bacterial fimbriae

Summary

Summary: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).

Top Publications

  1. Peng Z, Wu H, Ruiz T, Chen Q, Zhou M, Sun B, et al. Role of gap3 in Fap1 glycosylation, stability, in vitro adhesion, and fimbrial and biofilm formation of Streptococcus parasanguinis. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2008;23:70-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Gap3 is required for the complete glycosylation and secretion of Fap1, which is important for fimbrial assembly, bacterial adhesion, and in vitro biofilm formation. ..
  2. LeMieux J, Woody S, Camilli A. Roles of the sortases of Streptococcus pneumoniae in assembly of the RlrA pilus. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:6002-13 pubmed publisher
  3. Burmølle M, Bahl M, Jensen L, Sørensen S, Hansen L. Type 3 fimbriae, encoded by the conjugative plasmid pOLA52, enhance biofilm formation and transfer frequencies in Enterobacteriaceae strains. Microbiology. 2008;154:187-95 pubmed publisher
    ..pOLA52 is believed to represent the first example of a conjugative plasmid encoding type 3 fimbriae, resulting in enhanced conjugation frequencies and biofilm formation of the plasmid-harbouring strain...
  4. Aguiar S, Serrano I, Pinto F, Melo Cristino J, Ramirez M. The presence of the pilus locus is a clonal property among pneumococcal invasive isolates. BMC Microbiol. 2008;8:41 pubmed publisher
    ..Carriage of the pilus islet is a clonal property of pneumococci that may vary between isolates expressing the same serotype and loss and acquisition of the islet may be ongoing. ..
  5. Wright K, Seed P, Hultgren S. Development of intracellular bacterial communities of uropathogenic Escherichia coli depends on type 1 pili. Cell Microbiol. 2007;9:2230-41 pubmed
    ..Thus, this work changes the extracellular colonization functional paradigm of pili by demonstrating their intracellular role in biofilm formation...
  6. Pezzicoli A, Santi I, Lauer P, Rosini R, Rinaudo D, Grandi G, et al. Pilus backbone contributes to group B Streptococcus paracellular translocation through epithelial cells. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:890-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a dual role for pilus components during the critical steps leading to GBS dissemination in the host...
  7. Opitz D, Clausen M, Maier B. Dynamics of gonococcal type IV pili during infection. Chemphyschem. 2009;10:1614-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the force generated by type IV pili during infection is high enough to induce cytoskeletal rearrangements in the host cell...
  8. Quigley B, Zahner D, Hatkoff M, Thanassi D, Scott J. Linkage of T3 and Cpa pilins in the Streptococcus pyogenes M3 pilus. Mol Microbiol. 2009;72:1379-94 pubmed publisher
  9. Nuccio S, Chessa D, Weening E, Raffatellu M, Clegg S, BAUMLER A. SIMPLE approach for isolating mutants expressing fimbriae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:4455-62 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that the SIMPLE method is an effective approach for isolating fimbriated bacteria, which can be readily applied to fimbrial operons identified by whole-genome sequencing...

More Information

Publications66

  1. Edwards A, Manetti A, Falugi F, Zingaretti C, Capo S, Buccato S, et al. Scavenger receptor gp340 aggregates group A streptococci by binding pili. Mol Microbiol. 2008;68:1378-94 pubmed publisher
    ..GAS pilus-defective mutants were abrogated in gp340 binding and aggregation. Furthermore, gp340-mediated aggregation reduced bacterial adhesion to human epithelial cells, suggesting a role in host defence...
  2. Bagnoli F, Moschioni M, Donati C, Dimitrovska V, Ferlenghi I, Facciotti C, et al. A second pilus type in Streptococcus pneumoniae is prevalent in emerging serotypes and mediates adhesion to host cells. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:5480-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, pneumococci encode at least two types of pili that play a role in the initial host cell contact to the respiratory tract and are potential antigens for inclusion in a new generation of pneumococcal vaccines...
  3. Struve C, Bojer M, Krogfelt K. Characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae type 1 fimbriae by detection of phase variation during colonization and infection and impact on virulence. Infect Immun. 2008;76:4055-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that during colonization and infection, there is pronounced selective pressure in different host environments for selection of either the type 1 fimbriated or nonfimbriated phenotype of K. pneumoniae...
