Summary: The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.

Top Publications

  1. Kruth H. Fluid-phase pinocytosis of LDL by macrophages: a novel target to reduce macrophage cholesterol accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions. Curr Pharm Des. 2013;19:5865-72 pubmed
    ..macrophages show receptor-independent uptake of unmodified native LDL that is mediated by fluid-phase pinocytosis. In receptor-independent, fluid-phase pinocytosis, macrophages take up LDL as part of the fluid that they ..
  2. Frecha C, Levy C, Costa C, Negre D, Amirache F, Buckland R, et al. Measles virus glycoprotein-pseudotyped lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer into quiescent lymphocytes requires binding to both SLAM and CD46 entry receptors. J Virol. 2011;85:5975-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that although vector entry can occur through the CD46 receptor, SLAM binding and subsequent signaling are also required for efficient LV transduction of quiescent lymphocytes to occur. ..
  3. García Pérez B, Mondragón Flores R, Luna Herrera J. Internalization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by macropinocytosis in non-phagocytic cells. Microb Pathog. 2003;35:49-55 pubmed
  4. Amstutz B, Gastaldelli M, Kälin S, Imelli N, Boucke K, Wandeler E, et al. Subversion of CtBP1-controlled macropinocytosis by human adenovirus serotype 3. EMBO J. 2008;27:956-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The data show that viruses induce macropinocytosis for infectious entry, a pathway used in antigen presentation and cell migration...
  5. García Pérez B, Hernández González J, Garcia Nieto S, Luna Herrera J. Internalization of a non-pathogenic mycobacteria by macropinocytosis in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells. Microb Pathog. 2008;45:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that induction of macropinocytosis and cell invasion is not an exclusive feature of pathogenic organisms. ..
  6. Mercer J, Helenius A. Apoptotic mimicry: phosphatidylserine-mediated macropinocytosis of vaccinia virus. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1209:49-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphatidylserine in the virus membrane is required to trigger the signaling, blebbing, and macropinocytic event, suggesting that the vaccinia virus uses an entry mechanism based on mimicry of apoptotic bodies. ..
  7. Mattei F, Schiavoni G, Borghi P, Venditti M, Canini I, Sestili P, et al. ICSBP/IRF-8 differentially regulates antigen uptake during dendritic-cell development and affects antigen presentation to CD4+ T cells. Blood. 2006;108:609-17 pubmed
    ..Together, these results indicate that, throughout the developmental program of DCs, ICSBP differentially controls Ag uptake and MHC class II (MHC-II) presentation affecting both functions only in differentiated peripheral DCs. ..
  8. Norbury C. Drinking a lot is good for dendritic cells. Immunology. 2006;117:443-51 pubmed
    ..In addition, we put these data into the context of immune surveillance in vivo. ..
  9. Shu S, Liu X, Korn E. Blebbistatin and blebbistatin-inactivated myosin II inhibit myosin II-independent processes in Dictyostelium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1472-7 pubmed

More Information


  1. Mulherkar N, Raaben M, de la Torre J, Whelan S, Chandran K. The Ebola virus glycoprotein mediates entry via a non-classical dynamin-dependent macropinocytic pathway. Virology. 2011;419:72-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide evidence that EBOV uses an atypical dynamin-dependent macropinocytosis-like entry pathway to enter Vero cells, adherent human peripheral blood-derived monocytes, and a mouse dendritic cell line. ..
  2. Hunt C, Kolokoltsov A, Davey R, Maury W. The Tyro3 receptor kinase Axl enhances macropinocytosis of Zaire ebolavirus. J Virol. 2011;85:334-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate for the first time that Axl enhances macropinocytosis, thereby increasing productive ZEBOV entry. ..
  3. de Vries E, Tscherne D, Wienholts M, Cobos Jiménez V, Scholte F, Garcia Sastre A, et al. Dissection of the influenza A virus endocytic routes reveals macropinocytosis as an alternative entry pathway. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1001329 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to the classical dynamin-dependent, clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway, IAV enters host cells by a dynamin-independent route that has all the characteristics of macropinocytosis. ..
