reticulocytes

Summary

Summary: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.

Top Publications

  1. Miwa N, Akiba T, Kimata N, Hamaguchi Y, Arakawa Y, Tamura T, et al. Usefulness of measuring reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent in the management of haemodialysis patients with iron deficiency. Int J Lab Hematol. 2010;32:248-55 pubmed publisher
    ..dye, also measures the mean value of the forward light scatter intensity of mature red blood cells and reticulocytes. These values equate with reticulocyte hemoglobin content...
  2. Bornø A, Aachmann Andersen N, Munch Andersen T, Hulston C, Lundby C. Screening for recombinant human erythropoietin using [Hb], reticulocytes, the OFF(hr score), OFF(z score) and Hb(z score): status of the Blood Passport. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;109:537-43 pubmed publisher
    ..However, 42% of our rHuEpo-injected subjects were not detected. It should be emphasised that the test frequency in real world anti-doping is far less than the present study, and hence the detection rate will be lower...
  3. Hoffmann J, van den Broek N, Curvers J. Reference intervals of extended erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2012;50:941-8 pubmed publisher
    Optical analysis of erythrocytes can provide information on the hemoglobin concentration and content of reticulocytes and mature erythrocytes. Such parameters have proven clinical utility in anemia diagnosis and therapy monitoring...
  4. Rai G, Kenyon V, Jadhav A, Schultz L, Armstrong M, Jameson J, et al. Discovery of potent and selective inhibitors of human reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase-1. J Med Chem. 2010;53:7392-404 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, kinetic experiments were performed which indicate that this class of inhibitor is tight binding, reversible, and appears not to reduce the active-site ferric ion...
  5. Griffiths R, Kupzig S, Cogan N, Mankelow T, Betin V, Trakarnsanga K, et al. Maturing reticulocytes internalize plasma membrane in glycophorin A-containing vesicles that fuse with autophagosomes before exocytosis. Blood. 2012;119:6296-306 pubmed publisher
    The erythrocyte is one of the best characterized human cells. However, studies of the process whereby human reticulocytes mature to erythrocytes have been hampered by the difficulty of obtaining sufficient numbers of cells for analysis...
  6. Höchsmann B, Rojewski M, Schrezenmeier H. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH): higher sensitivity and validity in diagnosis and serial monitoring by flow cytometric analysis of reticulocytes. Ann Hematol. 2011;90:887-99 pubmed publisher
    ..This study analysed the usefulness of a flow cytometric panel with CD58, CD59 on reticulocytes and erythrocytes, CD24/CD66b and CD16, FLAER on granulocytes and CD14, and CD48 on monocytes...
  7. Banfi G. Reticulocytes in sports medicine. Sports Med. 2008;38:187-211 pubmed
    b>Reticulocytes are the transitional cells from erythroblasts to mature erythrocytes...
  8. Noulin F, Borlon C, Van den Eede P, Boel L, Verfaillie C, D Alessandro U, et al. Cryopreserved reticulocytes derived from hematopoietic stem cells can be invaded by cryopreserved Plasmodium vivax isolates. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40798 pubmed publisher
    ..development of a system for the continuous culture of Plasmodium vivax in vitro would benefit from the use of reticulocytes derived from differentiated hematopoietic stem cells (HCS)...
  9. Piva E, Brugnara C, Chiandetti L, Plebani M. Automated reticulocyte counting: state of the art and clinical applications in the evaluation of erythropoiesis. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2010;48:1369-80 pubmed publisher
    ..in the mid-1990s, automated flow-cytometric analysis has replaced traditional microscopic quantitation of reticulocytes. Reticulocyte analysis now includes measurements mRNA content and the maturity of reticulocytes, cell volume, ..

More Information

Publications82

  1. Kono M, Kondo T, Takagi Y, Wada A, Fujimoto K. Morphological definition of CD71 positive reticulocytes by various staining techniques and electron microscopy compared to reticulocytes detected by an automated hematology analyzer. Clin Chim Acta. 2009;404:105-10 pubmed publisher
    The enumeration of peripheral blood reticulocytes plays an important part in clinical hematology...
  2. Dertinger S, Phonethepswath S, Franklin D, Weller P, Torous D, Bryce S, et al. Integration of mutation and chromosomal damage endpoints into 28-day repeat dose toxicology studies. Toxicol Sci. 2010;115:401-11 pubmed publisher
    ..of genetic toxicity, mutation at the X-linked Pig-a gene and chromosomal damage in the form of micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RETs), were evaluated in blood samples obtained from 28-day repeat-dosing studies typical of those ..
