cytoplasmic streaming


Summary: The movement of CYTOPLASM within a CELL. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the AMOEBA, it is responsible for the movement (CELL MOVEMENT) of the entire cell.

Top Publications

  1. Shimmen T, Yokota E. Cytoplasmic streaming in plants. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2004;16:68-72 pubmed
    ..However, active movement of organelles (cytoplasmic streaming or protoplasmic streaming) is observed in plant cells, and involvement of the actin/myosin system in these ..
  2. Tominaga M, Yokota E, Vidali L, Sonobe S, Hepler P, Shimmen T. The role of plant villin in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton, cytoplasmic streaming and the architecture of the transvacuolar strand in root hair cells of Hydrocharis. Planta. 2000;210:836-43 pubmed
    In many types of plant cell, bundles of actin filaments (AFs) are generally involved in cytoplasmic streaming and the organization of transvacuolar strands. Actin cross-linking proteins are believed to arrange AFs into the bundles...
  3. Wolff K, Marenduzzo D, Cates M. Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells: the role of wall slip. J R Soc Interface. 2012;9:1398-408 pubmed publisher
    We present a computer simulation study, via lattice Boltzmann simulations, of a microscopic model for cytoplasmic streaming in algal cells such as those of Chara corallina...
  4. Wolke U, Jezuit E, Priess J. Actin-dependent cytoplasmic streaming in C. elegans oogenesis. Development. 2007;134:2227-36 pubmed
    ..Our study shows that oocyte enlargement in C. elegans differs significantly from that in Drosophila, where a small number of specialized nurse cells expel their contents into the enlarging oocyte. ..
  5. Goldstein R, Tuval I, van de Meent J. Microfluidics of cytoplasmic streaming and its implications for intracellular transport. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:3663-7 pubmed publisher
    Found in many large eukaryotic cells, particularly in plants, cytoplasmic streaming is the circulation of their contents driven by fluid entrainment from particles carried by molecular motors at the cell periphery...
  6. Staves M. Cytoplasmic streaming and gravity sensing in Chara internodal cells. Planta. 1997;203:S79-84 pubmed
    ..Vertically-oriented Chara internodal cells exhibit a gravity dependent polarity of cytoplasmic streaming such that the downwardly-directed stream moves ca. 10% faster than the upwardly-directed stream...
  7. Molchan T, Valster A, Hepler P. Actomyosin promotes cell plate alignment and late lateral expansion in Tradescantia stamen hair cells. Planta. 2002;214:683-93 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results implicate myosin in the control of cell plate expansion and alignment. ..
  8. Verchot Lubicz J, Goldstein R. Cytoplasmic streaming enables the distribution of molecules and vesicles in large plant cells. Protoplasma. 2010;240:99-107 pubmed publisher
    ..e., cytoplasmic streaming) and affecting gradients of molecular species within the cell, with potentially important metabolic ..
  9. Nadarajan S, Govindan J, McGovern M, Hubbard E, Greenstein D. MSP and GLP-1/Notch signaling coordinately regulate actomyosin-dependent cytoplasmic streaming and oocyte growth in C. elegans. Development. 2009;136:2223-34 pubmed publisher
    ..GLP-1 signaling also affects two cellular oocyte growth processes, actomyosin-dependent cytoplasmic streaming and oocyte cellularization...

More Information


  1. Serbus L, Cha B, Theurkauf W, Saxton W. Dynein and the actin cytoskeleton control kinesin-driven cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes. Development. 2005;132:3743-52 pubmed
    Mass movements of cytoplasm, known as cytoplasmic streaming, occur in some large eukaryotic cells. In Drosophila oocytes there are two forms of microtubule-based streaming...
  2. Estrada P, Kim J, Coleman J, Walker L, Dunn B, Takizawa P, et al. Myo4p and She3p are required for cortical ER inheritance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:1255-66 pubmed
    ..Additionally, a reduction in the number of cytoplasmic ER tubules was observed in Lat-A-treated and myo4Delta cells. Our results suggest that Myo4p and She3p facilitate the growth and orientation of ER tubules. ..
