immunologic capping


Summary: An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.

Top Publications

  1. Peterson E, Woods M, Dmowski S, Derimanov G, Jordan M, Wu J, et al. Coupling of the TCR to integrin activation by Slap-130/Fyb. Science. 2001;293:2263-5 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that SLAP-130/Fyb is important for coupling TCR-mediated actin cytoskeletal rearrangement with activation of integrin function, and for T cells to respond fully to activating signals. ..
  2. Bromley S, Burack W, Johnson K, Somersalo K, Sims T, Sumen C, et al. The immunological synapse. Annu Rev Immunol. 2001;19:375-96 pubmed
    ..The APC may also play an active role in immunological synapse formation, particularly for activation of naïve T cells. ..
  3. Snapper S, Rosen F, Mizoguchi E, Cohen P, Khan W, Liu C, et al. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-deficient mice reveal a role for WASP in T but not B cell activation. Immunity. 1998;9:81-91 pubmed
    ..We discuss the implications of our findings regarding WASP function in receptor signaling and cytoskeletal reorganization in T and B cells and compare the effects of WASP deficiency in mice and humans. ..
  4. Camussi G, Salvidio G, Biesecker G, Brentjens J, Andres G. Heymann antibodies induce complement-dependent injury of rat glomerular visceral epithelial cells. J Immunol. 1987;139:2906-14 pubmed
    ..The results are consistent with the interpretation that injury induced by Heymann antibodies on GEC is MAC-dependent. ..
  5. Wulfing C, Tskvitaria Fuller I, Burroughs N, Sjaastad M, Klem J, Schatzle J. Interface accumulation of receptor/ligand couples in lymphocyte activation: methods, mechanisms, and significance. Immunol Rev. 2002;189:64-83 pubmed
    ..In the investigation of NK cell/target cell interactions, we characterize the often tentative NK cell/target cell couple maintenance, as it creates a major obstacle in studying receptor/ligand accumulation. ..
  6. Staffler G, Szekeres A, Schütz G, Saemann M, Prager E, Zeyda M, et al. Selective inhibition of T cell activation via CD147 through novel modulation of lipid rafts. J Immunol. 2003;171:1707-14 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that negative regulating signals can modulate microdomains and suggest a general mechanism for inhibition of receptor signaling. ..
  7. Stuermer C, Langhorst M, Wiechers M, Legler D, Von Hanwehr S, Guse A, et al. PrPc capping in T cells promotes its association with the lipid raft proteins reggie-1 and reggie-2 and leads to signal transduction. FASEB J. 2004;18:1731-3 pubmed
  8. Arias Romero L, de Jesús Almaraz Barrera M, Diaz Valencia J, Rojo Dominguez A, Hernandez Rivas R, Vargas M. EhPAK2, a novel p21-activated kinase, is required for collagen invasion and capping in Entamoeba histolytica. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2006;149:17-26 pubmed
  9. Yamanishi Y, Kitaura J, Izawa K, Matsuoka T, Oki T, Lu Y, et al. Analysis of mouse LMIR5/CLM-7 as an activating receptor: differential regulation of LMIR5/CLM-7 in mouse versus human cells. Blood. 2008;111:688-98 pubmed
    ..Collectively, although both mouse and human LMIR5 play activatory roles in innate immunity cells, the functions of LMIR5 were differentially regulated in mouse versus human cells. ..

More Information


  1. Sonderegger P, Kunz S, Rader C, Suter D, Stoeckli E. Analysis of cell-cell contact mediated by Ig superfamily cell adhesion molecules. Curr Protoc Cell Biol. 2001;Chapter 9:Unit 9.5 pubmed publisher
    ..These protocols have been developed for neural cell adhesion molecules of the Ig superfamily. However, most of the protocols allow a more general application to other categories of adhesion molecules and non-neural cells. ..
  2. Ley S, Marsh M, Bebbington C, Proudfoot K, Jordan P. Distinct intracellular localization of Lck and Fyn protein tyrosine kinases in human T lymphocytes. J Cell Biol. 1994;125:639-49 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the distribution of fyn in mitotic cells raises the possibility that it functions at the M phase of the cell cycle. ..