  3. Vidal M. Exosomes in erythropoiesis. Transfus Clin Biol. 2010;17:131-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we propose that the exosome biogenesis involves several mechanisms of protein sorting and leads to partial or complete loss of membrane activities, in some cases in a regulated way...
  4. Dertinger S, Bryce S, Phonethepswath S, Avlasevich S. When pigs fly: immunomagnetic separation facilitates rapid determination of Pig-a mutant frequency by flow cytometric analysis. Mutat Res. 2011;721:163-70 pubmed publisher
    ..work has been accomplished with hematopoietic cells, most often rat peripheral blood erythrocytes (RBCs) and reticulocytes (RETs)...
  5. Moreno Perez D, Ruíz J, Patarroyo M. Reticulocytes: Plasmodium vivax target cells. Biol Cell. 2013;105:251-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Reticulocytes represent the main invasion target for Plasmodium vivax, the second most prevalent parasite species around the world causing malaria in humans...
  6. Ashenden M, Sharpe K, Habel J, Vicentin A, Schischka S. Improved alignment of reticulocyte counts between Sysmex XT-2000i instruments. J Clin Pathol. 2013;66:232-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Reticulocytes are the most sensitive index available to authorities who seek to sanction athletes for blood doping based on deviations beyond individual reference ranges...
  7. Ermens A, Hoffmann J, Krockenberger M, Van Wijk E. New erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters on CELL-DYN Sapphire: analytical and preanalytical aspects. Int J Lab Hematol. 2012;34:274-82 pubmed publisher
  8. Merkerova M, Belickova M, Bruchova H. Differential expression of microRNAs in hematopoietic cell lineages. Eur J Haematol. 2008;81:304-10 pubmed publisher
  9. Blanc L, Liu J, Vidal M, Chasis J, An X, Mohandas N. The water channel aquaporin-1 partitions into exosomes during reticulocyte maturation: implication for the regulation of cell volume. Blood. 2009;114:3928-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that AQP-1 is partially lost during in vitro maturation of mouse reticulocytes and that it is associated with exosomes, released throughout this process...
  10. Schumacher Y, Sahm D, Baumstark M, Pottgiesser T. Reticulocytes in athletes: Longitudinal aspects and the influence of long- and short-term exercise. Drug Test Anal. 2010;2:469-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Reticulocytes (Ret) are a key variable in the emerging concept of the athlete's biological passport and the longitudinal monitoring of biological parameters in the field of anti-doping...
  11. Borlon C, Russell B, Sriprawat K, Suwanarusk R, Erhart A, Renia L, et al. Cryopreserved Plasmodium vivax and cord blood reticulocytes can be used for invasion and short term culture. Int J Parasitol. 2012;42:155-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We explored the possibility of using parasite isolates and reticulocytes, both cryopreserved, to perform invasion and initiate short-term culture...
  12. Tham W, Healer J, Cowman A. Erythrocyte and reticulocyte binding-like proteins of Plasmodium falciparum. Trends Parasitol. 2012;28:23-30 pubmed publisher
  13. Meyer E, Semenya A, Okenu D, Dluzewski A, Bannister L, Barnwell J, et al. The reticulocyte binding-like proteins of P. knowlesi locate to the micronemes of merozoites and define two new members of this invasion ligand family. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2009;165:111-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, PkNBPXa and PkNBPXb are shown here to bind to host erythrocytes, and discussion is centered on the importance of these proteins in host cell invasion...
  14. Russell B, Suwanarusk R, Borlon C, Costa F, Chu C, Rijken M, et al. A reliable ex vivo invasion assay of human reticulocytes by Plasmodium vivax. Blood. 2011;118:e74-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The assay is based on mixing enriched cord blood reticulocytes with matured, trypsin-treated P vivax schizonts concentrated from clinical isolates...
  15. Garvican L, Martin D, Quod M, Stephens B, Sassi A, Gore C. Time course of the hemoglobin mass response to natural altitude training in elite endurance cyclists. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2012;22:95-103 pubmed publisher
    ..the time course of hemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) to natural altitude training, Hb(mass), erythropoietin [EPO], reticulocytes, ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were measured in 13 elite cyclists during, and 10 days after,..