  4. Wang M, Liang S, Hosur K, Domon H, Yoshimura F, Amano A, et al. Differential virulence and innate immune interactions of Type I and II fimbrial genotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2009;24:478-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Type I fimbriated P. gingivalis (Pg-I) has been most widely studied at the molecular level, whereas Pg-II is the most frequent isolate from severe periodontitis...
  5. Evans K, Lambert C, Sockett R. Predation by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100 requires type IV pili. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:4850-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the data show that type IV pili play a critical role in Bdellovibrio predation...
  6. Proft T, Baker E. Pili in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria - structure, assembly and their role in disease. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009;66:613-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Minor pilins are added to the fiber and play a major role in host cell colonization.This review gives an overview of the structure, assembly and function of the best-characterized pili of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria...
  7. Fälker S, Nelson A, Morfeldt E, Jonas K, Hultenby K, Ries J, et al. Sortase-mediated assembly and surface topology of adhesive pneumococcal pili. Mol Microbiol. 2008;70:595-607 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, SrtD does not act as a pilus subunit polymerase, but instead is required for wild-type focal presentation of the pilus at the cell surface...
  8. Luo F, Lizano S, Bessen D. Heterogeneity in the polarity of Nra regulatory effects on streptococcal pilus gene transcription and virulence. Infect Immun. 2008;76:2490-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings demonstrate key strain-specific differences in the transcriptional circuitry governing virulence gene expression in S. pyogenes and its impact on pathogenesis...
  9. Jakovljevic V, Leonardy S, Hoppert M, Søgaard Andersen L. PilB and PilT are ATPases acting antagonistically in type IV pilus function in Myxococcus xanthus. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:2411-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PilB and PilT are ATPases that act at distinct steps in the T4P extension/retraction cycle in vivo...
  10. Hannan T, Mysorekar I, Chen S, Walker J, Jones J, Pinkner J, et al. LeuX tRNA-dependent and -independent mechanisms of Escherichia coli pathogenesis in acute cystitis. Mol Microbiol. 2008;67:116-28 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the predominant mechanism for preservation of PAI II(UTI89) during the establishment of acute cystitis is maintenance of wild-type leuX, and not PAI II(UTI89) gene content...
  11. Helaine S, Dyer D, Nassif X, Pelicic V, Forest K. 3D structure/function analysis of PilX reveals how minor pilins can modulate the virulence properties of type IV pili. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:15888-93 pubmed
  12. Hajishengallis G, Harokopakis E. Porphyromonas gingivalis interactions with complement receptor 3 (CR3): innate immunity or immune evasion?. Front Biosci. 2007;12:4547-57 pubmed
    ..gingivalis for evading innate immune clearance becomes a plausible hypothesis...
  13. Eto D, Jones T, Sundsbak J, Mulvey M. Integrin-mediated host cell invasion by type 1-piliated uropathogenic Escherichia coli. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e100 pubmed
    ..Cumulatively, these results indicate that beta1 and alpha3 integrins are functionally important receptors for type 1 pili-expressing bacteria within the urinary tract and possibly at other sites within the host...
  14. Nishiyama S, Murakami Y, Nagata H, Shizukuishi S, Kawagishi I, Yoshimura F. Involvement of minor components associated with the FimA fimbriae of Porphyromonas gingivalis in adhesive functions. Microbiology. 2007;153:1916-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that FimE, as well as FimC and FimD, play critical roles in the adhesive activities of the mature FimA fimbriae in P. gingivalis...
  15. Chessa D, Winter M, Nuccio S, T kel C, B umler A. RosE represses Std fimbrial expression in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. Mol Microbiol. 2008;68:573-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that a tight control of Std fimbrial expression mediated by RosE is required during host pathogen interaction...
  16. Simms A, Mobley H. Multiple genes repress motility in uropathogenic Escherichia coli constitutively expressing type 1 fimbriae. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:3747-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that repression of motility in CFT073 fim L-ON is not solely due to the constitutive expression of type 1 fimbriae on the surfaces of the bacteria and that multiple genes may contribute to this repression...
  17. Zavialov A, Zav yalova G, Korpela T, Zav yalov V. FGL chaperone-assembled fimbrial polyadhesins: anti-immune armament of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2007;31:478-514 pubmed
    ..The FGL chaperone-assembled fimbrial polyadhesins are attractive targets for vaccine and drug design...
  18. Hilleringmann M, Giusti F, Baudner B, Masignani V, Covacci A, Rappuoli R, et al. Pneumococcal pili are composed of protofilaments exposing adhesive clusters of Rrg A. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000026 pubmed publisher
    ..Combining the structural and functional data, a model emerges where the pilus RrgB backbone serves as a carrier for surface located adhesive clusters of RrgA that facilitates the interaction with the host...
