langerhans cells

Summary

Summary: Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.

Top Publications

  1. Zaba L, Fuentes Duculan J, Eungdamrong N, Johnson Huang L, Nograles K, White T, et al. Identification of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and other molecules that distinguish inflammatory from resident dendritic cells in patients with psoriasis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125:1261-1268.e9 pubmed publisher
    ..Some molecules made by inflammatory DCs, including TRAIL, could have direct effects on keratinocytes or other skin cell types to promote disease pathogenesis. ..
  2. Kaplan D. In vivo function of Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells. Trends Immunol. 2010;31:446-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a model in which the two best-characterized skin-resident DCs, langerhans cells (LCs) and Langerin(+) dermal DCs (dDCs) have distinct functions: Langerin(+) dDCs initiate and LCs suppress T ..
  3. Martires K, Domingo D, Hsia A, Fu P, Cooper K, Baron E. Effects of pimecrolimus versus triamcinolone on Langerhans cells after UV exposure. Exp Dermatol. 2011;20:280-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of pimecrolimus on Langerhans cells (LC), mediators of the cutaneous immunity UV-irradiated skin...
  4. Banchereau J, Zurawski S, Thompson Snipes L, Blanck J, Clayton S, Munk A, et al. Immunoglobulin-like transcript receptors on human dermal CD14+ dendritic cells act as a CD8-antagonist to control cytotoxic T cell priming. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:18885-90 pubmed publisher
    Human Langerhans cells (LCs) are highly efficient at priming cytolytic CD8(+) T cells compared with dermal CD14(+) dendritic cells (DCs)...
  5. Nagao K, Kobayashi T, Moro K, Ohyama M, Adachi T, Kitashima D, et al. Stress-induced production of chemokines by hair follicles regulates the trafficking of dendritic cells in skin. Nat Immunol. 2012;13:744-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Langerhans cells (LCs) are epidermal dendritic cells with incompletely understood origins that associate with hair follicles for unknown reasons...
  6. Schneider L, Schoonderwoerd A, Moutaftsi M, Howard R, Reed S, de Jong E, et al. Intradermally administered TLR4 agonist GLA-SE enhances the capacity of human skin DCs to activate T cells and promotes emigration of Langerhans cells. Vaccine. 2012;30:4216-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Intradermal injection of GLA-SE or LPS, but not GLA-AF, enhanced the emigration of CD1a(high)/langerin(+) Langerhans cells (LCs), but not dermal DCs (DDCs)...
  7. Clausen B, Kel J. Langerhans cells: critical regulators of skin immunity?. Immunol Cell Biol. 2010;88:351-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Langerhans cells (LC) are members of the heterogenous family of professional antigen presenting dendritic cells (DC). They are identified by the C-type lectin receptor Langerin and form a contiguous network in the epidermis...
  8. Yuan X, Liu W, Hao J, Gu W, Zhao Y. Topical grape seed proanthocyandin extract reduces sunburn cells and mutant p53 positive epidermal cell formation, and prevents depletion of Langerhans cells in an acute sunburn model. Photomed Laser Surg. 2012;30:20-5 pubmed publisher
    ..at different sites were examined histologically for the number of sunburn cells, or immunohistochemically for Langerhans cells and mutant p53 epidermal cells...
  9. Romani N, Brunner P, Stingl G. Changing views of the role of Langerhans cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:872-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Langerhans cells (LCs) have long been considered to be the major sensitizing cells in the skin by initiating productive immunity in naive resting T cells. This picture has changed over the past decade...

More Information

Publications116 found, 100 shown here

  1. de Jong M, de Witte L, Santegoets S, Fluitsma D, Taylor M, de Gruijl T, et al. Mutz-3-derived Langerhans cells are a model to study HIV-1 transmission and potential inhibitors. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;87:637-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, Mu-LCs are a suitable model to investigate the role of LCs in HIV-1 transmission and to screen potential microbicides. ..
  2. Nakajima S, Igyarto B, Honda T, Egawa G, Otsuka A, Hara Chikuma M, et al. Langerhans cells are critical in epicutaneous sensitization with protein antigen via thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor signaling. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129:1048-55.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Because TSLP is highly expressed in the vicinity of Langerhans cells (LCs), we sought to clarify our hypothesis that LCs play an essential role in epicutaneous sensitization with ..
  3. Igyarto B, Kaplan D. Antigen presentation by Langerhans cells. Curr Opin Immunol. 2013;25:115-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Langerhans cells and other skin-resident dendritic cells (DC) are required for the development of cutaneous adaptive immune responses...
  4. Hervouet C, Luci C, Rol N, Rousseau D, Kissenpfennig A, Malissen B, et al. Langerhans cells prime IL-17-producing T cells and dampen genital cytotoxic responses following mucosal immunization. J Immunol. 2010;184:4842-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Langerhans cells (LCs) are dendritic cells (DCs) localized in stratified epithelia, such as those overlaying skin, buccal mucosa, and vagina...
