lymphokine activated killer cells


Summary: Cytolytic lymphocytes with the unique capacity of killing natural killer (NK)-resistant fresh tumor cells. They are INTERLEUKIN-2-activated NK cells that have no MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX restriction or need for antigen stimulation. LAK cells are used for ADOPTIVE IMMUNOTHERAPY in cancer patients.

Top Publications

  1. Doherty D, Norris S, Madrigal Estebas L, McEntee G, Traynor O, Hegarty J, et al. The human liver contains multiple populations of NK cells, T cells, and CD3+CD56+ natural T cells with distinct cytotoxic activities and Th1, Th2, and Th0 cytokine secretion patterns. J Immunol. 1999;163:2314-21 pubmed
  2. Mehta I, Smith H, Wang J, Margulies D, Yokoyama W. A "chimeric" C57l-derived Ly49 inhibitory receptor resembling the Ly49D activation receptor. Cell Immunol. 2001;209:29-41 pubmed
    ..Therefore, this apparently "chimeric" Ly49 molecule serologically resembles an NK cell activation receptor but functions as an inhibitory receptor...
  3. Kawamura M. [Adjuvant immunotherapy for lung cancer]. Nihon Rinsho. 2002;60 Suppl 5:459-62 pubmed
  4. Kanazawa M, Mori Y, Yoshihara K, Iwadate M, Suzuki S, Endoh Y, et al. [Effect of DC therapy combined with chemotherapy in advanced cancer cases]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2003;30:1655-60 pubmed
    ..The results indicate this method can be useful in advanced cancer patients. ..
  5. Ozkan A, Ayhan A, Fiskin K. Combined effect of epirubicin and lymphokine-activated killer cells on the resistant human breast cancer cells. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2004;20:261-71 pubmed
    ..SOD, catalase, GSH-Px, GST (glutathione S-transferase), and GSH (reduced glutathione) must be considered as part of the intracellular antioxidant defense mechanism of MCF-7 WT and MCF-7 EPI(R) cells against reactive oxygen species. ..
  6. LeFever A, Liepins A. Kinetic analysis of K+ ion channel function in lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1990;12:23-38 pubmed
    ..Modulation of LAK cell lytic function occurs at a post-binding step, perhaps in the generation or release of the lytic signal. ..
  7. Billiau A, Sefrioui H, Overbergh L, Rutgeerts O, Goebels J, Mathieu C, et al. Transforming growth factor-beta inhibits lymphokine activated killer cytotoxicity of bone marrow cells: implications for the graft-versus-leukemia effect in irradiation allogeneic bone marrow chimeras. Transplantation. 2001;71:292-9 pubmed
    ..The cytokine profile, induced by irradiation in host hematopoietic organs, can significantly modify posttransplant immunological processes such as the GVL effect and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). ..
  8. Matteucci P, Tresoldi M, Chiesa G, Tognella S, Citterio G, Fortis C, et al. Intrapleural administration of interleukin-2 and LAK cells in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. A case report. Tumori. 1994;80:246-50 pubmed
  9. Andrade F, Roy S, Nicholson D, Thornberry N, Rosen A, Casciola Rosen L. Granzyme B directly and efficiently cleaves several downstream caspase substrates: implications for CTL-induced apoptosis. Immunity. 1998;8:451-60 pubmed

More Information

Publications209 found, 100 shown here

  1. Alexander C, Edward M, MacKie R. The role of human melanoma cell ICAM-1 expression on lymphokine activated killer cell-mediated lysis, and the effect of retinoic acid. Br J Cancer. 1999;80:1494-500 pubmed
    ..sICAM-1 appears to be unimportant in evasion of the tumour cells from LAK cell lysis, but may play a role in evasion of RA-treated C8161 cells. ..
  2. Kruit W, Schmitz P, Stoter G. The role of possible risk factors for acute and late renal dysfunction after high-dose interleukin-2, interferon alpha and lymphokine-activated killer cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1999;48:331-5 pubmed
    ..Predictors for severe acute renal dysfunction are pre-existing hypertension, sepsis and sex. A septic episode also carries a risk of permanent damage. ..
  3. Li Q, Liang Z, Nakadai A, Kawada T. Effect of electric foot shock and psychological stress on activities of murine splenic natural killer and lymphokine-activated killer cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, natural killer receptors and mRNA transcripts for granzymes and perforin. Stress. 2005;8:107-16 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, the foot-shock stress increased granzyme B. The above findings suggest that stress induced inhibition of NK, LAK and CTL activities partially via affecting NK receptors, granzymes and perforin. ..
