Summary: The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.

Top Publications

  1. Laitala A, Aro E, Walkinshaw G, Maki J, Rossi M, Heikkilä M, et al. Transmembrane prolyl 4-hydroxylase is a fourth prolyl 4-hydroxylase regulating EPO production and erythropoiesis. Blood. 2012;120:3336-44 pubmed publisher
    ..factor (HIF) in vitro and in cultured cells, but nothing is known about its roles in mammalian erythropoiesis. We studied such roles here by administering a HIF-P4H inhibitor, FG-4497, to P4h-tm(-/-) mice...
  2. Chang H, Wang T, Chen P, Lin Y, Liao C, Lin T, et al. Erythropoiesis suppression is associated with anthrax lethal toxin-mediated pathogenic progression. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71718 pubmed publisher
    ..Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are the downstream pathways of MAPKKs, and are important for erythropoiesis. This prompted us to hypothesize that anemia and hypoxia may in part be exacerbated by erythropoietic ..
  3. Doshi S, Krzyzanski W, Yue S, Elliott S, Chow A, Perez Ruixo J. Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2013;52:1063-83 pubmed publisher
    ..of the EPO gene in the early 1980s allowed for the development of recombinant erythropoietins and analogues [erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs)], offering an alternative to transfusion as a method of raising haemoglobin (Hb) ..
  4. Mastrogiannaki M, Matak P, Mathieu J, Delga S, Mayeux P, Vaulont S, et al. Hepatic hypoxia-inducible factor-2 down-regulates hepcidin expression in mice through an erythropoietin-mediated increase in erythropoiesis. Haematologica. 2012;97:827-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Vhlh/Hif1a hepatocyte-specific knockout mice indirectly down-regulates hepcidin expression through increased erythropoiesis and erythropoietin production...
  5. De Lima G, Mazzali M, Gentil A, Plotegher L, Grotto H. Anemia in chronic renal disease: evaluation of inflammatory activity on erythropoiesis and iron metabolism in patients not submitted to dialysis treatment. Clin Lab. 2012;58:695-704 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible influence of inflammatory activity on erythropoiesis and iron metabolism in CKD patients without dialytic treatment. 114 CKD adult patients were studied...
  6. Kingsley P, Greenfest Allen E, Frame J, Bushnell T, Malik J, McGrath K, et al. Ontogeny of erythroid gene expression. Blood. 2013;121:e5-e13 pubmed publisher
    ..We have created a user-friendly Web site ( to make these global expression data readily accessible and amenable to complex search strategies by the scientific community. ..
  7. Pimentel H, Parra M, Gee S, Ghanem D, An X, Li J, et al. A dynamic alternative splicing program regulates gene expression during terminal erythropoiesis. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:4031-42 pubmed publisher
  8. Sturgeon C, Chicha L, Ditadi A, Zhou Q, McGrath K, Palis J, et al. Primitive erythropoiesis is regulated by miR-126 via nonhematopoietic Vcam-1+ cells. Dev Cell. 2012;23:45-57 pubmed publisher
    Primitive erythropoiesis defines the onset of hematopoiesis in the yolk sac of the early embryo and is initiated by the emergence of progenitors assayed as colony-forming cells (EryP-CFCs)...
  9. Ganz T, Nemeth E. Iron metabolism: interactions with normal and disordered erythropoiesis. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012;2:a011668 pubmed publisher
    ..We review the molecular physiology of intracellular and systemic iron regulation, and the interactions between erythropoiesis and iron homeostasis...

More Information


  1. Pasricha S, Frazer D, Bowden D, Anderson G. Transfusion suppresses erythropoiesis and increases hepcidin in adult patients with ?-thalassemia major: a longitudinal study. Blood. 2013;122:124-33 pubmed publisher
    Thalassemia major causes ineffective erythropoiesis and chronic anemia and is associated with iron overload due to both transfused iron and increased iron absorption, the latter mediated by suppression of the iron-regulatory hormone ..
  2. Frazer D, Wilkins S, Darshan D, Badrick A, McLaren G, Anderson G. Stimulated erythropoiesis with secondary iron loading leads to a decrease in hepcidin despite an increase in bone morphogenetic protein 6 expression. Br J Haematol. 2012;157:615-26 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the role of this pathway in the reduction in hepcidin associated with increased erythropoiesis (and secondary iron loading) is unclear...