  4. Nanbo A, Imai M, Watanabe S, Noda T, Takahashi K, Neumann G, et al. Ebolavirus is internalized into host cells via macropinocytosis in a viral glycoprotein-dependent manner. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001121 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide new insights into the lifecycle of Ebolavirus and may aid in the development of therapeutics for Ebolavirus infection. ..
  5. Swanson J. Shaping cups into phagosomes and macropinosomes. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2008;9:639-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies, focusing on the physical properties of forming cups, indicate that a feedback mechanism regulates the signal transduction of phagocytosis and macropinocytosis. ..
  6. Ghigo E, Kartenbeck J, Lien P, Pelkmans L, Capo C, Mege J, et al. Ameobal pathogen mimivirus infects macrophages through phagocytosis. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000087 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our data demonstrated that APMV enters macrophages through phagocytosis, a new pathway for virus entry in cells. This reinforces the paradigm that intra-amoebal pathogens have the potential to infect macrophages...
  7. Bohdanowicz M, Grinstein S. Role of phospholipids in endocytosis, phagocytosis, and macropinocytosis. Physiol Rev. 2013;93:69-106 pubmed publisher
    ..This is followed by a detailed analysis of the critical functions of phospholipids in the internalization processes and in the maturation of the resulting vesicles and vacuoles as they progress along the endo-lysosomal pathway...
  8. Hoeller O, Bolourani P, Clark J, Stephens L, Hawkins P, Weiner O, et al. Two distinct functions for PI3-kinases in macropinocytosis. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:4296-307 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the fundamental function of PI3-kinases in growing Dictyostelium cells is in macropinocytosis where they have two distinct functions, supported by at least two separate Ras proteins. ..
  9. Jones A. Macropinocytosis: searching for an endocytic identity and role in the uptake of cell penetrating peptides. J Cell Mol Med. 2007;11:670-84 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on recent findings on the regulation of macropinocytosis, the intracellular fate of the macropinosome and discusses evidence for the role of this pathway as a mechanism of entry for cell penetrating peptides. ..
  10. Hybiske K, Stephens R. Mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis entry into nonphagocytic cells. Infect Immun. 2007;75:3925-34 pubmed
    ..Thus, clathrin and its coordinate accessory factors were required for entry of C. trachomatis, although additional, uncharacterized mechanisms are also utilized. ..
  11. Araki N, Egami Y, Watanabe Y, Hatae T. Phosphoinositide metabolism during membrane ruffling and macropinosome formation in EGF-stimulated A431 cells. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:1496-507 pubmed
    ..This study emphasizes that locally controlled levels of phosphoinositides are important for regulating the function of actin-binding proteins which effect changes in the membrane architecture. ..
  12. Li Y, Tabas I. The inflammatory cytokine response of cholesterol-enriched macrophages is dampened by stimulated pinocytosis. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;81:483-91 pubmed
    ..The FCMphis contribute directly to this process by secreting pinocytosis-stimulatory factors that act on non-FCMphis but not on the FCMphis themselves...
  13. Khalil I, Kogure K, Futaki S, Harashima H. High density of octaarginine stimulates macropinocytosis leading to efficient intracellular trafficking for gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:3544-51 pubmed
    ..These results show that the density of the R8 peptide on liposomes determines the uptake mechanism and that this is directly linked to intracellular trafficking, resulting in different levels of gene expression. ..
  14. Chia C, Gomathinayagam S, Schmaltz R, Smoyer L. Glycoprotein gp130 of dictyostelium discoideum influences macropinocytosis and adhesion. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:2681-93 pubmed publisher
    ..They also exhibited weaker cell-substrate adhesion but displayed greater cell-cell cohesion. Collectively, the data indicated that gp130 influenced macropinocytosis and played a role in adhesion during vegetative growth...
  15. Buono C, Anzinger J, Amar M, Kruth H. Fluorescent pegylated nanoparticles demonstrate fluid-phase pinocytosis by macrophages in mouse atherosclerotic lesions. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:1373-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Cultured monocyte-derived macrophages take up large amounts of native LDL by receptor-independent fluid-phase pinocytosis, either constitutively or in response to specific activating stimuli, depending on the macrophage phenotype...