  5. Tsegaye T, Pohlmann S. The multiple facets of HIV attachment to dendritic cell lectins. Cell Microbiol. 2010;12:1553-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we will describe key concepts proposed for the role of lectins in HIV attachment to host cells, and we will discuss recent findings in this rapidly evolving area of research. ..
  6. Gomez de Agüero M, Vocanson M, Hacini Rachinel F, Taillardet M, Sparwasser T, Kissenpfennig A, et al. Langerhans cells protect from allergic contact dermatitis in mice by tolerizing CD8(+) T cells and activating Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:1700-11 pubmed publisher
    ..2,4-dinitrothiocyanobenzene (DNTB), that cutaneous immune tolerance in mice critically depends on epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs), which capture DNTB and migrate to lymph nodes for direct presentation to CD8(+) T cells...
  7. Lee P, Hsu S, Tsai J, Chen F, Huang P, Ke C, et al. Multifunctional core-shell polymeric nanoparticles for transdermal DNA delivery and epidermal Langerhans cells tracking. Biomaterials. 2010;31:2425-34 pubmed publisher
    Skin is a highly immune-reactive tissue containing abundant antigen-presenting cells such as Langerhans cells (LCs), and thus is a favorable site for DNA immunization...
  8. Lutz M, Döhler A, Azukizawa H. Revisiting the tolerogenicity of epidermal Langerhans cells. Immunol Cell Biol. 2010;88:381-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Langerhans cells (LC) are unique members of the dendritic cell (DC) family residing in the epidermis of skin and mucosa...
  9. van der Vlist M, Geijtenbeek T. Langerin functions as an antiviral receptor on Langerhans cells. Immunol Cell Biol. 2010;88:410-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Langerhans cells (LC) are the first dendritic cells (DC) to encounter pathogens entering the body via mucosa or skin. Equipped with pattern recognition receptors (PRR), LC are able to detect and respond to these pathogens...
  10. Stoitzner P, Romani N. Langerin, the "Catcher in the Rye": an important receptor for pathogens on Langerhans cells. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:2526-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Langerhans cells (LCs) are a distinct subset of DCs that resides in the epidermis and other epithelia. They are potent antigen-presenting cells and strong inducers of T-cell responses...
  11. Chu C, Ali N, Karagiannis P, Di Meglio P, Skowera A, Napolitano L, et al. Resident CD141 (BDCA3)+ dendritic cells in human skin produce IL-10 and induce regulatory T cells that suppress skin inflammation. J Exp Med. 2012;209:935-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, VitD3-induced CD141(+) DDC-like cells have potential clinical use for their capacity to induce immune tolerance. ..
  12. Stoitzner P, Sparber F, Tripp C. Langerhans cells as targets for immunotherapy against skin cancer. Immunol Cell Biol. 2010;88:431-7 pubmed publisher
    ..in developing immunotherapeutical strategies against skin cancer in the context of our observations that Langerhans cells (LC) are very potent antigen presenting cells and are able to incorporate protein antigens and present them ..
  13. Nabeshi H, Yoshikawa T, Matsuyama K, Nakazato Y, Arimori A, Isobe M, et al. Size-dependent cytotoxic effects of amorphous silica nanoparticles on Langerhans cells. Pharmazie. 2010;65:199-201 pubmed
    ..penetrated the stratum corneum (SC) of mouse skin and were taken up by living cells such as keratinocytes and Langerhans cells. To clarify the relationship between particle size, distribution and cellular response, we have evaluated ..
  14. Shklovskaya E, O Sullivan B, Ng L, Roediger B, Thomas R, Weninger W, et al. Langerhans cells are precommitted to immune tolerance induction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:18049-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we tested whether epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) can support immunogenic responses in vivo in the absence of antigen presentation by other DC subsets...
  15. Romani N, Clausen B, Stoitzner P. Langerhans cells and more: langerin-expressing dendritic cell subsets in the skin. Immunol Rev. 2010;234:120-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Langerhans cells (LCs) are antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) that reside in epithelia. The best studied example is the LC of the epidermis...
  16. Schwarz A, Noordegraaf M, Maeda A, Torii K, Clausen B, Schwarz T. Langerhans cells are required for UVR-induced immunosuppression. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:1419-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This was explained by UVR-mediated depletion of Langerhans cells (LCs)...
  17. Ogden S, Dearman R, Kimber I, Griffiths C. The effect of ageing on phenotype and function of monocyte-derived Langerhans cells. Br J Dermatol. 2011;165:184-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) act as sentinels of the immune system, recognizing, processing and presenting antigen and inducing T-..