  3. Paves H, Truve E. Myosin inhibitors block accumulation movement of chloroplasts in Arabidopsis thaliana leaf cells. Protoplasma. 2007;230:165-9 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that myosins have a role in A. thaliana chloroplast photorelocation. ..
  4. Yokota E, Ueda S, Tamura K, Orii H, Uchi S, Sonobe S, et al. An isoform of myosin XI is responsible for the translocation of endoplasmic reticulum in tobacco cultured BY-2 cells. J Exp Bot. 2009;60:197-212 pubmed publisher
    The involvement of myosin XI in generating the motive force for cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells is becoming evident...
  5. Garcia G, Rericha E, Heger C, Goldsmith P, Parent C. The group migration of Dictyostelium cells is regulated by extracellular chemoattractant degradation. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:3295-304 pubmed publisher
  6. Ganguly S, Williams L, Palacios I, Goldstein R. Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes varies with kinesin activity and correlates with the microtubule cytoskeleton architecture. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:15109-14 pubmed
    Cells can localize molecules asymmetrically through the combined action of cytoplasmic streaming, which circulates their fluid contents, and specific anchoring mechanisms...
  7. Tominaga M, Kimura A, Yokota E, Haraguchi T, Shimmen T, Yamamoto K, et al. Cytoplasmic streaming velocity as a plant size determinant. Dev Cell. 2013;27:345-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Cytoplasmic streaming is active transport widely occurring in plant cells ranging from algae to angiosperms...
  8. Hachikubo Y, Ito K, Schiefelbein J, Manstein D, Yamamoto K. Enzymatic activity and motility of recombinant Arabidopsis myosin XI, MYA1. Plant Cell Physiol. 2007;48:886-91 pubmed
    ..if we consider the difference in the lever arm length, and this value was very close to the velocity of cytoplasmic streaming in Arabidopsis hypocotyl epidermal cells...
  9. Niwayama R, Shinohara K, Kimura A. Hydrodynamic property of the cytoplasm is sufficient to mediate cytoplasmic streaming in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:11900-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Cytoplasmic streaming is a type of intracellular transport widely seen in nature...
  10. Yi K, Unruh J, Deng M, Slaughter B, Rubinstein B, Li R. Dynamic maintenance of asymmetric meiotic spindle position through Arp2/3-complex-driven cytoplasmic streaming in mouse oocytes. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:1252-8 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis reveal that actin filaments flow continuously away from the Arp2/3-rich cortex, driving a cytoplasmic streaming expected to exert a net pushing force on the spindle towards the cortex...
  11. Theurkauf W. Premature microtubule-dependent cytoplasmic streaming in cappuccino and spire mutant oocytes. Science. 1994;265:2093-6 pubmed
    ..These changes in oocyte cytoarchitecture and dynamics appear to disrupt axial patterning of the embryo. ..
  12. Poulsen C, Vereb G, Geshi N, Schulz A. Inhibition of cytoplasmic streaming by cytochalasin D is superior to paraformaldehyde fixation for measuring FRET between fluorescent protein-tagged Golgi components. Cytometry A. 2013;83:830-8 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the mobile organelles in plants is the Golgi apparatus following cytoplasmic streaming. It is involved in the decoration of proteins and processing of complex glycan structures for the cell ..
  13. Yamamoto K, Shimada K, Ito K, Hamada S, Ishijima A, Tsuchiya T, et al. Chara myosin and the energy of cytoplasmic streaming. Plant Cell Physiol. 2006;47:1427-31 pubmed
    Recently, it was found that myosin generating very fast cytoplasmic streaming in Chara corallina has very high ATPase activity. To estimate the energy consumed by this myosin, its concentration in the internodal cells of C...
  14. Choma M, Ellerbee A, Yazdanfar S, Izatt J. Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasmic streaming using spectral domain phase microscopy. J Biomed Opt. 2006;11:024014 pubmed
    ..a glass sample with nanometer per second velocity sensitivity, and apply this technique to measurement of cytoplasmic streaming in an Amoeba proteus pseudopod...
  15. Palacios I, St Johnston D. Kinesin light chain-independent function of the Kinesin heavy chain in cytoplasmic streaming and posterior localisation in the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 2002;129:5473-85 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, cytoplasmic streaming still occurs in kinesin light chain null mutants, and both oskar mRNA and Dynein localise to the posterior ..
