4539-53 pubmed publisher
    The 90-kDa isoform of the lipid kinase PIP kinase Type I ? (PIPKI?) localizes to focal adhesions (FAs), where it provides a local source of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2))...
  60. Katoh K, Kano Y, Noda Y. Rho-associated kinase-dependent contraction of stress fibres and the organization of focal adhesions. J R Soc Interface. 2011;8:305-11 pubmed publisher
    Stress fibres and associated focal adhesions in cells constitute a contractile apparatus that regulates cell motility and contraction...
  61. Wu Z, Li X, Sunkara M, Spearman H, Morris A, Huang C. PIPKI? regulates focal adhesion dynamics and colon cancer cell invasion. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24775 pubmed publisher
    ..whereas cells expressing either PIPKI?(K188,200R) or PIPKI?(D316K), two kinase-dead mutants, had much fewer focal adhesions than those expressing WT PIPKI? in CHO-K1 cells and HCT116 colon cancer cells...
  62. Deguchi S, Matsui T, Iio K. The position and size of individual focal adhesions are determined by intracellular stress-dependent positive regulation. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). 2011;68:639-51 pubmed publisher
    It remains unclear how the subcellular positions and sizes of individual focal adhesions (FAs) are determined in stationary cells...
  63. Burgstaller G, Gregor M, Winter L, Wiche G. Keeping the vimentin network under control: cell-matrix adhesion-associated plectin 1f affects cell shape and polarity of fibroblasts. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:3362-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Focal adhesions (FAs) located at the ends of actin/myosin-containing contractile stress fibers form tight connections between fibroblasts and their underlying extracellular matrix...