  18. Wang X, Bi Z, Wang Y, Wang Y. Increased MAPK and NF-?B expression of Langerhans cells is dependent on TLR2 and TLR4, and increased IRF-3 expression is partially dependent on TLR4 following UV exposure. Mol Med Rep. 2011;4:541-6 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) play a crucial role in innate and adaptive immunity. To date, the pattern of TLR expression has not been fully analyzed...
  19. Romano E, Rossi M, Ratzinger G, de Cos M, Chung D, Panageas K, et al. Peptide-loaded Langerhans cells, despite increased IL15 secretion and T-cell activation in vitro, elicit antitumor T-cell responses comparable to peptide-loaded monocyte-derived dendritic cells in vivo. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17:1984-97 pubmed publisher
    We compared the efficacy of human Langerhans cells (LC) as tumor immunogens in vivo with monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) and investigated how interleukin 15 (IL15) supports optimal DC-stimulated antitumor immunity...
  20. Kautz Neu K, Noordegraaf M, Dinges S, Bennett C, John D, Clausen B, et al. Langerhans cells are negative regulators of the anti-Leishmania response. J Exp Med. 2011;208:885-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, selective depletion of Langerhans cells (LCs) demonstrated that the absence of LCs, and not Langerin(+) dermal DC, was responsible for the reduced T ..
  21. Ogawa Y, Kawamura T, Matsuzawa T, Aoki R, Gee P, Yamashita A, et al. Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 produced by HSV-2-infected keratinocytes enhances HIV infection of Langerhans cells. Cell Host Microbe. 2013;13:77-86 pubmed publisher
    Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 shedding is associated with increased risk for sexually acquiring HIV. Because Langerhans cells (LCs), the mucosal epithelium resident dendritic cells, are suspected to be one of the initial target cell types ..
  22. Yasmin N, Konradi S, Eisenwort G, Schichl Y, Seyerl M, Bauer T, et al. ?-Catenin promotes the differentiation of epidermal Langerhans dendritic cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:1250-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We here observed that epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) but not interstitial/dermal DCs express detectable ?-catenin...
  23. van de Ven R, van den Hout M, Lindenberg J, Sluijter B, van Leeuwen P, Lougheed S, et al. Characterization of four conventional dendritic cell subsets in human skin-draining lymph nodes in relation to T-cell activation. Blood. 2011;118:2502-10 pubmed publisher
    ..comparison with skin-migrated cDC, 2 CD1a(+) subsets were identified as most likely skin-derived CD11c(int) Langerhans cells (LC) with intracellular langerin and E-cadherin expression or as CD11c(hi) dermal DCs with variable ..
  24. Haley K, Igyarto B, Ortner D, Bobr A, Kashem S, Schenten D, et al. Langerhans cells require MyD88-dependent signals for Candida albicans response but not for contact hypersensitivity or migration. J Immunol. 2012;188:4334-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Langerhans cells (LC) are a subset of skin-resident dendritic cells (DC) that reside in the epidermis as immature DC, where they acquire Ag...
  25. Hutter C, Kauer M, Simonitsch Klupp I, Jug G, Schwentner R, Leitner J, et al. Notch is active in Langerhans cell histiocytosis and confers pathognomonic features on dendritic cells. Blood. 2012;120:5199-208 pubmed publisher
    ..transcription profile that separates them not only from plasmacytoid and myeloid DCs, but also from epidermal Langerhans cells, indicating a distinct DC entity...
  26. Bobr A, Olvera Gomez I, Igyarto B, Haley K, Hogquist K, Kaplan D. Acute ablation of Langerhans cells enhances skin immune responses. J Immunol. 2010;185:4724-8 pubmed publisher
    Understanding the function of Langerhans cells (LCs) in vivo has been complicated by conflicting results from LC-deficient mice...
  27. Chorro L, Geissmann F. Development and homeostasis of 'resident' myeloid cells: the case of the Langerhans cell. Trends Immunol. 2010;31:438-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Langerhans cells (LCs) are myeloid cells of the epidermis, featured in immunology textbooks as bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs)...
  28. Henri S, Poulin L, Tamoutounour S, Ardouin L, Guilliams M, de Bovis B, et al. CD207+ CD103+ dermal dendritic cells cross-present keratinocyte-derived antigens irrespective of the presence of Langerhans cells. J Exp Med. 2010;207:189-206 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies have challenged the view that Langerhans cells (LCs) constitute the exclusive antigen-presenting cells of the skin and suggest that the dermal dendritic cell (DDC) network is exceedingly complex...