  16. Fernandez R, Tubau I, Masip J, Muñoz L, Roig I, Artigas A. Low reticulocyte hemoglobin content is associated with a higher blood transfusion rate in critically ill patients: a cohort study. Anesthesiology. 2010;112:1211-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Their objective was to determine whether low reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) was associated with transfusion requirements in ICU patients...
  17. Freise K, Widness J, Schmidt R, Veng Pedersen P. Modeling time variant distributions of cellular lifespans: increases in circulating reticulocyte lifespans following double phlebotomies in sheep. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2008;35:285-323 pubmed publisher
    ..03 days (P = 0.009). On average, the percentage of erythrocytes being released as reticulocytes maximally increased an estimated two-fold following the phlebotomies...
  18. Blanc L, Vidal M. Reticulocyte membrane remodeling: contribution of the exosome pathway. Curr Opin Hematol. 2010;17:177-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to the loss of all the internal compartments, reticulocyte maturation is characterized by an extensive membrane remodeling. Exosomal secretion contributes to this process by eliminating specific proteins...
  19. Mikhael M, Roshan T, Soe Lin S, Apte S, Ponka P. Nitrogen monoxide inhibits haem synthesis in mouse reticulocytes. Biochem J. 2013;451:61-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we explore the possibility that NO affects iron metabolism in reticulocytes and our results suggest that NO may also contribute to AI...
  20. Mørkeberg J, Sharpe K, Belhage B, Damsgaard R, Schmidt W, Prommer N, et al. Detecting autologous blood transfusions: a comparison of three passport approaches and four blood markers. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011;21:235-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), percentage of reticulocytes (%ret) and hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) were measured 1 day before reinfusion and six times after reinfusion...
  21. Robinson S, Hoobler E, Riener M, Loveridge S, Tenney K, Valeriote F, et al. Using enzyme assays to evaluate the structure and bioactivity of sponge-derived meroterpenes. J Nat Prod. 2009;72:1857-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant potency and selectivity profiles were exhibited in the human 5-lipoxygenase assay by puupehenone (1) and jaspaquinol (9) and structural factors responsible for activity identified...
  22. Phan N, De Lisio M, Parise G, Boreham D. Biological effects and adaptive response from single and repeated computed tomography scans in reticulocytes and bone marrow of C57BL/6 mice. Radiat Res. 2012;177:164-75 pubmed
    ..Overall, repeated CT scans seemed to confer resistance to larger doses in mice, whereas mice exposed to single CT scans exhibited transient genotoxicity, enhanced apoptosis, and characteristics of radiation sensitization...
  23. Lombardi G, Colombini A, Lanteri P, Banfi G. Reticulocytes in sports medicine: an update. Adv Clin Chem. 2013;59:125-53 pubmed
    b>Reticulocytes are young red blood cells which develop from erythroblasts and circulate in the bloodstream for about 1-4 days before maturing into erythrocytes...
  24. Tamez P, Liu H, Fernandez Pol S, Haldar K, Wickrema A. Stage-specific susceptibility of human erythroblasts to Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection. Blood. 2009;114:3652-5 pubmed publisher
    Malaria parasites are known to invade and develop in erythrocytes and reticulocytes, but little is known about their infection of nucleated erythroid precursors...
  25. Noh S, Miller S, Lee Y, Goh S, Marincola F, Stroncek D, et al. Let-7 microRNAs are developmentally regulated in circulating human erythroid cells. J Transl Med. 2009;7:98 pubmed publisher
  26. Naarmann I, Harnisch C, Flach N, Kremmer E, Kuhn H, Ostareck D, et al. mRNA silencing in human erythroid cell maturation: heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K controls the expression of its regulator c-Src. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:18461-72 pubmed publisher
    ..15-lipoxygenase (r15-LOX) plays an important role in initiating the breakdown of mitochondria in rabbit reticulocytes. The expression of rabbit r15-LOX is regulated by the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP) K and ..
  27. Moreira L, de Andrade T, Albuquerque D, Cunha A, Fattori A, Saad S, et al. Identification of differentially expressed genes induced by hydroxyurea in reticulocytes from sickle cell anaemia patients. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2008;35:651-5 pubmed publisher
    ..4. We established two suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries from reticulocytes obtained from SCA patients either not on or on HU treatment...