  3. Urrechaga E, Borque L, Escanero J. Erythrocyte and reticulocyte indices in the assessment of erythropoiesis activity and iron availability. Int J Lab Hematol. 2013;35:144-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We study the value of these parameters of hemoglobinization in the evaluation of erythropoiesis and iron availability...
  4. Moreau R, Tshikudi Malu D, Dumais M, Dalko E, Gaudreault V, Roméro H, et al. Alterations in bone and erythropoiesis in hemolytic anemia: comparative study in bled, phenylhydrazine-treated and Plasmodium-infected mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46101 pubmed publisher
    Sustained erythropoiesis and concurrent bone marrow hyperplasia are proposed to be responsible for low bone mass density (BMD) in chronic hemolytic pathologies...
  5. Rankin E, Wu C, Khatri R, Wilson T, Andersen R, Araldi E, et al. The HIF signaling pathway in osteoblasts directly modulates erythropoiesis through the production of EPO. Cell. 2012;149:63-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal an unexpected role for osteoblasts in the production of EPO and modulation of erythropoiesis. Furthermore, these studies demonstrate a molecular role for osteoblastic PHD/VHL/HIF signaling that can be ..
  6. Helias V, Saison C, Ballif B, Peyrard T, Takahashi J, Takahashi H, et al. ABCB6 is dispensable for erythropoiesis and specifies the new blood group system Langereis. Nat Genet. 2012;44:170-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Of note, Lan(-) (ABCB6(-/-)) individuals do not suffer any clinical consequences, although their deficiency in ABCB6 may place them at risk when determining drug dosage...
  7. Carrancio S, Markovics J, Wong P, Leisten J, Castiglioni P, Groza M, et al. An activin receptor IIA ligand trap promotes erythropoiesis resulting in a rapid induction of red blood cells and haemoglobin. Br J Haematol. 2014;165:870-82 pubmed publisher
    ..that RAP-011 may act to rescue growth differentiation factor 11/Activin A-induced inhibition of late-stage erythropoiesis. These data define the mechanism of action of a novel agent that regulates RBC differentiation and provide the ..
  8. Dussiot M, Maciel T, Fricot A, Chartier C, Negre O, Veiga J, et al. An activin receptor IIA ligand trap corrects ineffective erythropoiesis in ?-thalassemia. Nat Med. 2014;20:398-407 pubmed publisher
    The pathophysiology of ineffective erythropoiesis in ?-thalassemia is poorly understood...
  9. Chow A, Huggins M, Ahmed J, Hashimoto D, Lucas D, Kunisaki Y, et al. CD169? macrophages provide a niche promoting erythropoiesis under homeostasis and stress. Nat Med. 2013;19:429-36 pubmed publisher
    A role for macrophages in erythropoiesis was suggested several decades ago when erythroblastic islands in the bone marrow, composed of a central macrophage surrounded by developing erythroblasts, were described...
  10. Schirm S, Engel C, Loeffler M, Scholz M. A biomathematical model of human erythropoiesis under erythropoietin and chemotherapy administration. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65630 pubmed publisher
    ..To simulate the effectiveness of different EPO application schedules, we performed both modelling of erythropoiesis under chemotherapy and pharmacokinetic and dynamic modelling of EPO applications in the framework of a single ..
  11. Zhu Y, Wang D, Wang F, Li T, Dong L, Liu H, et al. A comprehensive analysis of GATA-1-regulated miRNAs reveals miR-23a to be a positive modulator of erythropoiesis. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:4129-43 pubmed publisher
    miRNAs play important roles in many biological processes, including erythropoiesis. Although several miRNAs regulate erythroid differentiation, how the key erythroid regulator, GATA-1, directly orchestrates differentiation through miRNA ..
  12. Anderson S, Nizzi C, Chang Y, Deck K, Schmidt P, Galy B, et al. The IRP1-HIF-2? axis coordinates iron and oxygen sensing with erythropoiesis and iron absorption. Cell Metab. 2013;17:282-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results uncover separable physiological roles of each IRP and identify IRP1 as a therapeutic target for manipulating HIF-2? action in hematologic, oncologic, and other disorders...
  13. Chung J, Chen C, Paw B. Heme metabolism and erythropoiesis. Curr Opin Hematol. 2012;19:156-62 pubmed publisher
    ..of this review is to highlight recent work on heme and iron transport with an emphasis on their relevance in erythropoiesis. Whereas the enzymes responsible for heme biosynthesis have been identified, transport mechanisms for iron, ..