  4. Zhukova O, Lebedinskaya O, Shubina I, Gerasimova G, Karamzin A, Kiselevskii M. Selective antitumor activity of lymphokine-activated killer cells in vitro. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2007;143:132-5 pubmed
    ..Hence, we demonstrated selective cytotoxic activity of effector cells (lymphokine-activated killers) towards tumor cells of different origin (but not normal cells). ..
  5. Marin V, Dander E, Biagi E, Introna M, Fazio G, Biondi A, et al. Characterization of in vitro migratory properties of anti-CD19 chimeric receptor-redirected CIK cells for their potential use in B-ALL immunotherapy. Exp Hematol. 2006;34:1219-29 pubmed
  6. Rah S, Park K, Nam T, Kim S, Kim H, Im M, et al. Association of CD38 with nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA and Lck is essential for the internalization and activation of CD38. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:5653-60 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that the association of phospho-MHCIIA with Lck and CD38 is a critical step in the internalization and activation of CD38. ..
  7. Gao X, Deeb D, Danyluk A, Media J, Liu Y, Dulchavsky S, et al. Immunomodulatory activity of synthetic triterpenoids: inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation, cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and cytokine gene expression through suppression of NF-kappaB. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2008;30:581-600 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with CDDO-Me also inhibited the generation of allo-reactive T cell responses in vivo. The suppression of these cell-mediated immune responses by CDDO-Me was associated with the inhibition of NF-kappaB transcription factor. ..
  8. Kenyon D, Dougherty J, Raska K. Tumorigenicity of adenovirus-transformed cells and their sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor alpha and NK/LAK cell cytolysis. Virology. 1991;180:818-21 pubmed
    ..Their sensitivity to TNF alpha, however, varies over a broad range and does not correlate with either their susceptibility to NK/LAK cytolysis or their tumorigenic potential. ..
  9. Pisa P, Sitnicka E, Hansson M. Activated natural killer cells suppress myelopoiesis in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency. Scand J Immunol. 1993;37:529-32 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the presence of neither functional T nor B cells is necessary for NK cells to mediate inhibition of myelopoiesis in the autologous host. ..
  10. Silver E, Elliott J, Kane K. Alternatively spliced Ly-49D and H transcripts are found in IL-2-activated NK cells. Immunogenetics. 1996;44:478-82 pubmed
  11. Hagihara M, Tsuchiya T, Ueda Y, Masui A, Gansuvd B, Munkhbat B, et al. Successful in vitro generation of Epstein-Barr virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes from severe chronic active EBV patients. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2001;189:137-45 pubmed
    ..These CTL lines were predominantly composed of CD4+ cells, and autologous EBCL killing was largely inhibited by an antibody against HLA-DR. These findings support the possibility of adoptive immune therapy to treat SCAEBV patients. ..
  12. Ikeda K, Shinmura Y, Mizoe H, Yoshizawa H, Yoshida A, Kanao S, et al. No effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields found on cytotoxic activities and cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Bioelectromagnetics. 2003;24:21-31 pubmed
    ..Using cytotoxicity assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for cytokine production, we could not find any effects of ELF MFs on the cytotoxic activities and the cytokines production of human PBMCs. ..
  13. Cartier A, Masucci M. Differential regulation of MHC class-I-restricted and unrestricted cytotoxicity by the Us3 protein kinase of herpes simplex virus-1. Scand J Immunol. 2004;60:592-9 pubmed
    ..This finding explains their various sensitivities to viral modulation, which is likely to be important for the respective role of MHC-restricted and non-restricted effectors in the control of HSV-1 infection. ..
  14. Gibbings D, Ghetu A, Dery R, Befus A. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor has a MHC class I-like motif and function. Scand J Immunol. 2008;67:121-32 pubmed publisher
    ..MIF may be an example where small regions of MHC class I are used by endogenous and viral proteins to control cytotoxicity mediated by immune cells. ..
  15. Bloom E, Horvath J. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of the IL-12-induced increase in allospecific murine cytolytic T cell activity. Implications for the age-related decline in CTL. J Immunol. 1994;152:4242-54 pubmed
    ..Finally, IL-12 was effective for moderating the age-related decrease in CTL activity, suggesting a potential role for immunomodulation by IL-12. ..