  19. Rosen D, Pinkner J, Jones J, Walker J, Clegg S, Hultgren S. Utilization of an intracellular bacterial community pathway in Klebsiella pneumoniae urinary tract infection and the effects of FimK on type 1 pilus expression. Infect Immun. 2008;76:3337-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, K. pneumoniae appears programmed for minimal expression of type 1 pili, which may explain, in part, why K. pneumoniae is a less prevalent etiologic agent of UTI than UPEC...
  20. Salih O, Remaut H, Waksman G, Orlova E. Structural analysis of the Saf pilus by electron microscopy and image processing. J Mol Biol. 2008;379:174-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Short intersubunit linker regions provide the molecular basis for flexibility of the Saf pilus by acting as molecular hinges allowing a large range of movement between consecutive subunits in the fibre...
  21. Coureuil M, Mikaty G, Miller F, Lecuyer H, Bernard C, Bourdoulous S, et al. Meningococcal type IV pili recruit the polarity complex to cross the brain endothelium. Science. 2009;325:83-7 pubmed publisher
  22. Nuccio S, BAUMLER A. Evolution of the chaperone/usher assembly pathway: fimbrial classification goes Greek. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2007;71:551-75 pubmed
    ..The proposed classification system offers a simple and convenient method for assigning newly discovered chaperone/usher systems to one of the six major phylogenetic groups...
  23. Fronzes R, Remaut H, Waksman G. Architectures and biogenesis of non-flagellar protein appendages in Gram-negative bacteria. EMBO J. 2008;27:2271-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the five known classes of Gram-negative non-flagellar appendages from a biosynthetic and structural point of view...
  24. Kwok T, Zabler D, Urman S, Rohde M, Hartig R, Wessler S, et al. Helicobacter exploits integrin for type IV secretion and kinase activation. Nature. 2007;449:862-6 pubmed
    ..Our findings provide insights into the role of integrins in H.-pylori-induced pathogenesis. CagL may be exploited as a new molecular tool for our further understanding of integrin signalling...
  25. Biais N, Ladoux B, Higashi D, So M, Sheetz M. Cooperative retraction of bundled type IV pili enables nanonewton force generation. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e87 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Tfp retraction can be synchronized through bundling, that Tfp bundle retraction can generate forces in the nanonewton range in vivo, and that such high forces could affect infection...
  26. Manetti A, Zingaretti C, Falugi F, Capo S, Bombaci M, Bagnoli F, et al. Streptococcus pyogenes pili promote pharyngeal cell adhesion and biofilm formation. Mol Microbiol. 2007;64:968-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the role of pili in GAS adherence and colonization and suggest a general role of pili in all pathogenic streptococci...
  27. Bourgogne A, Singh K, Fox K, Pflughoeft K, Murray B, Garsin D. EbpR is important for biofilm formation by activating expression of the endocarditis and biofilm-associated pilus operon (ebpABC) of Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:6490-3 pubmed
    ..An ebpR deletion (DeltaebpR) mutant was found to have reduced ebpABC expression with loss of pilus production and a defect in primary adherence with, as a consequence, reduced biofilm formation...
  28. Swaminathan A, Mandlik A, Swierczynski A, Gaspar A, Das A, Ton That H. Housekeeping sortase facilitates the cell wall anchoring of pilus polymers in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Mol Microbiol. 2007;66:961-74 pubmed
  29. Kuboniwa M, Hasegawa Y, Mao S, Shizukuishi S, Amano A, Lamont R, et al. P. gingivalis accelerates gingival epithelial cell progression through the cell cycle. Microbes Infect. 2008;10:122-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of P. gingivalis, a common inhabitant of the subgingival crevice, to accelerate cell cycling could have biological consequences for barrier and signaling functions, and for physiological status, of the gingival epithelium...
  30. Ruer S, Ball G, Filloux A, de Bentzmann S. The 'P-usher', a novel protein transporter involved in fimbrial assembly and TpsA secretion. EMBO J. 2008;27:2669-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The P-usher defines a novel transport pathway involving a molecular machine made with old spare parts...