  14. van der Weerd N, Grooteman M, Bots M, van den Dorpel M, den Hoedt C, Mazairac A, et al. Hepcidin-25 in chronic hemodialysis patients is related to residual kidney function and not to treatment with erythropoiesis stimulating agents. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39783 pubmed publisher
    ..03). Hepcidin-25 was not associated with the maintenance dose of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) or iron therapy...
  15. Dresner E, Malishkevich A, Arviv C, Leibman Barak S, Alon S, Ofir R, et al. Novel evolutionary-conserved role for the activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) family that is important for erythropoiesis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:40173-85 pubmed publisher
    ..ADNPs are novel molecular regulators of erythropoiesis. New regulators of globin synthesis are suggested...
  16. Keel S, Phelps S, Sabo K, O Leary M, Kirn Safran C, Abkowitz J. Establishing Rps6 hemizygous mice as a model for studying how ribosomal protein haploinsufficiency impairs erythropoiesis. Exp Hematol. 2012;40:290-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The mice have an erythroid phenotype similar to both Diamond-Blackfan anemia and the 5q- syndrome and lenalidomide therapy improves their anemia. ..
  17. Hu J, Liu J, Xue F, Halverson G, Reid M, Guo A, et al. Isolation and functional characterization of human erythroblasts at distinct stages: implications for understanding of normal and disordered erythropoiesis in vivo. Blood. 2013;121:3246-53 pubmed publisher
    ..differentiation but also offer a means of isolating and quantifying each developmental stage during terminal erythropoiesis in vivo...
  18. Iancu Rubin C, Mosoyan G, Wang J, Kraus T, Sung V, Hoffman R. Stromal cell-mediated inhibition of erythropoiesis can be attenuated by Sotatercept (ACE-011), an activin receptor type II ligand trap. Exp Hematol. 2013;41:155-166.e17 pubmed publisher
    Red cell production is primarily determined by the action of erythropoietin. Additional erythropoiesis-regulatory factors include molecules and cellular interactions occurring within the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment...
  19. Listowski M, Heger E, Bogusławska D, Machnicka B, Kuliczkowski K, Leluk J, et al. microRNAs: fine tuning of erythropoiesis. Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2013;18:34-46 pubmed publisher
    ..attempts to summarize the state of knowledge on the role of miRNAs in the regulation of different stages of erythropoiesis. Original experimental data and results obtained with bioinformatics tools were combined to elucidate the ..
  20. Suragani R, Cadena S, Cawley S, Sako D, Mitchell D, Li R, et al. Transforming growth factor-? superfamily ligand trap ACE-536 corrects anemia by promoting late-stage erythropoiesis. Nat Med. 2014;20:408-14 pubmed publisher
    ..However, several types of EPO-resistant anemia are characterized by defects in late-stage erythropoiesis, which is EPO independent...
  21. Choi J, Masaratana P, Latunde Dada G, Arno M, Simpson R, McKie A. Duodenal reductase activity and spleen iron stores are reduced and erythropoiesis is abnormal in Dcytb knockout mice exposed to hypoxic conditions. J Nutr. 2012;142:1929-34 pubmed publisher
    ..05, n = 7-8) in normoxic Dcytb(-/-) compared with normoxic WT mice. We therefore conclude that DCYTB is the primary iron-regulated duodenal ferric reductase in the gut and that Dcytb is necessary for optimal iron metabolism. ..
  22. Baron M, Isern J, Fraser S. The embryonic origins of erythropoiesis in mammals. Blood. 2012;119:4828-37 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we highlight some common and distinguishing features of the red blood cell lineages and summarize advances in our understanding of how these cells develop and differentiate throughout mammalian ontogeny. ..
  23. Kawahara A, Endo S, Dawid I. Vap (Vascular Associated Protein): a novel factor involved in erythropoiesis and angiogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;421:367-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Vap plays an important role in the maturation of endothelial and erythroid cells in zebrafish. ..
  24. Goodnough L. Iron deficiency syndromes and iron-restricted erythropoiesis (CME). Transfusion. 2012;52:1584-92 pubmed publisher
    The relationships between erythropoietin (EPO), iron, and erythropoiesis and the presence of iron-restricted erythropoiesis have important implications in anemia management...
  25. Yao H, Goldman D, Nechiporuk T, Kawane S, McWeeney S, Tyner J, et al. Corepressor Rcor1 is essential for murine erythropoiesis. Blood. 2014;123:3175-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Rcor1 promotes erythropoiesis by repressing HSC and/or progenitor genes, as well as the genes and signaling pathways that lead to myeloid ..