  28. Ramakers C, Van Der Woude D, Verzijl J, Pijnenborg J, Van Wijk E. An added value for the hemoglobin content in reticulocytes (CHr) and the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in the diagnosis of iron deficiency in postpartum anemic women. Int J Lab Hematol. 2012;34:510-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the use of reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) to identify truly iron-deficient women with postpartum anemia (PPA), in order to reduce unnecessary iron supplementation...
  29. Naarmann I, Harnisch C, Muller Newen G, Urlaub H, Ostareck Lederer A, Ostareck D. DDX6 recruits translational silenced human reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase mRNA to RNP granules. RNA. 2010;16:2189-204 pubmed publisher
    ..and translation of mRNAs that code for specific proteins, which function in late stages of maturation when reticulocytes become erythrocytes, are controlled tightly...
  30. Lopaticki S, Maier A, Thompson J, Wilson D, Tham W, Triglia T, et al. Reticulocyte and erythrocyte binding-like proteins function cooperatively in invasion of human erythrocytes by malaria parasites. Infect Immun. 2011;79:1107-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This validates the use of a combination of these ligands as a potential vaccine that would have broad activity against P. falciparum...
  31. Brittain J, Knoll C, Ataga K, Orringer E, Parise L. Fibronectin bridges monocytes and reticulocytes via integrin alpha4beta1. Br J Haematol. 2008;141:872-81 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the mechanism of this interaction is unclear. The alpha4beta1 integrin on monocytes and SS reticulocytes was found to mediate the interaction of these cells in in-vitro adhesion assays and in the blood of SCD ..
  32. McLean B, Buttifant D, Gore C, White K, Liess C, Kemp J. Physiological and performance responses to a preseason altitude-training camp in elite team-sport athletes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8:391-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, this study examined changes in 2000-m time-trial running performance (TT), hemoglobin mass (Hbmass), and intramuscular carnosine content of elite Australian Football (AF) players after a preseason altitude camp...
  33. Wecksler A, Kenyon V, Deschamps J, Holman T. Substrate specificity changes for human reticulocyte and epithelial 15-lipoxygenases reveal allosteric product regulation. Biochemistry. 2008;47:7364-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of LO products to regulate substrate specificity may be relevant with respect to cancer progression and warrants further investigation into the role of this product-feedback loop in the cell...
  34. Zhang J, Ney P. NIX induces mitochondrial autophagy in reticulocytes. Autophagy. 2008;4:354-6 pubmed
    ..Strikingly, at the final stage of erythroid cell maturation, newly formed erythrocytes, also known as reticulocytes, eliminate their entire cohort of mitochondria...
  35. Martin Jaular L, Nakayasu E, Ferrer M, Almeida I, del Portillo H. Exosomes from Plasmodium yoelii-infected reticulocytes protect mice from lethal infections. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26588 pubmed publisher
    ..studies suggested that the role of exosomes was limited to the removal of proteins during the maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes, recent studies indicate that they are produced by different types of cells and are involved ..
  36. Malleret B, Xu F, Mohandas N, Suwanarusk R, Chu C, Leite J, et al. Significant biochemical, biophysical and metabolic diversity in circulating human cord blood reticulocytes. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76062 pubmed publisher
    The transition from enucleated reticulocytes to mature normocytes is marked by substantial remodeling of the erythrocytic cytoplasm and membrane...
  37. Zhang A, Canonne Hergaux F, Gruenheid S, Gros P, Ponka P. Use of Nramp2-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells and reticulocytes from mk/mk mice to study iron transport mechanisms. Exp Hematol. 2008;36:1227-35 pubmed publisher
    ..transport by DMT1 (endosomal Fe(II) exporter, encoded by the Nramp2 gene) using wild-type Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and Nramp2-transfected CHO cells, as well as reticulocytes from normal and mk/mk mice that have a defect in DMT1.
  38. Wenning M, Mello M, Andrade T, Lanaro C, Albuquerque D, Saad S, et al. PIP4KIIA and beta-globin: transcripts differentially expressed in reticulocytes and associated with high levels of Hb H in two siblings with Hb H disease. Eur J Haematol. 2009;83:490-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that PIP4KIIA may be one of the factors related to the regulation of the beta-globin gene expression and the different levels of Hb H in alpha-thalassemic patients...