  16. Bruunsgaard H, Galbo H, Halkjaer Kristensen J, Johansen T, MacLean D, Pedersen B. Exercise-induced increase in serum interleukin-6 in humans is related to muscle damage. J Physiol. 1997;499 ( Pt 3):833-41 pubmed
    ..However, as eccentric exercise caused a more pronounced increase in the concentration of NK cells and CD8+ cells, factors involved in muscle damage may also contribute to the recruitment of these cells. ..
  17. Li P, Tsang K, Szeto C, Wong T, To K, Leung C, et al. Effective treatment of high-grade lymphoproliferative disorder after renal transplantation using autologous lymphocyte activated killer cell therapy. Am J Kidney Dis. 1998;32:813-9 pubmed
    ..Adoptive immunotherapy using IL-2-activated autologous LAK cells was effective in treating this renal transplant patient with EBV-positive high-grade lymphoma. The patient's kidney allograft functioned well without any rejection. ..
  18. Setti M, Bignardi D, Ballestrero A, Ferrando F, Musselli C, Blanchi S, et al. The induction of distinct cytokine cascades correlates with different effects of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor on the lymphocyte compartment in the course of high-dose chemotherapy for brea. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1999;48:287-96 pubmed
    ..The distinct pattern of the cytokine cascade induced by each factor, consistent with the different functional changes, seemed to account for the peculiarities of their immune modulations. ..
  19. Werneck M, Lugo Villarino G, Hwang E, Cantor H, Glimcher L. T-bet plays a key role in NK-mediated control of melanoma metastatic disease. J Immunol. 2008;180:8004-10 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results show for the first time an irreplaceable role for T-bet in the NK-mediated cross-talk between innate and adaptive immune responses to metastatic disease. ..
  20. Fortis C, Biswas P, Soldini L, Veglia F, Careddu A, Delfanti F, et al. Dual role of TNF-alpha in NK/LAK cell-mediated lysis of chronically HIV-infected U1 cells. Concomitant enhancement of HIV expression and sensitization of cell-mediated lysis. Eur J Immunol. 1999;29:3654-62 pubmed
    ..Of interest, anti-TNF-alpha Ab protected U1 cells from LAK cell activity. Thus, TNF-alpha can induce HIV expression from chronically infected U1 cells, but also plays an important role in sensitizing these cells to lysis. ..
  21. Yamada S, Shinozaki K, Agematsu K. Involvement of CD27/CD70 interactions in antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity by perforin-mediated cytotoxicity. Clin Exp Immunol. 2002;130:424-30 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that CD27/CD70 interactions enhance the cytotoxicity of CTL in the induction phase through enhancement of killing activity induced via the perforin-dependent mechanism, but not via the Fas/FasL system. ..
  22. Lin Y, Huang Y, Wang Y, Juang R, Liao K, Chu R. Canine CD8 T cells showing NK cytotoxic activity express mRNAs for NK cell-associated surface molecules. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;133:144-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that, in IL-2-stimulated PBLs, canine CD8(+) cells are an important subset associated with NK cytotoxic activity. ..
  23. Nouri A, Dos Santos A, Crosby D, Oliver R. Correlation between class I antigen expression and the ability to generate tumour infiltrating lymphocytes from bladder tumour biopsies. Br J Cancer. 1991;64:996-1000 pubmed
  24. Tsitsilonis O, Tsavaris N, Kosmas C, Gouveris P, Papalambros E. Immune changes in patients with colorectal cancer treated by adjuvant therapy with monoclonal antibody 17-1A: a pilot study. J Chemother. 2003;15:387-93 pubmed
    ..The development of novel immunotherapeutic protocols using combinations of Mo17-1A with stimuli that enhance the lytic capacity of effector cells (e.g. cytokines), may improve clinical responses in these types of patients. ..
  25. Hsu L, Goto S, Nakano T, Lai C, Kao Y, Lin Y, et al. The effects of anti-histone H1 antibody on immune cells responsible for rejection reaction. Mol Immunol. 2005;42:1155-64 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the use of anti-histone H1 Abs might be a useful strategy for the development of a form of immunosuppression. ..