  29. Guilliams M, Henri S, Tamoutounour S, Ardouin L, Schwartz Cornil I, Dalod M, et al. From skin dendritic cells to a simplified classification of human and mouse dendritic cell subsets. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:2089-94 pubmed publisher
  30. Pandey A, Setty S, Rao R, Radhakrishnan R. Assessment of Langerhans cells in oral lichen planus by ATPase histochemistry: a clinicopathologic correlation. Quintessence Int. 2011;42:225-34 pubmed
    To assess the distribution pattern of Langerhans cells in oral lichen planus using adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) histochemistry and to correlate this with the duration of symptoms...
  31. Schulz C, Gomez Perdiguero E, Chorro L, Szabo Rogers H, Cagnard N, Kierdorf K, et al. A lineage of myeloid cells independent of Myb and hematopoietic stem cells. Science. 2012;336:86-90 pubmed publisher
    ..of YS-derived F4/80(bright) macrophages in several tissues, such as liver Kupffer cells, epidermal Langerhans cells, and microglia--cell populations that all can persist in adult mice independently of HSCs...
  32. Bauer T, Zagorska A, Jurkin J, Yasmin N, Köffel R, Richter S, et al. Identification of Axl as a downstream effector of TGF-?1 during Langerhans cell differentiation and epidermal homeostasis. J Exp Med. 2012;209:2033-47 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the effects of TGF-?1 on the differentiation of human Langerhans cells (LCs) and identified Axl as a key TGF-?1 effector...
  33. Romani N, Thurnher M, Idoyaga J, Steinman R, Flacher V. Targeting of antigens to skin dendritic cells: possibilities to enhance vaccine efficacy. Immunol Cell Biol. 2010;88:424-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Professional antigen-presenting cells of the skin comprise epidermal Langerhans cells (CD207/langerin(+)), dermal langerin(-) and dermal langerin(+) dendritic cells (DCs)...
  34. Ganor Y, Zhou Z, Tudor D, Schmitt A, Vacher Lavenu M, Gibault L, et al. Within 1 h, HIV-1 uses viral synapses to enter efficiently the inner, but not outer, foreskin mucosa and engages Langerhans-T cell conjugates. Mucosal Immunol. 2010;3:506-22 pubmed publisher
    ..with apical foreskin keratinocytes, leading to polarized budding of HIV-1, which is rapidly internalized by Langerhans cells (LCs) in the inner foreskin...
  35. Seneschal J, Clark R, Gehad A, Baecher Allan C, Kupper T. Human epidermal Langerhans cells maintain immune homeostasis in skin by activating skin resident regulatory T cells. Immunity. 2012;36:873-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These underappreciated properties of LCs, namely maintenance of tolerance in normal skin, and activation of protective skin resident memory T cells upon infectious challenge, help clarify the role of LCs in skin. ..
  36. Wohn C, Ober Blöbaum J, Haak S, Pantelyushin S, Cheong C, Zahner S, et al. Langerin(neg) conventional dendritic cells produce IL-23 to drive psoriatic plaque formation in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:10723-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest therapeutic targeting of IL-23 production by cDCs to refine current treatment strategies for psoriasis. ..
  37. Becker M, Choi Y, Millar S, Udey M. Wnt signaling influences the development of murine epidermal Langerhans cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2011;131:1861-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Langerhans cells (LCs) are distinct dendritic cells (DCs) that populate stratified squamous epithelia. Despite extensive studies, our understanding of LC development is incomplete...
  38. Ouwehand K, Spiekstra S, Waaijman T, Breetveld M, Scheper R, de Gruijl T, et al. CCL5 and CCL20 mediate immigration of Langerhans cells into the epidermis of full thickness human skin equivalents. Eur J Cell Biol. 2012;91:765-73 pubmed publisher
    Epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) play a key role in initiation and regulation of immune responses...
  39. Harman A, Bye C, Nasr N, Sandgren K, Kim M, Mercier S, et al. Identification of lineage relationships and novel markers of blood and skin human dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2013;190:66-79 pubmed publisher
    ..We also compared these with monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) and MUTZ3 Langerhans cells (LCs) to investigate their relevance as model skin DCs...
  40. Romani N, Flacher V, Tripp C, Sparber F, Ebner S, Stoitzner P. Targeting skin dendritic cells to improve intradermal vaccination. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2012;351:113-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Several types of professional antigen-presenting cells inhabit the healthy skin. Epidermal Langerhans cells (CD207/langerin(+)), dermal langerin(neg), and dermal langerin(+) dendritic cells (DC) have been described, ..
  41. Eisenwort G, Jurkin J, Yasmin N, Bauer T, Gesslbauer B, Strobl H. Identification of TROP2 (TACSTD2), an EpCAM-like molecule, as a specific marker for TGF-?1-dependent human epidermal Langerhans cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2011;131:2049-57 pubmed publisher
    Langerin (CD207) expression is a hallmark of epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs); however, CD207(+) cells comprise several functional subsets...