  39. Shaker M, Jenkins P, Ullrich C, Brugnara C, Nghiem B, Bernstein H. An economic analysis of anemia prevention during infancy. J Pediatr. 2009;154:44-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the cost-benefit profile of reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) with hemoglobin (Hb) alone and Hb as a component of the complete blood count (CBC) for detection and treatment of iron deficiency in 9- to 12-month-old infants...
  40. Sato S, Kozuma Y, Hasegawa Y, Kojima H, Chiba S, Ninomiya H. Enhanced expression of CD71, transferrin receptor, on immature reticulocytes in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Int J Lab Hematol. 2010;32:e137-43 pubmed publisher
    Erythroid cells in the marrow express CD71, transferrin receptor, and reticulocytes released from the marrow lose their expression during maturation...
  41. Weinberg R, Ji X, Sutton M, Perrine S, Galperin Y, Li Q, et al. Butyrate increases the efficiency of translation of gamma-globin mRNA. Blood. 2005;105:1807-9 pubmed
    ..hypothesis was confirmed by ribosome loading studies that demonstrated enrichment of the polysomal fraction of reticulocytes with gamma-globin mRNA following butyrate exposure...
  42. Brugnara C, Schiller B, Moran J. Reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent (Ret He) and assessment of iron-deficient states. Clin Lab Haematol. 2006;28:303-8 pubmed
    ..2 pg, iron deficiency could be diagnosed with a sensitivity of 93.3%, and a specificity of 83.2%. Ret He is a reliable marker of cellular hemoglobin content and can be used to identify the presence of iron-deficient states. ..
  43. Colijn C, Mackey M. A mathematical model of hematopoiesis: II. Cyclical neutropenia. J Theor Biol. 2005;237:133-46 pubmed
    ..This oscillation is also mirrored in the platelets and reticulocytes which oscillate with the same period. Cyclical neutropenia has an animal counterpart in the grey collie...
  44. Skadberg O, Brun A, Sandberg S. Human reticulocytes isolated from peripheral blood: maturation time and hemoglobin synthesis. Lab Hematol. 2003;9:198-206 pubmed
    A pure population of young reticulocytes was isolated from the blood of healthy blood donors by an immunomagnetic technique...
  45. Ullrich C, Wu A, Armsby C, Rieber S, Wingerter S, Brugnara C, et al. Screening healthy infants for iron deficiency using reticulocyte hemoglobin content. JAMA. 2005;294:924-30 pubmed
    ..Further studies are warranted to determine whether CHr should be the preferred screening tool in the early detection of iron deficiency in infants. ..
  46. Okenu D, Meyer E, Puckett T, Rosas Acosta G, Barnwell J, Galinski M. The reticulocyte binding proteins of Plasmodium cynomolgi: a model system for studies of P. vivax. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2005;143:116-20 pubmed
  47. Hossain M, Yamato O, Yamasaki M, Jeong J, Chang H, Maede Y. Serum from dogs Infected with Babesia gibsoni inhibits maturation of reticulocytes and erythrocyte 5'-nucleotidase activity in vitro. J Vet Med Sci. 2003;65:1281-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the infected serum and 5'-CMP retarded the maturation of canine reticulocytes in vitro...
  48. Yoshida H, Kawane K, Koike M, Mori Y, Uchiyama Y, Nagata S. Phosphatidylserine-dependent engulfment by macrophages of nuclei from erythroid precursor cells. Nature. 2005;437:754-8 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the nuclei are engulfed by macrophages only after they are disconnected from reticulocytes, and that phosphatidylserine, which is often used as an 'eat me' signal for apoptotic cells, is also used for ..
  49. Ronfort C, de Breyne S, Sandrin V, Darlix J, Ohlmann T. Characterization of two distinct RNA domains that regulate translation of the Drosophila gypsy retroelement. RNA. 2004;10:504-15 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that expression of the gypsy encoded proteins from the genomic and subgenomic RNAs can be regulated at the level of translation. ..
  50. Gonzalez Cinca N, Perez de la Ossa P, Carreras J, Climent F. Effects of thyroid hormone and hypoxia on 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, bisphosphoglycerate synthase and phosphoglycerate mutase in rabbit erythroblasts and reticulocytes in vivo. Horm Res. 2004;62:191-6 pubmed
    ..as a cofactor, and 2,3-BPG synthase (BPGS), the enzyme responsible for 2,3-BPG synthesis in erythroblasts and reticulocytes. Hyperthyroidism was induced by daily T(3) injection (250 microg/kg), hypoxia by a mixture of 90% nitrogen and ..