  16. Yoshida S, Hoppe A, Araki N, Swanson J. Sequential signaling in plasma-membrane domains during macropinosome formation in macrophages. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:3250-61 pubmed publisher
  17. Moser T, Jones R, Thompson C, Coyne C, Cherry S. A kinome RNAi screen identified AMPK as promoting poxvirus entry through the control of actin dynamics. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000954 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, AMPK plays a highly conserved role in poxvirus infection and actin dynamics independent of its role as an energy regulator. ..
  18. Pertz O, Hodgson L, Klemke R, Hahn K. Spatiotemporal dynamics of RhoA activity in migrating cells. Nature. 2006;440:1069-72 pubmed
    ..Our data therefore show that different extracellular cues induce distinct patterns of RhoA signalling during membrane protrusion. ..
  19. Imamura J, Suzuki Y, Gonda K, Roy C, Gatanaga H, Ohuchi N, et al. Single particle tracking confirms that multivalent Tat protein transduction domain-induced heparan sulfate proteoglycan cross-linkage activates Rac1 for internalization. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:10581-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This work should guide the future design of TatP-based peptides as therapeutic nanocarriers with efficient transduction. ..
  20. Cao H, Chen J, Awoniyi M, Henley J, McNiven M. Dynamin 2 mediates fluid-phase micropinocytosis in epithelial cells. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:4167-77 pubmed
  21. McLaren J, Michael D, Guschina I, Harwood J, Ramji D. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid regulate modified LDL uptake and macropinocytosis in human macrophages. Lipids. 2011;46:1053-61 pubmed publisher
  22. Kruth H. Receptor-independent fluid-phase pinocytosis mechanisms for induction of foam cell formation with native low-density lipoprotein particles. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2011;22:386-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Macrophages that show high rates of fluid-phase pinocytosis also show similar high rates of uptake of native unmodified LDL through nonreceptor mediated uptake within both ..
  23. Bryant D, Kerr M, Hammond L, Joseph S, Mostov K, Teasdale R, et al. EGF induces macropinocytosis and SNX1-modulated recycling of E-cadherin. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:1818-28 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings demonstrate a role for SNX1 in retrieval of E-cadherin from a degradative endosomal pathway and in membrane trafficking pathways that regulate E-cadherin recycling. ..
  24. Bokko P, Francione L, Bandala Sanchez E, Ahmed A, Annesley S, Huang X, et al. Diverse cytopathologies in mitochondrial disease are caused by AMP-activated protein kinase signaling. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:1874-86 pubmed
    ..The results show that diverse cytopathologies in Dictyostelium mitochondrial disease are caused by chronic AMPK signaling not by insufficient ATP. ..
  25. Al Soraj M, He L, Peynshaert K, Cousaert J, Vercauteren D, Braeckmans K, et al. siRNA and pharmacological inhibition of endocytic pathways to characterize the differential role of macropinocytosis and the actin cytoskeleton on cellular uptake of dextran and cationic cell penetrating peptides octaarginine (R8) and HIV-Tat. J Control Release. 2012;161:132-41 pubmed publisher
  26. Schmidt F, Bleck C, Helenius A, Mercer J. Vaccinia extracellular virions enter cells by macropinocytosis and acid-activated membrane rupture. EMBO J. 2011;30:3647-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Once exposed, the underlying MV-like particle presumably fused its single membrane with the limiting vacuolar membrane. Release of the viral core into the host cell cytosol allowed for productive infection. ..
  27. Fumoto S, Nishi J, Ishii H, Wang X, Miyamoto H, Yoshikawa N, et al. Rac-mediated macropinocytosis is a critical route for naked plasmid DNA transfer in mice. Mol Pharm. 2009;6:1170-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, it was demonstrated that the Rac signaling pathway regulated the macropinocytosis of naked pDNA. The information in this study would be helpful to clarify in vivo cell functions and to improve in vivo transfection efficiency. ..
  28. Kunita R, Otomo A, Mizumura H, Suzuki Utsunomiya K, Hadano S, Ikeda J. The Rab5 activator ALS2/alsin acts as a novel Rac1 effector through Rac1-activated endocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:16599-611 pubmed
    ..All together, loss of ALS2 may perturb macropinocytosis and/or the following membrane trafficking, which gives rise to neuronal dysfunction in the ALS2-linked motor neuron diseases. ..