  26. Berdeja J, Hess A, Lucas D, O DONNELL P, Ambinder R, Diehl L, et al. Systemic interleukin-2 and adoptive transfer of lymphokine-activated killer cells improves antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in patients with relapsed B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:2392-9 pubmed
    ..Two patients achieved a partial remission and five had stable disease. The results from these studies suggest that the addition of LAK cells to rituximab augments ADCC in patients with rituximab-refractory lymphoma. ..
  27. Freidlin B, Korn E. A testing procedure for survival data with few responders. Stat Med. 2002;21:65-78 pubmed
    ..Use of the procedure is illustrated with data from two published randomized studies. ..
  28. Asano R, Kudo T, Makabe K, Tsumoto K, Kumagai I. Antitumor activity of interleukin-21 prepared by novel refolding procedure from inclusion bodies expressed in Escherichia coli. FEBS Lett. 2002;528:70-6 pubmed
    ..These conclusions suggest the potential use of the refolded cytokine in adoptive immunotherapy using T-LAK cells and in the discovery of other functions of the cytokine. ..
  29. Ozdemir O, Ravindranath Y, Savasan S. Mechanisms of superior anti-tumor cytotoxic response of interleukin 15-induced lymphokine-activated killer cells. J Immunother. 2005;28:44-52 pubmed
    ..These results are encouraging for potential use of IL-15 as part of immunotherapy. ..
  30. Giuffrida A, Morrone S, Gismondi A, Santoni G, Punturieri A, Velotti F, et al. Enhancement of lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 receptor expression by a processed form (GM-1/P) of monosialoganglioside GM-1. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1990;12:565-82 pubmed
    ..61) directed against the p55 subunit of murine IL-2r. 29% PC.61+ cells were found in IL-2 cultures from treated spleen cells. ..
  31. Shirasaka T, Kawase I, Okada M, Kitahara M, Ikeda T, Komuta K, et al. Augmentative effect of Nocardia rubra cell-wall skeleton on the induction of human lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells by the production of LAK cell helper factor(s). Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1989;30:195-204 pubmed
  32. Thanhäuser A, Bohle A, Flad H, Ernst M, Mattern T, Ulmer A. Induction of bacillus-Calmette-Guérin-activated killer cells from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells against human bladder carcinoma cell lines in vitro. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1993;37:105-11 pubmed
    ..Our findings imply that the activation by BCG of CD8+/CD56+ killer cells might be an important antitumoral mechanism during BCG therapy against superficial urothelial bladder cancer...
  33. Tachibana I, Watanabe M, Tanio Y, Hayashi S, Hosoe S, Saito S, et al. Generation of a small cell lung cancer variant resistant to lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells: association with resistance to a LAK cell-derived, cytostatic factor. Cancer Res. 1992;52:3310-6 pubmed
  34. Shimizu Y, Demetris A, Gollin S, Storto P, Bedford H, Altarac S, et al. Two new human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines and their cytogenetics and responses to growth factors, hormones, cytokines or immunologic effector cells. Int J Cancer. 1992;52:252-60 pubmed
    ..These 2 CC cell lines are expected to provide valuable information about cell biology of human CC. ..
  35. Manning L, Davis M, Robinson B. Asbestos fibres inhibit the in vitro activity of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells from healthy individuals and patients with malignant mesothelioma. Clin Exp Immunol. 1991;83:85-91 pubmed
    ..01). These findings suggest that asbestos exposure may suppress the function and in some instances the generation of immune effector cell mechanisms, thereby increasing the risk of disease and malignancy. ..
  36. Baj G, Arnulfo A, Deaglio S, Mallone R, Vigone A, De Cesaris M, et al. Arsenic trioxide and breast cancer: analysis of the apoptotic, differentiative and immunomodulatory effects. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2002;73:61-73 pubmed
  37. Galetto A, Buttiglieri S, Forno S, Moro F, Mussa A, Matera L. Drug- and cell-mediated antitumor cytotoxicities modulate cross-presentation of tumor antigens by myeloid dendritic cells. Anticancer Drugs. 2003;14:833-43 pubmed
    ..Together, these data indicate that apoptotic death induced by anti-cancer therapies can induce distinct patterns of class I MHC cross-presentation of gastric carcinoma-associated antigens to cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors. ..