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    ..Since both CD59 and gp120 bind complement, the observed association could be mediated by complement components. ..
  4. Sitrin R, Pan P, Harper H, Blackwood R, Todd R. Urokinase receptor (CD87) aggregation triggers phosphoinositide hydrolysis and intracellular calcium mobilization in mononuclear phagocytes. J Immunol. 1999;163:6193-200 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that uPAR aggregation initiates phosphoinositide hydrolysis by mechanisms that are not strictly dependent on associated uPA or CR3. ..
  5. Hagaman D, Okayama Y, D Ambrosio C, Prussin C, Gilfillan A, Metcalfe D. Secretion of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist from human mast cells after immunoglobulin E-mediated activation and after segmental antigen challenge. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2001;25:685-91 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that huMCs produce and release IL-1ra after Fcalpha RI aggregation, which may contribute to a local inhibition of IL-1-dependent effects on inflammation in the lung. ..
  6. Montoya M, Sancho D, Bonello G, Collette Y, Langlet C, He H, et al. Role of ICAM-3 in the initial interaction of T lymphocytes and APCs. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:159-68 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that ICAM-3 is important in the initial scanning of the APC surface by T cells and, therefore, in generating the immune response. ..
  7. Liang H, Reich C, Pisetsky D, Lipsky P. The role of surface ig binding in the activation of human B cells by phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides. Scand J Immunol. 2001;54:551-63 pubmed
    ..Together, these results indicate that sODNs engage surface Ig by charge-charge interactions that lead to activation of human B cells. ..
  8. Kim D, Huey D, Oglesbee M, Niewiesk S. Insights into the regulatory mechanism controlling the inhibition of vaccine-induced seroconversion by maternal antibodies. Blood. 2011;117:6143-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that maternal antibodies inhibit B-cell responses by interaction with the inhibitory/regulatory Fc?RIIB receptor and not through epitope masking. ..
  9. Kanderová V, Hrusak O, Kalina T. Aberrantly expressed CEACAM6 is involved in the signaling leading to apoptosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Exp Hematol. 2010;38:653-660.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study is the first to demonstrate the functional consequences of CEACAM6 cross-linking in B-cell precursor ALL cells. ..
  10. Craxton A, Chuang P, Shu G, Harlan J, Clark E. The CD40-inducible Bcl-2 family member A1 protects B cells from antigen receptor-mediated apoptosis. Cell Immunol. 2000;200:56-62 pubmed
    ..Moreover, overexpression of A1 specifically protected WEHI-231 cells from anti-IgM-induced apoptosis but not cell death triggered by certain other stimuli. ..
  11. Marwali M, Rey Ladino J, Dreolini L, Shaw D, Takei F. Membrane cholesterol regulates LFA-1 function and lipid raft heterogeneity. Blood. 2003;102:215-22 pubmed
    ..This association seems to regulate LFA-1 functions, possibly by facilitating LFA-1 clustering. ..
  12. Brenzovich J, Macey M, Fernando J, Chong H, Barnstein B, Mirmonsef P, et al. IgE signaling suppresses FcepsilonRIbeta expression. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;86:1351-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of IgE and FcepsilonRI signaling to coordinate expression of the beta and beta(T) subunits may comprise a homeostatic feedback loop-one that could promote chronic inflammation and allergic disease if dysregulated. ..
  13. Trapani J, Vaughan H, Sparrow R, Tait B, McKenzie I. Description of a mouse monoclonal anti-HLA-B27 antibody HLA-ABC-m3. Hum Immunol. 1983;7:205-16 pubmed
    ..In addition, HLA-ABC-m3 reactivity segregated with HLA-B27 in two families. This monoclonal antibody should be of value in the investigation of the role of HLA-B27 in disease. ..
  14. Huby R, Dearman R, Kimber I. Intracellular phosphotyrosine induction by major histocompatibility complex class II requires co-aggregation with membrane rafts. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:22591-6 pubmed
    ..Together, these results show that the induced association of class II molecules with membrane rafts can contribute to their aggregation on the cell surface and mediate an association with intracellular protein-tyrosine kinases. ..