  42. Combadiere B, Liard C. Transcutaneous and intradermal vaccination. Hum Vaccin. 2011;7:811-27 pubmed publisher
    ..e Langerhans cells (LC), dermal dendritic cells (DDC) and dermal macrophages) in the induction of immune responses, (4) the ..
  43. Zahner S, Kel J, Martina C, Brouwers Haspels I, van Roon M, Clausen B. Conditional deletion of TGF-?R1 using Langerin-Cre mice results in Langerhans cell deficiency and reduced contact hypersensitivity. J Immunol. 2011;187:5069-76 pubmed publisher
    The critical role of Langerhans cells (LC) in contact hypersensitivity (CHS) was recently questioned in studies using different LC-depletion mouse models...
  44. Seré K, Baek J, Ober Blöbaum J, Muller Newen G, Tacke F, Yokota Y, et al. Two distinct types of Langerhans cells populate the skin during steady state and inflammation. Immunity. 2012;37:905-16 pubmed publisher
    b>Langerhans cells (LCs), the dendritic cells (DCs) in skin epidermis, possess an exceptional life cycle and developmental origin...
  45. Kumar M, Adurthi S, Ramachandran S, Mukherjee G, Joy O, Krishnamurthy H, et al. Toll-like receptors 7, 8, and 9 expression and function in primary human cervical cancer Langerhans cells: evidence of anergy. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2013;23:184-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We explored the status of expression and function of TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 in primary human Langerhans cells (LCs) isolated from cervical tumors...
  46. Romano E, Cotari J, Barreira da Silva R, Betts B, Chung D, Avogadri F, et al. Human Langerhans cells use an IL-15R-?/IL-15/pSTAT5-dependent mechanism to break T-cell tolerance against the self-differentiation tumor antigen WT1. Blood. 2012;119:5182-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the use of mRNA-electroporated LCs, or moDCs supplemented with exogenous rhuIL-15, as vaccines for cancer immunotherapy to break tolerance against self-differentiation antigens shared by tumors...
  47. Wang Y, Szretter K, Vermi W, Gilfillan S, Rossini C, Cella M, et al. IL-34 is a tissue-restricted ligand of CSF1R required for the development of Langerhans cells and microglia. Nat Immunol. 2012;13:753-60 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Langerhans cells (LCs) and microglia develop from embryonic myeloid precursor cells that populate the epidermis and central ..
  48. van der Aar A, Picavet D, Muller F, de Boer L, van Capel T, Zaat S, et al. Langerhans cells favor skin flora tolerance through limited presentation of bacterial antigens and induction of regulatory T cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:1240-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Using monocyte-derived and skin-derived dendritic cells (DCs), we demonstrate that epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs), the DCs in the most superficial layer of the skin, have a poor capacity to internalize bacteria ..
  49. Allen C, Li L, Peters T, Leung H, Yu A, Man T, et al. Cell-specific gene expression in Langerhans cell histiocytosis lesions reveals a distinct profile compared with epidermal Langerhans cells. J Immunol. 2010;184:4557-67 pubmed publisher
    ..cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease characterized by heterogeneous lesions containing CD207(+) Langerhans cells (LCs) and lymphocytes that can arise in almost any tissue and cause significant morbidity and mortality...
  50. Igyarto B, Kaplan D. The evolving function of Langerhans cells in adaptive skin immunity. Immunol Cell Biol. 2010;88:361-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Langerhans cells (LC) are dendritic cell that resides in the epidermis of skin. Paul Langerhans originally observed and named this epinonymous cell more than 140 years ago...
  51. Stary G, Klein I, Bauer W, Koszik F, Reininger B, Kohlhofer S, et al. Glucocorticosteroids modify Langerhans cells to produce TGF-? and expand regulatory T cells. J Immunol. 2011;186:103-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, we observed increased numbers of dermal FOXP3(+)CD25(+) T cells and epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) that were associated with upregulated mRNA expression of TGF-? in lesions of GCS-treated Ni-allergic ..
  52. Oosterhoff D, Sluijter B, Hangalapura B, de Gruijl T. The dermis as a portal for dendritic cell-targeted immunotherapy of cutaneous melanoma. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2012;351:181-220 pubmed publisher
    ..Several phenotypically distinct DC subsets are discernable in the skin, among others, epidermal Langerhans cells and dermal DC...
  53. Ballweber L, Robinson B, Kreger A, Fialkow M, Lentz G, McElrath M, et al. Vaginal langerhans cells nonproductively transporting HIV-1 mediate infection of T cells. J Virol. 2011;85:13443-7 pubmed publisher
    Although implied by other models, proof that Langerhans cells (LCs) in the human vagina participate in dissemination of infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been lacking...