  31. Maisey H, Quach D, Hensler M, Liu G, Gallo R, Nizet V, et al. A group B streptococcal pilus protein promotes phagocyte resistance and systemic virulence. FASEB J. 2008;22:1715-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these data demonstrate that the pilus backbone subunit, PilB, plays an integral role in GBS virulence and suggests a novel role for gram-positive pili in thwarting the innate defenses of phagocyte killing...
  32. Higashi D, Lee S, Snyder A, Weyand N, Bakke A, So M. Dynamics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae attachment: microcolony development, cortical plaque formation, and cytoprotection. Infect Immun. 2007;75:4743-53 pubmed
    ..Tfp-mediated attachment is therefore a continuum of microcolony motility and force stimulation of host cell signaling, leading to a cytoprotective effect...
  33. Ong C, Ulett G, Mabbett A, Beatson S, Webb R, Monaghan W, et al. Identification of type 3 fimbriae in uropathogenic Escherichia coli reveals a role in biofilm formation. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:1054-63 pubmed
    ..This is the first description of type 3 fimbriae in E. coli, C. koseri, and C. freundii. Our data suggest that type 3 fimbriae may contribute to biofilm formation by different gram-negative nosocomial pathogens...
  34. Clausen M, Jakovljevic V, Søgaard Andersen L, Maier B. High-force generation is a conserved property of type IV pilus systems. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:4633-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, M. xanthus harbors at least two different retraction motors. Our results demonstrate that the major physical properties are conserved between bacteria that are phylogenetically distant and pursue very different lifestyles...
  35. Craig L, Li J. Type IV pili: paradoxes in form and function. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2008;18:267-77 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will summarize the most recent structural advances on Type IV pili and their assembly components and highlight their significance...
  36. De Greve H, Wyns L, Bouckaert J. Combining sites of bacterial fimbriae. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2007;17:506-12 pubmed
    ..Finally, glycan recognition by fimbrial adhesins has often been found to coincide with the binding of cell-surface integrins and components of the extracellular matrix, such as collagen IV and laminin...
  37. Mandlik A, Swierczynski A, Das A, Ton That H. Pili in Gram-positive bacteria: assembly, involvement in colonization and biofilm development. Trends Microbiol. 2008;16:33-40 pubmed
    ..Here we review current knowledge of this mechanism and the roles of Gram-positive pili in the colonization of specific host tissues, modulation of host immune responses and the development of bacterial biofilms...
  38. Remaut H, Tang C, Henderson N, Pinkner J, Wang T, Hultgren S, et al. Fiber formation across the bacterial outer membrane by the chaperone/usher pathway. Cell. 2008;133:640-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These structures capture the secretion of a virulence factor across the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria...
  39. Kang H, Coulibaly F, Clow F, Proft T, Baker E. Stabilizing isopeptide bonds revealed in gram-positive bacterial pilus structure. Science. 2007;318:1625-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The present structure explains the strength and stability of such Gram-positive pili and could facilitate vaccine development...
  40. Nobbs A, Rosini R, Rinaudo C, Maione D, Grandi G, Telford J. Sortase A utilizes an ancillary protein anchor for efficient cell wall anchoring of pili in Streptococcus agalactiae. Infect Immun. 2008;76:3550-60 pubmed publisher
  41. Wu J, Lin X, Xie H. Porphyromonas gingivalis short fimbriae are regulated by a FimS/FimR two-component system. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;271:214-21 pubmed
    ..Unlike the regulatory mechanism of FimA by FimR, this regulation of the mfa1 gene is accomplished by FimR directly binding to the promoter region of mfa1...
  42. Falugi F, Zingaretti C, Pinto V, Mariani M, Amodeo L, Manetti A, et al. Sequence variation in group A Streptococcus pili and association of pilus backbone types with lancefield T serotypes. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:1834-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We also showed that these pili, constituted by backbone, ancillary 1, and ancillary 2 proteins, confer protection against GAS challenge in a mouse model...
  43. Hilleringmann M, Ringler P, Müller S, De Angelis G, Rappuoli R, Ferlenghi I, et al. Molecular architecture of Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4 pili. EMBO J. 2009;28:3921-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our structural analyses provide the first direct experimental evidence that the native S. pneumoniae pilus shaft is composed exclusively of covalently linked monomeric RrgB subunits oriented head-to-tail...
  44. Konto Ghiorghi Y, Mairey E, Mallet A, Dumenil G, Caliot E, Trieu Cuot P, et al. Dual role for pilus in adherence to epithelial cells and biofilm formation in Streptococcus agalactiae. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000422 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, the VWA domain involved in adherence to epithelial cells was not required for biofilm formation...