  51. Buttarello M, Temporin V, Ceravolo R, Farina G, Bulian P. The new reticulocyte parameter (RET-Y) of the Sysmex XE 2100: its use in the diagnosis and monitoring of posttreatment sideropenic anemia. Am J Clin Pathol. 2004;121:489-95 pubmed
    ..6% and 96.5% for RET-Y and 98.7% and 93.3% for MCVr). RET-Y is correlated closely with CHr and is useful for diagnosis and early monitoring after the administration of intravenous iron. ..
  52. Offer T, Ho E, Traber M, Bruno R, Kuypers F, Ames B. A simple assay for frequency of chromosome breaks and loss (micronuclei) by flow cytometry of human reticulocytes. FASEB J. 2005;19:485-7 pubmed
    ..b>Reticulocytes with micronuclei in human peripheral blood are not generally available for analysis because the spleen removes ..
  53. Cromer D, Evans K, Schofield L, Davenport M. Preferential invasion of reticulocytes during late-stage Plasmodium berghei infection accounts for reduced circulating reticulocyte levels. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:1389-97 pubmed
    Insufficient circulating reticulocytes have been observed during severe malarial anaemia in both human and murine infection, and are often attributed to reduced production of red cell precursors...
  54. Locker N, Lukavsky P. A practical approach to isolate 48S complexes: affinity purification and analyses. Methods Enzymol. 2007;429:83-104 pubmed
    ..The 48S complexes purified with this method are properly assembled at the initiation codon, contain the expected RNA and protein components in a 1:1 stoichiometry, and are functional intermediates along the initiation pathway. ..
  55. Ervasti M, Kotisaari S, Sankilampi U, Heinonen S, Punnonen K. The relationship between red blood cell and reticulocyte indices and serum markers of iron status in the cord blood of newborns. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2007;45:1000-3 pubmed
    ..Cellular hemoglobin in red blood cells or reticulocytes was independent of serum iron markers such as TfSat, TfR and ferritin...
  56. Soto Rifo R, Ricci E, Decimo D, Moncorgé O, Ohlmann T. Back to basics: the untreated rabbit reticulocyte lysate as a competitive system to recapitulate cap/poly(A) synergy and the selective advantage of IRES-driven translation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:e121 pubmed
    ..Moreover, cleavage of eIF4G by FMDV L protease strongly stimulated translation directed by the EMCV IRES, thus recapitulating the competitive advantage that the proteolytic processing of eIF4G confers to IRES-driven RNAs. ..
  57. Ervasti M, Kotisaari S, Heinonen S, Punnonen K. Use of advanced red blood cell and reticulocyte indices improves the accuracy in diagnosing iron deficiency in pregnant women at term. Eur J Haematol. 2007;79:539-45 pubmed
    ..120 hematology system, Hb, mean cell volume (MCV), percentage of hypochromic red blood cells (%HYPOm) and reticulocytes (%HYPOr), and cellular hemoglobin in reticulocytes (CHr) were tested...
  58. Goh S, Josleyn M, Lee Y, Danner R, Gherman R, Cam M, et al. The human reticulocyte transcriptome. Physiol Genomics. 2007;30:172-8 pubmed
    RNA from circulating blood reticulocytes was utilized to provide a robust description of genes transcribed at the final stages of erythroblast maturation...
  59. Vasquez Martinez Y, Ohri R, Kenyon V, Holman T, Sepúlveda Boza S. Structure-activity relationship studies of flavonoids as potent inhibitors of human platelet 12-hLO, reticulocyte 15-hLO-1, and prostate epithelial 15-hLO-2. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007;15:7408-25 pubmed
    ..We conclude from this study that catechols are essential for high potency, that isoflavones and isoflavonones tend to select against 12-hLO, that isoflavons tend to select against 15-hLO-1, but few flavonoids target 15-hLO-2. ..
  60. Brittain J, Han J, Ataga K, Orringer E, Parise L. Mechanism of CD47-induced alpha4beta1 integrin activation and adhesion in sickle reticulocytes. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:42393-402 pubmed
    ..These studies therefore identify the alpha4beta1 integrin on SS RBCs as a CD47-activated receptor for TSP, VCAM-1, and plasma fibronectin, revealing novel binding characteristics of this integrin. ..