  16. Tominaga M, Kojima H, Yokota E, Orii H, Nakamori R, Katayama E, et al. Higher plant myosin XI moves processively on actin with 35 nm steps at high velocity. EMBO J. 2003;22:1263-72 pubmed publisher
    High velocity cytoplasmic streaming is found in various plant cells from algae to angiosperms...
  17. Jedd G, Chua N. Visualization of peroxisomes in living plant cells reveals acto-myosin-dependent cytoplasmic streaming and peroxisome budding. Plant Cell Physiol. 2002;43:384-92 pubmed
    ..The strong signal associated with the GFP-PTS1 marker also allowed us to survey cytoplasmic streaming in different cell types...
  18. Vidali L, McKenna S, Hepler P. Actin polymerization is essential for pollen tube growth. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:2534-45 pubmed
    ..pollen tube growth, whereas a approximately 100% increase was necessary for half-maximal inhibition of cytoplasmic streaming. DNAse I showed a similar inhibitory activity but with a threefold more pronounced effect on growth than ..
  19. Vantard M, Blanchoin L. Actin polymerization processes in plant cells. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2002;5:502-6 pubmed
  20. Matsumoto K, Takagi S, Nakagaki T. Locomotive mechanism of Physarum plasmodia based on spatiotemporal analysis of protoplasmic streaming. Biophys J. 2008;94:2492-504 pubmed
    ..The generality of this as a mechanism for amoeboid locomotion is discussed. ..
  21. Scher B, Mistry S, Haque N, Scher W. Isolation and characterization of a large soluble form of fibronectin that stimulates adhesion, spreading, and alignment of mouse erythroleukemia cells. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:2402-13 pubmed publisher
  22. Nakagaki T, Yamada H, Ueda T. Interaction between cell shape and contraction pattern in the Physarum plasmodium. Biophys Chem. 2000;84:195-204 pubmed
    ..Consequently, the vein organization of the cell interacts with the contractile activity to form a feedback loop in a mechanism of contraction pattern formation. ..
  23. Kwiatkowska M, Popłońska K, Stepinski D. Actin filaments connected with the microtubules of lipotubuloids, cytoplasmic domains rich in lipid bodies and microtubules. Protoplasma. 2005;226:163-7 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that interaction of actin filaments with the microtubules determines the driving force for the rotary motion characteristic of lipotubuloids, as this movement is sensitive to cytochalasin B...
  24. Nascimento A, Roland J, Gelfand V. Pigment cells: a model for the study of organelle transport. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2003;19:469-91 pubmed
    ..Future studies of pigment cells will contribute to our understanding of issues such as the cooperation among multiple motor proteins and the mechanisms of regulation of microtubule motors. ..
  25. Ye J, Zheng Y, Yan A, Chen N, Wang Z, Huang S, et al. Arabidopsis formin3 directs the formation of actin cables and polarized growth in pollen tubes. Plant Cell. 2009;21:3868-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The function of these actin cables, which are proposed to modulate cytoplasmic streaming and intracellular movement of many organelles in plants, has not been studied by genetic means...
  26. Morimoto H, Shimmen T. Primary effect of bromoxynil to induce plant cell death may be cytosol acidification. J Plant Res. 2008;121:227-33 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the primary effect inducing cell death is not known. Bromoxynil inhibited the cytoplasmic streaming and killed cells in Chara corallina when it was applied in the acidic external medium...
  27. Hume A, Wilson M, Ushakov D, Ferenczi M, Seabra M. Semi-automated analysis of organelle movement and membrane content: understanding rab-motor complex transport function. Traffic. 2011;12:1686-701 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our data indicate the ability of Rab27a and effector recruitment to switch melanosomes from MT- to actin-based tethering and suggest that a network of Rab signalling may integrate melanosome biogenesis and transport. ..
  28. Thomas C, Tholl S, Moes D, Dieterle M, Papuga J, Moreau F, et al. Actin bundling in plants. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2009;66:940-57 pubmed publisher
    ..By surveying information regarding the properties of plant actin bundles and their associated bundling proteins, the present review aims at clarifying why and how plants make actin bundles. ..