  54. Yin Z, Xu J, Zhang Z, Luo D. Effects of topical pimecrolimus 1% on high-dose ultraviolet B-irradiated epidermal Langerhans cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 2012;14:635-40 pubmed publisher
    Some studies reported no changes in the number of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) that were observed in mice treated with pimecrolimus, and low-dose stimulated solar radiation (once)-induced changers in LC are minimally affected by ..
  55. Akdogan V, Yilmaz I, Canpolat T, Ozluoglu L. Role of Langerhans cells, Ki-67 protein and apoptosis in acquired cholesteatoma: prospective clinical study. J Laryngol Otol. 2013;127:252-9 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the role of Langerhans cells in the pathogenesis and clinical picture of middle-ear cholesteatoma.
  56. Seneschal J, Jiang X, Kupper T. Langerin+ dermal DC, but not Langerhans cells, are required for effective CD8-mediated immune responses after skin scarification with vaccinia virus. J Invest Dermatol. 2014;134:686-694 pubmed publisher
    ..At least three subsets of skin-resident DC have been identified: Langerhans cells (LCs), dermal Langerin+ DC (Lang+ dDC), and dermal Langerin- DC (Lang- dDC)...
  57. Fahrbach K, Barry S, Anderson M, Hope T. Enhanced cellular responses and environmental sampling within inner foreskin explants: implications for the foreskin's role in HIV transmission. Mucosal Immunol. 2010;3:410-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the mechanism leading to protection remains undefined. Using tissue explant cultures we found that Langerhans cells (LCs) in foreskin alter their cellular protein expression in response to external stimuli...
  58. Pearton M, Kang S, Song J, Kim Y, Quan F, Anstey A, et al. Influenza virus-like particles coated onto microneedles can elicit stimulatory effects on Langerhans cells in human skin. Vaccine. 2010;28:6104-13 pubmed publisher
    ..it is vital to understand how MN targeting of VLPs to the skin epidermis affects activation and migration of Langerhans cells (LCs) in the real human skin environment...
  59. Tavakoli M, Boulton A, Efron N, Malik R. Increased Langerhan cell density and corneal nerve damage in diabetic patients: role of immune mechanisms in human diabetic neuropathy. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2011;34:7-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We employed in vivo corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) to quantify the presence and density of Langerhans cells (LCs) in relation to the extent of corneal nerve damage in Bowman's layer of the cornea in diabetic patients.
  60. de Jong A, Pena Cruz V, Cheng T, Clark R, Van Rhijn I, Moody D. CD1a-autoreactive T cells are a normal component of the human ?? T cell repertoire. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:1102-9 pubmed publisher
    ..CD1a-autoreactive T cells homed to skin, where they produced interleukin 22 (IL-22) in response to CD1a on Langerhans cells. The strong and frequent responses among genetically diverse donors define CD1a-autoreactive cells as a ..
  61. Christensen A, Haase C. Immunological mechanisms of contact hypersensitivity in mice. APMIS. 2012;120:1-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The hapten-carrier complex is taken up by Langerhans cells (LCs) and dermal dendritic cells (dDCs) which migrate from the epidermis to the draining lymph node...
  62. Gaiser M, Lämmermann T, Feng X, Igyarto B, Kaplan D, Tessarollo L, et al. Cancer-associated epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM; CD326) enables epidermal Langerhans cell motility and migration in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E889-97 pubmed publisher
    After activation, Langerhans cells (LC), a distinct subpopulation of epidermis-resident dendritic cells, migrate from skin to lymph nodes where they regulate the magnitude and quality of immune responses initiated by epicutaneously ..
  63. Arizon M, Nudel I, Segev H, Mizraji G, Elnekave M, Furmanov K, et al. Langerhans cells down-regulate inflammation-driven alveolar bone loss. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:7043-8 pubmed publisher
    ..inflammation-driven alveolar bone loss attributable to infection, we showed that in vivo ablation of Langerhans cells (LCs) resulted in enhanced bone loss...
  64. Banchereau J, Thompson Snipes L, Zurawski S, Blanck J, Cao Y, Clayton S, et al. The differential production of cytokines by human Langerhans cells and dermal CD14(+) DCs controls CTL priming. Blood. 2012;119:5742-9 pubmed publisher
    We recently reported that human epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) are more efficient than dermal CD14(+) DCs at priming naive CD8(+) T cells into potent CTLs...
  65. de Jong M, Vriend L, Theelen B, Taylor M, Fluitsma D, Boekhout T, et al. C-type lectin Langerin is a beta-glucan receptor on human Langerhans cells that recognizes opportunistic and pathogenic fungi. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:1216-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Langerhans cells (LCs) lining the stratified epithelia and mucosal tissues are the first antigen presenting cells to encounter invading pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria and fungi...
  66. del Rio M, Bernhardt G, Rodriguez Barbosa J, Forster R. Development and functional specialization of CD103+ dendritic cells. Immunol Rev. 2010;234:268-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This review discusses recent findings that identify murine CD103(+) DCs as important regulators of the immune response...