  15. Rubinstein E, Le Naour F, Billard M, Prenant M, Boucheix C. CD9 antigen is an accessory subunit of the VLA integrin complexes. Eur J Immunol. 1994;24:3005-13 pubmed
    ..Because the aggregating effect, but not the inhibition of migration, is observed in CEM or CD9-transfected CEM cells, these two effects are likely to be mediated by different mechanisms. ..
  16. Bretscher M. Getting membrane flow and the cytoskeleton to cooperate in moving cells. Cell. 1996;87:601-6 pubmed
  17. Chung J, Serezani C, Huang S, Stern J, Keskin D, Jagirdar R, et al. Rap1 activation is required for Fc gamma receptor-dependent phagocytosis. J Immunol. 2008;181:5501-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data demonstrate a novel role for Rap1 and its exchange factor C3G in mediating Fc gammaR-dependent phagocytosis. ..
  18. Dustin M. A dynamic view of the immunological synapse. Semin Immunol. 2005;17:400-10 pubmed
    ..IS and HS operate in different stages of T cell priming. Optimal effector functions may also depend upon cyclical use of IS and HS. ..
  19. Lund F, Muller Steffner H, Romero Ramirez H, Moreno Garcia M, Partida Sanchez S, Makris M, et al. CD38 induces apoptosis of a murine pro-B leukemic cell line by a tyrosine kinase-dependent but ADP-ribosyl cyclase- and NAD glycohydrolase-independent mechanism. Int Immunol. 2006;18:1029-42 pubmed
    ..Thus, the receptor-mediated functions of CD38 can be separated from its enzyme activity in a murine leukemic cell line, suggesting that CD38 plays multiple, but independent, biologic roles. ..
  20. Lee D, King M. Shear-induced capping of L-selectin on the neutrophil surface during centrifugation. J Immunol Methods. 2007;328:97-105 pubmed
  21. Yasuda M, Tanaka Y, Fujii K, Yasumoto K. CD44 stimulation down-regulates Fas expression and Fas-mediated apoptosis of lung cancer cells. Int Immunol. 2001;13:1309-19 pubmed
    ..This leads to reduced susceptibility of the cells to CTL-mediated cytotoxicity through the Fas-Fas ligand pathway. ..
  22. Inabe K, Kurosaki T. Tyrosine phosphorylation of B-cell adaptor for phosphoinositide 3-kinase is required for Akt activation in response to CD19 engagement. Blood. 2002;99:584-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, these results provide evidence that BCAP serves as an adaptor molecule for CD19 to activate the PI3K pathway in B cells. ..
  23. Van Komen J, Mishra S, Byrum J, Chichili G, Yaciuk J, Farris A, et al. Early and dynamic polarization of T cell membrane rafts and constituents prior to TCR stop signals. J Immunol. 2007;179:6845-55 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these data show that membrane raft capping is one of the earliest events in T cell activation and represents one avenue for promoting and regulating downstream peptide-MHC-dependent signaling within the T cell. ..
  24. Wulfing C, Sumen C, Sjaastad M, Wu L, Dustin M, Davis M. Costimulation and endogenous MHC ligands contribute to T cell recognition. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:42-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, low-affinity ligands can contribute to synapse formation and T cell signaling. ..
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    ..The number of B cells did not correlate with disease status or paraprotein concentration. We found no evidence to support the idea that B lymphocytes in patients include a substantial monoclonal subset. ..
  26. Davis D, Chiu I, Fassett M, Cohen G, Mandelboim O, Strominger J. The human natural killer cell immune synapse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:15062-7 pubmed
    ..Clearly, supramolecular organization within plasma membranes is critical for NK cell immunosurveillance. ..
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    ..In B cells the association of TAPA-1 with CD19 and HLA-DR may increase cellular interaction and play a supporting role in the transmission of specific signals. ..