  29. Brangwynne C, Koenderink G, MacKintosh F, Weitz D. Cytoplasmic diffusion: molecular motors mix it up. J Cell Biol. 2008;183:583-7 pubmed publisher
  30. Maurer C, Khan S, Fassl S, Bernet S, Ritsch Marte M. Depth of field multiplexing in microscopy. Opt Express. 2010;18:3023-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Depth of field multiplexing allows to record motion in a three dimensional sample volume in real-time, which is exemplarily demonstrated for cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells and rapidly swimming protozoa.
  31. Li Z, Zhang Z, Yu M, Zhou Y, Zhao Y. Effects of lanthanum on calcium and magnesium contents and cytoplasmic streaming of internodal cells of Chara corallina. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2011;143:555-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, effects of La(3+) treatments on calcium and magnesium concentrations as well as cytoplasmic streaming of internodal cells of Chara corallina were investigated...
  32. Dodonova S, Bulychev A. Cyclosis-related asymmetry of chloroplast-plasma membrane interactions at the margins of illuminated area in Chara corallina cells. Protoplasma. 2011;248:737-49 pubmed publisher
    b>Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells is an effective means of intracellular transport...
  33. Ajduk A, Ilozue T, Windsor S, Yu Y, Seres K, Bomphrey R, et al. Rhythmic actomyosin-driven contractions induced by sperm entry predict mammalian embryo viability. Nat Commun. 2011;2:417 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this method offers, thus far, the earliest and fastest, non-invasive way to predict the viability of eggs fertilized in vitro and therefore can potentially improve greatly the prospects for IVF treatment. ..
  34. Vorob ev V, Anisimov A, Dautova N. Water diffusion in cytoplasmic streaming in Elodea internodal cells under the effect of antimitotic agents. Eur Biophys J. 2008;37:975-8 pubmed publisher
    ..With a constant cytoplasmic streaming velocity, the dynamics of the translational displacement of the cytoplasmic water under the effect of ..
  35. Mortimer D, Fothergill T, Pujic Z, Richards L, Goodhill G. Growth cone chemotaxis. Trends Neurosci. 2008;31:90-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This analogy suggests particular ways in which the three key steps of directional sensing, polarisation and motility might be implemented in chemotaxing growth cones. ..
  36. Woodhouse F, Goldstein R. Spontaneous circulation of confined active suspensions. Phys Rev Lett. 2012;109:168105 pubmed
    Many active fluid systems encountered in biology are set in total geometric confinement. Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells is a prominent and ubiquitous example, in which cargo-carrying molecular motors move along polymer filaments ..
  37. Gunning B. Plastid stromules: video microscopy of their outgrowth, retraction, tensioning, anchoring, branching, bridging, and tip-shedding. Protoplasma. 2005;225:33-42 pubmed
    ..Anchoring leads to stretching and relaxation of stromules when forces arising from cytoplasmic streaming act on the attached, freely suspended plastid bodies...
  38. Sugi H, Chaen S. Force-velocity relationships in actin-myosin interactions causing cytoplasmic streaming in algal cells. J Exp Biol. 2003;206:1971-6 pubmed
    b>Cytoplasmic streaming in giant internodal cells of green algae is caused by ATP-dependent sliding between actin cables fixed on chloroplast rows and cytoplasmic myosin molecules attached to cytoplasmic organelles...
  39. Ferreira C, Burgstaller J, Perecin F, Garcia J, Chiaratti M, Méo S, et al. Pronounced segregation of donor mitochondria introduced by bovine ooplasmic transfer to the female germ-line. Biol Reprod. 2010;82:563-71 pubmed publisher
    ..78). This indicates a preferred proliferation of recipient taurine mitochondria in the context of the nuclear genotype of the OT recipient expressing a B. primigenius indicus phenotype. ..
  40. Tazawa M, Kikuyama M. Is Ca2+ release from internal stores involved in membrane excitation in characean cells?. Plant Cell Physiol. 2003;44:518-26 pubmed an increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](c)) which subsequently causes cessation of cytoplasmic streaming. Two Ca(2+ )origins are postulated for the increase in [Ca(2+)](c), extracellular and intracellular ones...