  67. Vassallo R, Walters P, Lamont J, Kottom T, Yi E, Limper A. Cigarette smoke promotes dendritic cell accumulation in COPD; a Lung Tissue Research Consortium study. Respir Res. 2010;11:45 pubmed publisher
    ..Although evident that cigarette smoke, the primary cause of COPD, significantly influences dendritic cell functions, little is known about the roles of dendritic cells in the pathogenesis of COPD...
  68. Puttur F, Fernandez M, White R, Roediger B, Cunningham A, Weninger W, et al. Herpes simplex virus infects skin gamma delta T cells before Langerhans cells and impedes migration of infected Langerhans cells by inducing apoptosis and blocking E-cadherin downregulation. J Immunol. 2010;185:477-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Uninfected (bystander) Langerhans cells (LCs) were the major emigrant DC subset at 24 h p.i...
  69. Kuipers H, Schnorfeil F, Fehling H, Bartels H, Brocker T. Dicer-dependent microRNAs control maturation, function, and maintenance of Langerhans cells in vivo. J Immunol. 2010;185:400-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to the differentiation of epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) and their seeding into the epidermis, LC maturation, turnover, and MHC class II Ag presentation ..
  70. Lewis J, Filler R, Smith D, Golubets K, Girardi M. The contribution of Langerhans cells to cutaneous malignancy. Trends Immunol. 2010;31:460-6 pubmed publisher
    ..immunological organ that contains a unique population of immature intraepidermal dendritic cells (DCs) called Langerhans cells (LCs)...
  71. Harada K, Shimoda S, Ikeda H, Chiba M, Hsu M, Sato Y, et al. Significance of periductal Langerhans cells and biliary epithelial cell-derived macrophage inflammatory protein-3? in the pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis. Liver Int. 2011;31:245-53 pubmed publisher
  72. van den Berg L, Geijtenbeek T. Antiviral immune responses by human langerhans cells and dendritic cells in HIV-1 infection. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;762:45-70 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Langerhans cells (LCs) and dendritic cells (DCs) are amongst the first immune cells encountering HIV-1 since these cells line ..
  73. Elbe Bürger A, Schuster C. Development of the prenatal cutaneous antigen-presenting cell network. Immunol Cell Biol. 2010;88:393-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Professional antigen-presenting cells, such as epidermal Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells, are gaining prominence as principal players orchestrating the decision between ..
  74. Noordegraaf M, Flacher V, Stoitzner P, Clausen B. Functional redundancy of Langerhans cells and Langerin+ dermal dendritic cells in contact hypersensitivity. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:2752-9 pubmed publisher
    The relative roles of Langerhans cells (LC), dermal dendritic cells (DC), and, in particular, the recently discovered Langerin(+) dermal DC subset in the induction and control of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) responses remain ..
  75. Macleod A, Havran W. Functions of skin-resident ?? T cells. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2011;68:2399-408 pubmed publisher
    ..of inflammatory molecules which participate in the communication between DETC, neighboring keratinocytes and langerhans cells. Chemokines produced by DETC may recruit inflammatory cells to the epidermis...
  76. Teunissen M, Haniffa M, Collin M. Insight into the immunobiology of human skin and functional specialization of skin dendritic cell subsets to innovate intradermal vaccination design. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2012;351:25-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This knowledge is critical for the development of intradermal vaccine strategies and supports the concept of intradermal vaccination as a superior route to the conventional intramuscular or subcutaneous methods...
  77. Modi B, Neustadter J, Binda E, Lewis J, Filler R, Roberts S, et al. Langerhans cells facilitate epithelial DNA damage and squamous cell carcinoma. Science. 2012;335:104-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice lacking Langerhans cells (LCs), a signatory epidermal dendritic cell (DC), are protected from cutaneous chemical carcinogenesis, ..
  78. Hoeffel G, Wang Y, Greter M, See P, Teo P, Malleret B, et al. Adult Langerhans cells derive predominantly from embryonic fetal liver monocytes with a minor contribution of yolk sac-derived macrophages. J Exp Med. 2012;209:1167-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Langerhans cells (LCs) are the dendritic cells (DCs) of the epidermis, forming one of the first hematopoietic lines of defense against skin pathogens...
  79. Bobr A, Igyarto B, Haley K, Li M, Flavell R, Kaplan D. Autocrine/paracrine TGF-?1 inhibits Langerhans cell migration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:10492-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Langerhans cells (LCs) are skin-resident dendritic cells (DC) located in the epidermis that migrate to skin-draining lymph nodes during the steady state and in response to inflammatory stimuli...