  29. Tanguay D, Chiles T. Regulation of the catalytic subunit (p34PSK-J3/cdk4) for the major D-type cyclin in mature B lymphocytes. J Immunol. 1996;156:539-48 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest a role for these proteins during the mid to late G1 phase progression and possibly the G1/S phase transition in primary mature B lymphocytes. ..
  30. Kupfer A, Burn P, Singer S. The PMA-induced specific association of LFA-1 and talin in intact cloned T helper cells. J Mol Cell Immunol. 1990;4:317-25 pubmed
    ..The relevance of these findings with isolated Th cells to the interaction of Th cells with specific antigen-presenting cells is discussed. ..
  31. Melhorn M, Brodsky A, Estanislau J, Khoory J, Illigens B, Hamachi I, et al. CR1-mediated ATP release by human red blood cells promotes CR1 clustering and modulates the immune transfer process. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:31139-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we have found that RBC-derived ATP has a stimulatory effect on phagocytosis of immune-adherent immune complexes. ..
  32. Turner C, Shotton D. Isolation and initial biochemical characterisation of caps of two major rat thymocyte glycoproteins: evidence for the involvement of a 205 K Con A binding protein and cytoskeletal components in capping. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1987;8:37-43 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that gp205 may be involved in the association of cross-linked glycoproteins with the cytoskeleton during capping. ..
  33. Apgar J. Activation of protein kinase C in rat basophilic leukemia cells stimulates increased production of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate: correlation with actin polymerization. Mol Biol Cell. 1995;6:97-108 pubmed
  34. Veler H, Hu A, Fatma S, Grunstein J, DeStephan C, Campbell D, et al. Superantigen presentation by airway smooth muscle to CD4+ T lymphocytes elicits reciprocal proasthmatic changes in airway function. J Immunol. 2007;178:3627-36 pubmed
  35. Romano E, Montaño R, Brito B, Apitz R, Alonso J, Romano M, et al. Effects of Ajoene on lymphocyte and macrophage membrane-dependent functions. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1997;19:15-36 pubmed
    ..Ajoene also partially prevented the lytic effect of human and rabbit TNF on Actinomycin D-treated WEHI 164 cells. These results strongly suggest that Ajoene is a potent modulator of membrane-dependent functions of immune cells. ..
  36. Lorentz A, Bischoff S. Regulation of human intestinal mast cells by stem cell factor and IL-4. Immunol Rev. 2001;179:57-60 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, SCF may primarily regulate resident mast cell survival, whereas IL-4 may promote local proliferation of mast cells and their expression of Th2-type cytokines. ..
  37. Pan C, Baumgarth N, Parnes J. CD72-deficient mice reveal nonredundant roles of CD72 in B cell development and activation. Immunity. 1999;11:495-506 pubmed
    ..In addition, CD72 is a negative regulator of B cell activation, as CD72-/- B cells were hyperproliferative in response to various stimuli and showed enhanced kinetics in their intracellular Ca2+ response following IgM cross-linking. ..
  38. Dastych J, Wyczółkowska J, Metcalfe D. Characterization of alpha 5-integrin-dependent mast cell adhesion following Fc epsilon RI aggregation. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2001;125:152-9 pubmed
    ..Fc epsilon RI-derived signals engage PKC and upregulate mast cell adhesion in a process which might involve changes in integrin avidity rather than integrin expression. ..
  39. Sasaki Y, Kurosaki T. Immobile BCRs: the safety on the signal trigger. Immunity. 2010;32:143-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In this issue of Immunity, Treanor et al. (2010) show that triggering of downstream responses is kept in check with BCR immobilization by actin. ..
  40. Bengtsson A, Scheynius A, Avila Carino J. Crosslinking of CD30 on activated human Th clones enhances their cytokine production and downregulates the CD30 expression. Scand J Immunol. 2000;52:595-601 pubmed
    ..The enhanced cytokine production after CD30 crosslinking supports the presumption of CD30 functions as a positive regulator in activated T cells. ..