  38. Faraoni I, Cottarelli A, Giuliani A, Bonmassar L, Rossi L, Bonmassar E. A novel telomerase-based approach to detect natural cell-mediated cytotoxic activity against tumor cells in vitro. J Immunol Methods. 2005;305:162-72 pubmed
  39. LeFever A, Liepins A, Truitt R. Role of K+ ion channels in lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell lytic function. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1989;11:571-82 pubmed
  40. Falk C, Noessner E, Weiss E, Schendel D. Retaliation against tumor cells showing aberrant HLA expression using lymphokine activated killer-derived T cells. Cancer Res. 2002;62:480-7 pubmed
    ..Apparently, LAK-derived T cells are negatively regulated by as yet undefined inhibitory receptors. ..
  41. Hasegawa S, Yamaguchi M, Nagao H, Yoshihara Y, Mori K. Activated natural killer cells adhere to cultured hippocampal neurons and affect the dendritic morphology. J Neuroimmunol. 2004;151:126-36 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that infiltrating immune cells can form direct adhesive connections with CNS neurons and affect their dendritic morphology. ..
  42. Vaz F, Silva M, Ascensao J. Enhanced lymphokine-activated killer cell activity by an immunomodulator, Roquinimex. Br J Cancer. 1995;72:1498-503 pubmed
    ..These properties and good tolerability make Roq an attractive tool for immunotherapy. ..
  43. Corsi M, Maes H, Wasserman K, Fulgenzi A, Gaja G, Ferrero M. Protection by L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid of hydrogen peroxide-induced CD3zeta and CD16zeta chain down-regulation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and lymphokine-activated killer cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 1998;56:657-62 pubmed
  44. Negrin R, Edinger M, Verneris M, Cao Y, Bachmann M, Contag C. Visualization of tumor growth and response to NK-T cell based immunotherapy using bioluminescence. Ann Hematol. 2002;81 Suppl 2:S44-5 pubmed
  45. Taniguchi R, Guzior D, Kumar V. 2B4 inhibits NK-cell fratricide. Blood. 2007;110:2020-3 pubmed
    ..We show that in the absence of 2B4 signaling, activated NK cells have defective cytotoxicity and proliferation because of fratricide and not due to the absence of a 2B4-dependent activation signal. ..
  46. Abe Y, Yamauchi K, Kimura S. 75- but not 55-kDa tumor necrosis factor receptor is active in the homotypic aggregation and proliferation of human lymphokine-activated T killer (T-LAK) cells in vitro. J Leukoc Biol. 1995;57:462-8 pubmed
    ..These findings indicated that 75- but not 55-kDa TNF-R is biologically active in the modulation of aggregation and proliferation of human T-LAK cells in vitro. ..
  47. Matsumoto G, Nghiem M, Nozaki N, Schmits R, Penninger J. Cooperation between CD44 and LFA-1/CD11a adhesion receptors in lymphokine-activated killer cell cytotoxicity. J Immunol. 1998;160:5781-9 pubmed
    ..These data also indicate that distinct adhesion receptors cooperate to mediate binding between effector and target cells required for the initiation of "natural" cytotoxicity. ..
  48. Joshi S, Lynch J, Pavletic S, Tarantolo S, Pirruccello S, Kessinger A, et al. Decreased immune functions of blood cells following mobilization with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: association with donor characteristics. Blood. 2001;98:1963-70 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a decreased immune function in G-CSF-mobilized BSC harvests and warrant further studies to correlate these data with clinical outcome. ..
  49. Raskovalova T, Huang X, Sitkovsky M, Zacharia L, Jackson E, Gorelik E. Gs protein-coupled adenosine receptor signaling and lytic function of activated NK cells. J Immunol. 2005;175:4383-91 pubmed
    ..The elevated intratumor levels of adenosine might inhibit the antitumor effects of activated NK cells. ..
  50. Ebina T. [Non-small cell lung cancer--immunocell BAK (BRM activated killer) therapy]. Nihon Rinsho. 2006;64:1339-44 pubmed
    ..BAK therapy has a life prolonging effect with no apparent adverse effects for advanced NSCLC patients. ..
  51. Wang L, Mehta I, Leblanc P, Yokoyama W. Mouse natural killer cells express gp49B1, a structural homologue of human killer inhibitory receptors. J Immunol. 1997;158:13-7 pubmed
    ..This strongly suggests that NK cells express two structurally distinct types of inhibitory receptors and that these receptors may act as coreceptors in mediating inhibition. ..
  52. Rhodes A, LeMasters G, Lockey J, Smith J, Yiin J, Egeghy P, et al. The effects of jet fuel on immune cells of fuel system maintenance workers. J Occup Environ Med. 2003;45:79-86 pubmed
    ..Investigations are needed to evaluate the functional ability of these cells to produce lymphokines and cytokines and modulate the immune system. ..