  80. Furio L, Briotet I, Journeaux A, Billard H, Peguet Navarro J. Human langerhans cells are more efficient than CD14(-)CD1c(+) dermal dendritic cells at priming naive CD4(+) T cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:1345-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we analyzed the relative capacity of Langerhans cells (LCs) and dermal CD14(-)CD1c(+) DCs (DDCs) to trigger naive CD4(+) T-cell proliferation and differentiation...
  81. Tran J, Pupovac A, Taylor R, Wiley J, Byrne S, Sluyter R. Murine epidermal Langerhans cells and keratinocytes express functional P2X7 receptors. Exp Dermatol. 2010;19:e151-7 pubmed publisher
    ..P2X(7) was detected in whole epidermal cell preparations, and specifically on Langerhans cells (LCs) and keratinocytes (KCs)...
  82. Ginhoux F, Merad M. Ontogeny and homeostasis of Langerhans cells. Immunol Cell Biol. 2010;88:387-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Langerhans cells (LCs) refer to the dendritic cells (DCs) that populate the epidermis...
  83. Yoshiki R, Kabashima K, Sakabe J, Sugita K, Bito T, Nakamura M, et al. The mandatory role of IL-10-producing and OX40 ligand-expressing mature Langerhans cells in local UVB-induced immunosuppression. J Immunol. 2010;184:5670-7 pubmed publisher
    ..number of cells and factors that participate in the sensitization phase-dependent suppression, including Langerhans cells (LCs), regulatory T cells, IL-10, and TNF-alpha...
  84. Hagforsen E, Hedstrand H, Nyberg F, Michaelsson G. Novel findings of Langerhans cells and interleukin-17 expression in relation to the acrosyringium and pustule in palmoplantar pustulosis. Br J Dermatol. 2010;163:572-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To date, no specific treatment is known. Earlier findings indicate the acrosyringium as the target for the inflammation...
  85. Sparber F, Tripp C, Hermann M, Romani N, Stoitzner P. Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells capture protein antigens in the skin: possible targets for vaccination through the skin. Immunobiology. 2010;215:770-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Dendritic cells of the skin, including epidermal Langerhans cells, langerin(+) and langerin(negative) dermal dendritic cells are ideally positioned to take up pathogens that ..
  86. Fukunaga A, Khaskhely N, Ma Y, Sreevidya C, Taguchi K, Nishigori C, et al. Langerhans cells serve as immunoregulatory cells by activating NKT cells. J Immunol. 2010;185:4633-40 pubmed publisher
    Ultraviolet exposure alters the morphology and function of epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs), which play a role in UV-induced immune suppression...
  87. de Jong M, Geijtenbeek T. Langerhans cells in innate defense against pathogens. Trends Immunol. 2010;31:452-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Langerhans cells (LCs) are at the frontline in defense against mucosal infections because they line the mucosal tissues and are ideally situated to intercept pathogens. Recent data suggest that LCs have an innate anti-HIV-1 function...
  88. Ouwehand K, Oosterhoff D, Breetveld M, Scheper R, de Gruijl T, Gibbs S. Irritant-induced migration of Langerhans cells coincides with an IL-10-dependent switch to a macrophage-like phenotype. J Invest Dermatol. 2011;131:418-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Langerhans cells (LCs) migrate after topical exposure of the skin to irritants, despite the supposed independence of irritant contact dermatitis from adaptive immunity...
  89. Dubrac S, Schmuth M, Ebner S. Atopic dermatitis: the role of Langerhans cells in disease pathogenesis. Immunol Cell Biol. 2010;88:400-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we describe findings in mouse models and in humans separately. We focus on recent findings that underscore the importance of Langerhans cells in initial mechanisms of skin inflammation in AD.
  90. Feinberg H, Taylor M, Razi N, McBride R, Knirel Y, Graham S, et al. Structural basis for langerin recognition of diverse pathogen and mammalian glycans through a single binding site. J Mol Biol. 2011;405:1027-39 pubmed publisher
    Langerin mediates the carbohydrate-dependent uptake of pathogens by Langerhans cells in the first step of antigen presentation to the adaptive immune system...
  91. Zhou Z, Barry de Longchamps N, Schmitt A, Zerbib M, Vacher Lavenu M, Bomsel M, et al. HIV-1 efficient entry in inner foreskin is mediated by elevated CCL5/RANTES that recruits T cells and fuels conjugate formation with Langerhans cells. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002100 pubmed publisher
    ..At this early time point, Langerhans cells (LCs) and T-cells within the inner foreskin epidermis are the first cells targeted by the virus...
  92. Casanova Molla J, Morales M, Planas Rigol E, Bosch A, Calvo M, Grau Junyent J, et al. Epidermal Langerhans cells in small fiber neuropathies. Pain. 2012;153:982-9 pubmed publisher
    We quantified the immune histiocytic Langerhans cells (LCs) in skin biopsy samples of patients with distal small fiber neuropathy (SFN)...