  41. Lord E. Adhesion and cell movement during pollination: cherchez la femme. Trends Plant Sci. 2000;5:368-73 pubmed
    ..In lily, the stylar adhesion molecules are a pectin and a small, basic cysteine-rich protein, both of which are necessary to induce tube cell adhesion to an artificial, in vitro style matrix. ..
  42. De Vos K, Sheetz M. Visualization and quantification of mitochondrial dynamics in living animal cells. Methods Cell Biol. 2007;80:627-82 pubmed
  43. Suzuki Toyota F, Ito C, Maekawa M, Toyama Y, Toshimori K. Adhesion between plasma membrane and mitochondria with linking filaments in relation to migration of cytoplasmic droplet during epididymal maturation in guinea pig spermatozoa. Cell Tissue Res. 2010;341:429-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The filaments might also stabilize the flagellum against hypo-osmotic stress encountered during ejaculation and within the female tract. ..
  44. Eremin A, Bulychev A, Hauser M. Cyclosis-mediated transfer of H2O 2 elicited by localized illumination of Chara cells and its relevance to the formation of pH bands. Protoplasma. 2013;250:1339-49 pubmed publisher
    b>Cytoplasmic streaming occurs in most plant cells and is vitally important for large cells as a means of long-distance intracellular transport of metabolites and messengers...
  45. Manseau L, Calley J, Phan H. Profilin is required for posterior patterning of the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 1996;122:2109-16 pubmed
    ..disrupting the actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D induces microtubule bundling and microtubule-based cytoplasmic streaming within the oocyte, similar to that which occurs prematurely in cappuccino and spire mutant oocytes...
  46. Sack F. Plastids and gravitropic sensing. Planta. 1997;203:S63-8 pubmed
    ..such as gravitropism of organs and tip-growing cells, gravimorphism, gravitaxis, and the regulation of cytoplasmic streaming in internodal cells of Chara...
  47. Holweg C. A rapid tracking method for the quantitative analysis of organelle streaming velocity. Methods Mol Biol. 2009;586:265-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In many plant cell types, these motile events, termed "cytoplasmic streaming", are very impressive with rapid movement of organelles over long distances...
  48. Gunawardena A, Greenwood J, Dengler N. Programmed cell death remodels lace plant leaf shape during development. Plant Cell. 2004;16:60-73 pubmed
    ..Tonoplast rupture is the first PCD event in this system, indicated by alterations in cytoplasmic streaming, loss of anthocyanin color, and ultrastructural appearance...
  49. Holweg C. Living markers for actin block myosin-dependent motility of plant organelles and auxin. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2007;64:69-81 pubmed
    ..b>Cytoplasmic streaming and auxin transport were chosen as examples of cargo movement and investigated in two Arabidopsis thaliana ..
  50. Coulombe P, Wong P. Cytoplasmic intermediate filaments revealed as dynamic and multipurpose scaffolds. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:699-706 pubmed
  51. Vinck A, Terlou M, Pestman W, Martens E, Ram A, van den Hondel C, et al. Hyphal differentiation in the exploring mycelium of Aspergillus niger. Mol Microbiol. 2005;58:693-9 pubmed
    ..This difference is due to cytoplasmic streaming of the reporter in the former case, as was shown by using a photo-activatable GFP...
  52. Veith D, Scherr N, Efimov V, Fischer R. Role of the spindle-pole-body protein ApsB and the cortex protein ApsA in microtubule organization and nuclear migration in Aspergillus nidulans. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:3705-16 pubmed
    ..We suggest that nuclear positioning defects in the apsA and apsB mutants are due to different effects on microtbule organisation. A model of spindle-pole body led nuclear migration and the roles of dynein and microtubules are discussed. ..
  53. Kagawa T, Wada M. Blue light-induced chloroplast relocation in Arabidopsis thaliana as analyzed by microbeam irradiation. Plant Cell Physiol. 2000;41:84-93 pubmed
    ..We discuss the possible photoreceptor for B-induced chloroplast relocation. ..