  53. Baeriswyl V, Wodnar Filipowicz A, Kalberer C. The effect of silencing NKG2D through RNA interference on receptor functions in interleukin-2-activated human natural killer cells. Haematologica. 2006;91:1538-41 pubmed
    ..These data underscore the importance of NKG2D receptor cell surface density and suggest a threshold of expression for optimal reactivity of human NK cells. ..
  54. Masuzawa M, Mochida N, Amano T, Fujimura T, Hamada Y, Tamauchi H, et al. Evaluation of recombinant interleukin-2 immunotherapy for human hemangiosarcoma in a SCID mice model (WB-SCID). J Dermatol Sci. 2001;27:88-94 pubmed
    ..We demonstrated that hemangiosarcoma cells are LAK-sensitive, and LAK cells induced by rIL-2 suppress the growth of hemangiosarcoma. Our results may assure the clinical effects of rIL-2 immunotherapy on hemangiosarcoma. ..
  55. Schleypen J, Von Geldern M, Weiss E, Kotzias N, Rohrmann K, Schendel D, et al. Renal cell carcinoma-infiltrating natural killer cells express differential repertoires of activating and inhibitory receptors and are inhibited by specific HLA class I allotypes. Int J Cancer. 2003;106:905-12 pubmed
    ..Therefore, NK cells infiltrating tumor tissues have an inherent ability to recognize transformed cells, but they require cytokine activation and are sensitive to inhibition by IR ligands. ..
  56. Takashima K, Fujiwara H, Kubota K, Inada S, Yoshimura M, Atsuji K, et al. [Biodistribution of immune cells in adoptive immunotherapy by using GFP transgenic mice]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2004;31:1847-8 pubmed
    ..Additionally, lymphokine activated killer cells induced from splenocytes of the mice (GFP-LAK) express green fluorescence under the observation by ..
  57. Yamaguchi Y, Hironaka K, Okawaki M, Okita R, Matsuura K, Ohshita A, et al. HER2-specific cytotoxic activity of lymphokine-activated killer cells in the presence of trastuzumab. Anticancer Res. 2005;25:827-32 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that HER2-specific cytotoxic activity, which is mediated by an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) mechanism, can be induced on LAK cells by the addition of trastuzumab. ..
  58. Choi K, Song E, Yim C. Cytokines secreted by IL-2-activated lymphocytes induce endogenous nitric oxide synthesis and apoptosis in macrophages. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;83:1440-50 pubmed publisher
  59. Germain C, Campigna E, Salhi I, Morisseau S, Navarro Teulon I, Mach J, et al. Redirecting NK cells mediated tumor cell lysis by a new recombinant bifunctional protein. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2008;21:665-72 pubmed publisher
  60. Ferrarini M, Ferrero E, Fortis C, Poggi A, Zocchi M. LAK1 antigen defines two distinct subsets among human tumour infiltrating lymphocytes. Br J Cancer. 1990;62:754-7 pubmed
    ..Conversely, LAK activity was confined to the LAK1+ subset. ..
  61. Pham C, Ley T. Dipeptidyl peptidase I is required for the processing and activation of granzymes A and B in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:8627-32 pubmed
    ..DPPI therefore plays an essential role in the in vivo processing and activation of granzymes A and B, which are required for cytotoxic lymphocyte granule-mediated apoptosis. ..
  62. Lebedinskaia O, Khalturina E, Akhmatova N, Shubina I, Leonova O, Popenko V, et al. [Morphological and functional characteristics of lymphokine-activated killer cells generated from the mononuclear cells of human peripheral blood]. Morfologiia. 2005;127:36-40 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these experimental findings, the usage of 3-5-day culture of LAKC could be recommended for the immunotherapy of malignant tumors. ..
  63. Guan H, Nagarkatti P, Nagarkatti M. Blockade of hyaluronan inhibits IL-2-induced vascular leak syndrome and maintains effectiveness of IL-2 treatment for metastatic melanoma. J Immunol. 2007;179:3715-23 pubmed
    ..Also, blockade of HA using Pep-1 could constitute a novel therapeutic modality to prevent IL-2-mediated toxicity, thereby facilitating the effectiveness of high-dose IL-2 in the treatment of metastatic melanomas. ..