  41. Fattakhova G, Masilamani M, Narayanan S, Borrego F, Gilfillan A, Metcalfe D, et al. Endosomal trafficking of the ligated FcvarepsilonRI receptor. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:793-802 pubmed publisher
  42. Wortis H, Teutsch M, Higer M, Zheng J, Parker D. B-cell activation by crosslinking of surface IgM or ligation of CD40 involves alternative signal pathways and results in different B-cell phenotypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:3348-52 pubmed
    ..In response to different intracellular signals these cells are induced to enter alternative differentiation pathways. ..
  43. McCall Culbreath K, Li Z, Zutter M. Crosstalk between the alpha2beta1 integrin and c-met/HGF-R regulates innate immunity. Blood. 2008;111:3562-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that crosstalk between c-met and the alpha2beta1 integrin may contribute to mast-cell activation in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. ..
  44. Dahl S, Geib R, Fox M, Edidin M, Branton D. Rapid capping in alpha-spectrin-deficient MEL cells from mice afflicted with hereditary hemolytic anemia. J Cell Biol. 1994;125:1057-65 pubmed
    ..The data support the idea that spectrin plays an important role in organizing membrane structure and limiting the lateral mobility of integral membrane glycoproteins in cells other than mature erythrocytes. ..
  45. Olsson M, Oldenborg P. CD47 on experimentally senescent murine RBCs inhibits phagocytosis following Fcgamma receptor-mediated but not scavenger receptor-mediated recognition by macrophages. Blood. 2008;112:4259-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that based on the specific prophagocytic receptors mediating uptake of senescent RBCs, the phagocytosis-inhibitory role of CD47 may be more or less involved. ..
  46. Kuttruff S, Koch S, Kelp A, Pawelec G, Rammensee H, Steinle A. NKp80 defines and stimulates a reactive subset of CD8 T cells. Blood. 2009;113:358-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, NKp80 may enable effector memory CD8 T cells to interact functionally with cells of myeloid origin at sites of inflammation. ..
  47. Swindle E, Coleman J, Deleo F, Metcalfe D. FcepsilonRI- and Fcgamma receptor-mediated production of reactive oxygen species by mast cells is lipoxygenase- and cyclooxygenase-dependent and NADPH oxidase-independent. J Immunol. 2007;179:7059-71 pubmed
  48. de Totero D, Meazza R, Capaia M, Fabbi M, Azzarone B, Balleari E, et al. The opposite effects of IL-15 and IL-21 on CLL B cells correlate with differential activation of the JAK/STAT and ERK1/2 pathways. Blood. 2008;111:517-24 pubmed
    ..The knowledge of the signaling pathways regulating CLL cell survival and proliferation may provide new molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. ..
  49. Smith L, Petty H, Parham P, McConnell H. Cell surface properties of HLA antigens on Epstein-Barr virus-transformed cell lines. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982;79:608-12 pubmed
    ..06 antibody and a second-step rhodamine-conjugated rabbit anti-arsanilate antibody. This is consistent with recent biochemical evidence that there are multiple distinct antigens coded for by the HLA-DR region. ..
  50. Berland R, Fiering S, Wortis H. A conserved enhancer element differentially regulates developmental expression of CD5 in B and T cells. J Immunol. 2010;185:7537-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this enhancer provides age- and tissue-specific regulation of CD5 expression and is an example of the utilization of different modes of regulation of expression in T and B cells. ..
  51. Bewarder N, Weinrich V, Budde P, Hartmann D, Flaswinkel H, Reth M, et al. In vivo and in vitro specificity of protein tyrosine kinases for immunoglobulin G receptor (FcgammaRII) phosphorylation. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:4735-43 pubmed
    ..Comparison of the phosphorylation pattern of each PTK observed in vitro with the phosphorylation pattern observed in vivo suggests that Lyn is the most likely candidate for FcgammaRIIa/c and FcgammaRIIb1 phosphorylation in vivo. ..
  52. Ohashi Y, Tachibana K, Kamiguchi K, Fujita H, Morimoto C. T cell receptor-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of Cas-L, a 105-kDa Crk-associated substrate-related protein, and its association of Crk and C3G. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:6446-51 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the present study indicates a novel signaling pathway mediated by tyrosine-phosphorylated Cas-L upon the TCR/CD3 stimulation. ..