  61. Garzia M, Di Mario A, Ferraro E, Tazza L, Rossi E, Luciani G, et al. Reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent: an indicator of reduced iron availability in chronic kidney diseases during erythropoietin therapy. Lab Hematol. 2007;13:6-11 pubmed
    ..hemoglobin equivalent (RET-He), recently introduced to determine the forward scatter of fluorescence-labeled reticulocytes, seems to be a sensitive indicator of iron-deficiency anemia...
  62. Morici G, Zangla D, Santoro A, Pelosi E, Petrucci E, Gioia M, et al. Supramaximal exercise mobilizes hematopoietic progenitors and reticulocytes in athletes. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005;289:R1496-503 pubmed
    ..hypothesized that supramaximal ("all-out") exercise may acutely affect circulating progenitors and reticulocytes and investigated possible mechanisms involved...
  63. Gaur D, Singh S, Singh S, Jiang L, Diouf A, Miller L. Recombinant Plasmodium falciparum reticulocyte homology protein 4 binds to erythrocytes and blocks invasion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:17789-94 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that, although PfRH4 is required for invasion of neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes by Dd2/NM, it is inaccessible for antibody-mediated inhibition of the invasion process...
  64. Howard M, Gesteland R, Atkins J. Efficient stimulation of site-specific ribosome frameshifting by antisense oligonucleotides. RNA. 2004;10:1653-61 pubmed
    ..The implications for the mechanism of action of natural programmed translational frameshift stimulators are discussed...
  65. Dertinger S, Chen Y, Miller R, Brewer K, Smudzin T, Torous D, et al. Micronucleated CD71-positive reticulocytes: a blood-based endpoint of cytogenetic damage in humans. Mutat Res. 2003;542:77-87 pubmed
    ..we describe a high-throughput, single-laser flow cytometric system for scoring the incidence of micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RET) in human blood...
  66. Koury M, Koury S, Kopsombut P, Bondurant M. In vitro maturation of nascent reticulocytes to erythrocytes. Blood. 2005;105:2168-74 pubmed
    Most studies of mammalian reticulocyte maturation have used blood reticulocytes. Nascent reticulocytes, as found in bone marrow, have not been available in developmentally synchronized populations...
  67. Giarratana M, Kobari L, Lapillonne H, Chalmers D, Kiger L, Cynober T, et al. Ex vivo generation of fully mature human red blood cells from hematopoietic stem cells. Nat Biotechnol. 2005;23:69-74 pubmed
    ..Further development of large-scale production of cultured RBCs will have implications for gene therapy, blood transfusion and tropical medicine...
  68. Colijn C, Mackey M. A mathematical model of hematopoiesis--I. Periodic chronic myelogenous leukemia. J Theor Biol. 2005;237:117-32 pubmed
    ..disease of the hematopoietic system in which oscillating levels of circulating leukocytes, platelets and/or reticulocytes are observed...
  69. Shi Q, Cernetich A, Daly T, Galvan G, Vaidya A, Bergman L, et al. Alteration in host cell tropism limits the efficacy of immunization with a surface protein of malaria merozoites. Infect Immun. 2005;73:6363-71 pubmed
    ..yoelii 17XL growth in mature erythrocytes compared to growth in reticulocytes and do not suppress the growth of nonlethal P...
  70. Deschamps J, Kenyon V, Holman T. Baicalein is a potent in vitro inhibitor against both reticulocyte 15-human and platelet 12-human lipoxygenases. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006;14:4295-301 pubmed
    ..A structurally related flavonoid, apigenin, is not reductive, however, molecular modeling suggests a hydrogen bond with Thr591 may account for its inhibitor potency...
  71. Freise K, Widness J, Schmidt R, Veng Pedersen P. Pharmacodynamic analysis of time-variant cellular disposition: reticulocyte disposition changes in phlebotomized sheep. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2007;34:519-47 pubmed
    ..for changes in cellular disposition, a comprehensive PD model that involves endogenous erythropoietin (Epo), reticulocytes, and hemoglobin responses was developed in phlebotomized sheep that considers a time-variant reticulocyte ..
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    ..These results suggest that the presence of an enhancer sequence for translation is one of the critical steps for protein synthesis by a eukaryotic cell-free protein synthesis system...
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    To determine the cause of the predilection of Babesia gibsoni for reticulocytes, the parasites were cultivated with various types of reconstituted erythrocyte ghosts, which were prepared by resealing erythrocyte ghosts together with ..