  64. Godoy Ramirez K, Franck K, Gaines H. A novel method for the simultaneous assessment of natural killer cell conjugate formation and cytotoxicity at the single-cell level by multi-parameter flow cytometry. J Immunol Methods. 2000;239:35-44 pubmed
    ..A comparison with the standard 51Cr release assay for the detection of NK cytotoxicity showed that the two assays were strongly correlated, but the sensitivity of the flow cytometric assay was significantly higher. ..
  65. Ebina T, Ogama N, Shimanuki H, Kubota T, Isono N. Life-prolonging effect of immunocell BAK (BRM-activated killer) therapy for advanced solid cancer patients: prognostic significance of serum immunosuppressive acidic protein levels. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2003;52:555-60 pubmed
    ..2% in 42 advanced stage IIIb and IV cancer patients. BAK therapy has a life-prolonging effect without any adverse effects and maintains satisfactory quality of life (QOL) for advanced cancer patients. ..
  66. Gao X, Kuo J, Jiang H, Deeb D, Liu Y, Divine G, et al. Immunomodulatory activity of curcumin: suppression of lymphocyte proliferation, development of cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and cytokine production in vitro. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004;68:51-61 pubmed
    ..The latter result suggests that curcumin most likely inhibits cell proliferation, cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC), and cytokine production by inhibiting NF-kappaB target genes involved in induction of these immune responses. ..
  67. Flaminio M, Rush B, Shuman W. Immunologic function in horses after non-specific immunostimulant administration. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1998;63:303-15 pubmed
    ..acnes, characterized by increased CD4+ T lymphocyte expression and LAK activity in peripheral blood and BAL fluid, increased nonopsonized phagocytosis in peripheral blood leukocytes and decreased pulmonary cellularity. ..
  68. Blaser C, Kaufmann M, Pircher H. Virus-activated CD8 T cells and lymphokine-activated NK cells express the mast cell function-associated antigen, an inhibitory C-type lectin. J Immunol. 1998;161:6451-4 pubmed
    ..Thus, the MAFA molecule in the mouse is a putative inhibitory receptor on anti-viral CD8 T cells induced in vivo and on NK cells. ..
  69. Kawai K. [Cell therapy for renal cell carcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2002;29:1745-51 pubmed
    ..Recently, several investigators have indicated that RCC is susceptible to a graft-versus-tumor effect promoted by allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. This article reviews the clinical results of these cell therapies for metastaic RCC. ..
  70. Luksch R, Perotti D, Cefalo G, Gambacorti Passerini C, Massimino M, Spreafico F, et al. Immunomodulation in a treatment program including pre- and post-operative interleukin-2 and chemotherapy for childhood osteosarcoma. Tumori. 2003;89:263-8 pubmed
    ..An additional aim was to assess whether any correlation between the immune modifications and the clinical outcome could be found...
  71. Ayello J, van de Ven C, Fortino W, Wade Harris C, Satwani P, Baxi L, et al. Characterization of cord blood natural killer and lymphokine activated killer lymphocytes following ex vivo cellular engineering. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2006;12:608-22 pubmed
    ..005, respectively). These data suggest that cryopreserved CB cells could be ex vivo engineered for potential use as adoptive cancer cellular immunotherapy for donor lymphocyte infusion after CBT. ..
  72. Radzikowski C, Rygaard J, Budzynski W, Stenvang J, Schou M, Vangsted A, et al. Strain- and age-dependent natural and activated in vitro cytotoxicity in athymic nude mice. APMIS. 1994;102:481-8 pubmed
    ..FACS analyses of antigenic markers revealed an increased number of T cells in spleens of aged immunodeficient mice, with differences between mice of the examined strains and a decrease in the number of NK cells in aged mice. ..
  73. Park Y, Kee S, Cho Y, Lee E, Lee H, Kim E, et al. Impaired differentiation and cytotoxicity of natural killer cells in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:1753-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the differentiation of HSCs into NK cells was found to be defective. These abnormalities possibly contribute to immune system dysregulation in SLE. ..
  74. Giorda R, Trucco M. Mouse NKR-P1. A family of genes selectively coexpressed in adherent lymphokine-activated killer cells. J Immunol. 1991;147:1701-8 pubmed
    ..They also share a sequence that could be the binding site of the P56lck tyrosine kinase. These observations are consistent with the signaling function hypothesized for these proteins. ..
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