  29. Ragnarsson E, Schoultz I, Gullberg E, Carlsson A, Tafazoli F, Lerm M, et al. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis induces transcytosis of nanoparticles across human intestinal villus epithelium via invasin-dependent macropinocytosis. Lab Invest. 2008;88:1215-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that bacterial factors may initiate transcytosis of luminal exogenous particles across human ileal mucosa, thus presenting a novel mechanism of intestinal barrier dysfunction. ..
  30. Malyukova I, Murray K, Zhu C, Boedeker E, Kane A, Patterson K, et al. Macropinocytosis in Shiga toxin 1 uptake by human intestinal epithelial cells and transcellular transcytosis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;296:G78-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations provide new insights into the understanding of Shiga toxin contribution to enterohemorrhagic E. coli-related intestinal and systemic diseases. ..
  31. Fretz M, Jin J, Conibere R, Penning N, Al Taei S, Storm G, et al. Effects of Na+/H+ exchanger inhibitors on subcellular localisation of endocytic organelles and intracellular dynamics of protein transduction domains HIV-TAT peptide and octaarginine. J Control Release. 2006;116:247-54 pubmed
    ..At levels previously shown to inhibit uptake of HIV-TAT peptide and octaarginine in other cell lines, EIPA was without major effect on uptake of both peptides in KG1a cells. ..
  32. Ivanov A. Pharmacological inhibition of endocytic pathways: is it specific enough to be useful?. Methods Mol Biol. 2008;440:15-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The most and the least-selective inhibitors of each major endocytic pathway are highlighted. ..
  33. Washington R, Knecht D. Actin binding domains direct actin-binding proteins to different cytoskeletal locations. BMC Cell Biol. 2008;9:10 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that different actin binding domains have different affinities for F-actin filaments in functionally distinct regions of the cytoskeleton. ..
  34. Porat Shliom N, Kloog Y, Donaldson J. A unique platform for H-Ras signaling involving clathrin-independent endocytosis. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:765-75 pubmed
    ..Arf6 stimulation of macropinocytosis also involves passage through the distinct lipid phases, but recruitment of Akt is not observed. ..
  35. Kee S, Cho E, Song J, Park K, Baek L, Song K. Effects of endocytosis inhibitory drugs on rubella virus entry into VeroE6 cells. Microbiol Immunol. 2004;48:823-9 pubmed
    ..Considering that macropinocytosis is inducible endocytosis by cellular stimulations, clathrin-mediated endocytosis is likely to be a major route of RV infectious entry...
  36. Chang M, Chou J, Chen C, Liu B, Lee H. Noncovalent protein transduction in plant cells by macropinocytosis. New Phytol. 2007;174:46-56 pubmed
    ..This should be of broad utility for functional enzyme assays and protein therapies in both plant biology research as well as biomedical applications. ..
  37. Kaplan I, Wadia J, Dowdy S. Cationic TAT peptide transduction domain enters cells by macropinocytosis. J Control Release. 2005;102:247-53 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these observations provide a solid scientific basis for the development of novel biologically active transducible anticancer PTD peptide therapeutics. ..
  38. Krysko D, Denecker G, Festjens N, Gabriels S, Parthoens E, D Herde K, et al. Macrophages use different internalization mechanisms to clear apoptotic and necrotic cells. Cell Death Differ. 2006;13:2011-22 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that apoptotic and necrotic cells are internalized differently by macrophages. ..
  39. Buono C, Li Y, Waldo S, Kruth H. Liver X receptors inhibit human monocyte-derived macrophage foam cell formation by inhibiting fluid-phase pinocytosis of LDL. J Lipid Res. 2007;48:2411-8 pubmed
    ..factor (M-CSF) constitutively take up large amounts of native LDL by receptor-independent, fluid-phase pinocytosis. In the research reported here, human monocytes were differentiated to macrophages in the presence of M-CSF ..
  40. Mercanti V, Charette S, Bennett N, Ryckewaert J, Letourneur F, Cosson P. Selective membrane exclusion in phagocytic and macropinocytic cups. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:4079-87 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest the existence of a new, as yet uncharacterized, sorting mechanism in phagocytic and macropinocytic cups. ..
  41. Mettlen M, Platek A, Van Der Smissen P, Carpentier S, Amyere M, Lanzetti L, et al. Src triggers circular ruffling and macropinocytosis at the apical surface of polarized MDCK cells. Traffic. 2006;7:589-603 pubmed
    ..induced cortactin-associated apical circular ruffles productive of macropinosomes, thereby accelerating apical pinocytosis by approximately fivefold...