  45. Pelicic V. Type IV pili: e pluribus unum?. Mol Microbiol. 2008;68:827-37 pubmed publisher
    ..This brings us a few steps closer to understanding how these filaments are produced, but leaves us wondering whether (as in the famous motto that inspired the title) out of the many models studied will emerge one unifying mechanism...
  46. Murray T, Kazmierczak B. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits sliding motility in the absence of type IV pili and flagella. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:2700-8 pubmed
    ..Studies of sliding motility may be particularly well-suited for identifying factors other than pili and flagella that affect community behaviors of P. aeruginosa...
  47. Ulett G, Mabbett A, Fung K, Webb R, Schembri M. The role of F9 fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in biofilm formation. Microbiology. 2007;153:2321-31 pubmed
    ..The F9 genes appear to be common in UPEC and other types of pathogenic E. coli. However, their precise contribution to disease remains to be determined...
  48. Kato T, Tsuda T, Omori H, Kato T, Yoshimori T, Amano A. Maturation of fimbria precursor protein by exogenous gingipains in Porphyromonas gingivalis gingipain-null mutant. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;273:96-102 pubmed
    ..The findings of this study suggest that gingipains expose cellular cryptic ligands in a proteolytic manner and promote fimbriae binding to epithelial cells...
  49. Pilonieta M, Bodero M, Munson G. CfaD-dependent expression of a novel extracytoplasmic protein from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:5060-7 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that CexE may be a novel ETEC virulence factor because its expression is controlled by the virulence regulator CfaD, and its distribution is restricted to ETEC...
  50. Singh K, Nallapareddy S, Murray B. Importance of the ebp (endocarditis- and biofilm-associated pilus) locus in the pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecalis ascending urinary tract infection. J Infect Dis. 2007;195:1671-7 pubmed
    ..Here, we assess its role in murine urinary tract infection (UTI) by use of wild-type E. faecalis OG1RF and its nonpiliated, ebpA allelic replacement mutant (TX5475)...
  51. Nishiyama M, Ishikawa T, Rechsteiner H, Glockshuber R. Reconstitution of pilus assembly reveals a bacterial outer membrane catalyst. Science. 2008;320:376-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results contribute to a mechanistic understanding of protein-catalyzed biogenesis of supramolecular protein complexes at the bacterial outer cell membrane...
  52. Mandlik A, Das A, Ton That H. The molecular switch that activates the cell wall anchoring step of pilus assembly in gram-positive bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:14147-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell wall anchoring ensues when the pilus polymer assembled on the pilus-specific sortase is transferred to the minor pilin presented by the housekeeping sortase via lysine-mediated transpeptidation...
  53. Moschioni M, Donati C, Muzzi A, Masignani V, Censini S, Hanage W, et al. Streptococcus pneumoniae contains 3 rlrA pilus variants that are clonally related. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:888-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Limited data are available on the prevalence of the rlrA operon in pneumococci; therefore, we investigated its distribution and its antigenic variation among disease-causing strains...
  54. Davey M, Liu X, Ukai T, Jain V, Gudino C, Gibson F, et al. Bacterial fimbriae stimulate proinflammatory activation in the endothelium through distinct TLRs. J Immunol. 2008;180:2187-95 pubmed
  55. Budzik J, Marraffini L, Schneewind O. Assembly of pili on the surface of Bacillus cereus vegetative cells. Mol Microbiol. 2007;66:495-510 pubmed publisher
    ..B. anthracis sortase A (srtA), but not sortase B (srtB) or C (srtC), is required for proper anchoring of pili to the bacterial envelope, suggesting that BcpA/BcpB pili are linked to peptidoglycan cross-bridges...
  56. Meissner A, Wild V, Simm R, Rohde M, Erck C, Bredenbruch F, et al. Pseudomonas aeruginosa cupA-encoded fimbriae expression is regulated by a GGDEF and EAL domain-dependent modulation of the intracellular level of cyclic diguanylate. Environ Microbiol. 2007;9:2475-85 pubmed
  57. Basset A, Trzcinski K, Hermos C, O Brien K, Reid R, Santosham M, et al. Association of the pneumococcal pilus with certain capsular serotypes but not with increased virulence. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:1684-9 pubmed
    ..3% after 2000; P = 0.019). Therefore, our data show that the pilus is present in a minority of strains and is associated with certain serotypes and that its frequency has been reduced by the conjugate pneumococcal vaccine...