  42. Kasahara K, Nakayama Y, Sato I, Ikeda K, Hoshino M, Endo T, et al. Role of Src-family kinases in formation and trafficking of macropinosomes. J Cell Physiol. 2007;211:220-32 pubmed
    ..We conclude that kinase activity of nonpalmitoylated Src kinases including c-Src may play an important role in the biogenesis and trafficking of macropinosomes. ..
  43. Laughlin R, McGugan G, Powell R, Welter B, Temesvari L. Involvement of raft-like plasma membrane domains of Entamoeba histolytica in pinocytosis and adhesion. Infect Immun. 2004;72:5349-57 pubmed
    ..and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin resulted in the inhibition of several important virulence functions, fluid-phase pinocytosis, and adhesion to host cell monolayers...
  44. Kruth H, Jones N, Huang W, Zhao B, Ishii I, Chang J, et al. Macropinocytosis is the endocytic pathway that mediates macrophage foam cell formation with native low density lipoprotein. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:2352-60 pubmed
    ..Macropinocytosis in macrophages and possibly other vascular cells is a new pathway to target for modulating foam cell formation in atherosclerosis. ..
  45. Mercer J, Knébel S, Schmidt F, Crouse J, Burkard C, Helenius A. Vaccinia virus strains use distinct forms of macropinocytosis for host-cell entry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:9346-51 pubmed publisher
  46. Fan T, Chang H, Chen I, Wang H, Chang M. A heparan sulfate-facilitated and raft-dependent macropinocytosis of eosinophil cationic protein. Traffic. 2007;8:1778-95 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results define the early events of ECP internalization and may have implications for novel therapeutic design for ECP-associated diseases. ..
  47. Münch C, O BRIEN J, Bertolotti A. Prion-like propagation of mutant superoxide dismutase-1 misfolding in neuronal cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:3548-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals that SOD1 aggregates, propagate in a prion-like manner in neuronal cells and sheds light on the mechanisms underlying aggregate uptake and cell-to-cell transfer. ..
  48. Nishimura S, Takahashi S, Kamikatahira H, Kuroki Y, Jaalouk D, O Brien S, et al. Combinatorial targeting of the macropinocytotic pathway in leukemia and lymphoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:11752-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the targeting peptide CAYHRLRRC is selectively internalized through macropinocytosis in leukemia and lymphoma cells and has potential as a drug lead for ligand-directed anti-leukemia therapies. ..
  49. Kerr M, Lindsay M, Luetterforst R, Hamilton N, Simpson F, Parton R, et al. Visualisation of macropinosome maturation by the recruitment of sorting nexins. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:3967-80 pubmed
    ..Collectively these findings provide a detailed real-time characterisation of the maturation process of the macropinocytic endosome. ..
  50. Feliciano W, Yoshida S, Straight S, Swanson J. Coordination of the Rab5 cycle on macropinosomes. Traffic. 2011;12:1911-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of activating and inhibitory proteins indicated that active Rab5a stabilized macropinosomes. Thus, overall Rab5a activity on macropinosomes is coordinated by macropinosome structure and physiology. ..
  51. Koivusalo M, Welch C, Hayashi H, Scott C, Kim M, Alexander T, et al. Amiloride inhibits macropinocytosis by lowering submembranous pH and preventing Rac1 and Cdc42 signaling. J Cell Biol. 2010;188:547-63 pubmed publisher
    ..This sensitivity confers to macropinocytosis its unique susceptibility to inhibitors of Na(+)/H(+) exchange. ..
  52. Jiang J, Kolpak A, Bao Z. Myosin IIB isoform plays an essential role in the formation of two distinct types of macropinosomes. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). 2010;67:32-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Myosin IIA knockdown significantly increased, whereas myosin IIB knockdown significantly decreased, macropinocytosis with correlating changes in membrane ruffle formation. ..
  53. Choi S, Harkewicz R, Lee J, Boullier A, Almazan F, Li A, et al. Lipoprotein accumulation in macrophages via toll-like receptor-4-dependent fluid phase uptake. Circ Res. 2009;104:1355-63 pubmed publisher