  26. Li Y, Zheng Y, Qian J, Chen X, Shen Z, Tao L, et al. Preventive effects of zinc against psychological stress-induced iron dyshomeostasis, erythropoiesis inhibition, and oxidative stress status in rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012;147:285-91 pubmed publisher
    ..and iron redistribution in body resulting in low iron concentration in the bone marrow and inhibition of erythropoiesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of zinc supplementation on the iron metabolism, ..
  27. Watanabe S, De Zan T, Ishizaki T, Yasuda S, Kamijo H, Yamada D, et al. Loss of a Rho-regulated actin nucleator, mDia2, impairs cytokinesis during mouse fetal erythropoiesis. Cell Rep. 2013;5:926-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings have thus revealed that mDia2 functions critically in cytokinesis in vivo during erythropoiesis and further suggest that the cytokinesis mechanism in development diverges downstream of Rho...
  28. Beuck S, Schanzer W, Thevis M. Hypoxia-inducible factor stabilizers and other small-molecule erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in current and preventive doping analysis. Drug Test Anal. 2012;4:830-45 pubmed publisher
    Increasing the blood's capacity for oxygen transport by erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) constitutes a prohibited procedure of performance enhancement according to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)...
  29. Dzierzak E, Philipsen S. Erythropoiesis: development and differentiation. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2013;3:a011601 pubmed publisher
    ..This article highlights the developmental and differentiation events necessary in the production of hemoglobin-producing red blood cells. ..
  30. Rivella S. The role of ineffective erythropoiesis in non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia. Blood Rev. 2012;26 Suppl 1:S12-5 pubmed publisher
    Ineffective erythropoiesis is the hallmark of beta-thalassemia that triggers a cascade of compensatory mechanisms resulting in clinical sequelae such as erythroid marrow expansion, extramedullary hematopoiesis, splenomegaly, and increased ..
  31. Dev A, Byrne S, Verma R, Ashton Rickardt P, Wojchowski D. Erythropoietin-directed erythropoiesis depends on serpin inhibition of erythroblast lysosomal cathepsins. J Exp Med. 2013;210:225-32 pubmed publisher
    ..EPO-induced erythropoiesis also was compromised...
  32. Xu J, Shao Z, Glass K, Bauer D, Pinello L, Van Handel B, et al. Combinatorial assembly of developmental stage-specific enhancers controls gene expression programs during human erythropoiesis. Dev Cell. 2012;23:796-811 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparative analyses of human erythropoiesis identify developmental stage-specific enhancers as primary determinants of stage-specific gene expression ..
  33. Hyde B, Liesa M, Elorza A, Qiu W, Haigh S, Richey L, et al. The mitochondrial transporter ABC-me (ABCB10), a downstream target of GATA-1, is essential for erythropoiesis in vivo. Cell Death Differ. 2012;19:1117-26 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the role of ABC-me in erythropoiesis in vivo is unknown. Here we report for the first time that erythrocyte development in mice requires ABC-me...
  34. Liu Q, Davidoff O, Niss K, Haase V. Hypoxia-inducible factor regulates hepcidin via erythropoietin-induced erythropoiesis. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:4635-44 pubmed publisher
    Iron demand in bone marrow increases when erythropoiesis is stimulated by hypoxia via increased erythropoietin (EPO) synthesis in kidney and liver...
  35. Ge L, Zhang R, Wan F, Guo D, Wang P, Xiang L, et al. TET2 plays an essential role in erythropoiesis by regulating lineage-specific genes via DNA oxidative demethylation in a zebrafish model. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:989-1002 pubmed publisher
    Although epigenetic modulation is critical for a variety of cellular activities, its role in erythropoiesis remains poorly understood...
  36. Lafuse W, Story R, Mahylis J, Gupta G, Varikuti S, Steinkamp H, et al. Leishmania donovani infection induces anemia in hamsters by differentially altering erythropoiesis in bone marrow and spleen. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59509 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we used Syrian golden hamsters to investigate effects of L. donovani infection on erythropoiesis. Infection resulted in severe anemia and leucopenia by 8 weeks post-infection...
  37. Suragani R, Zachariah R, Velazquez J, Liu S, Sun C, Townes T, et al. Heme-regulated eIF2? kinase activated Atf4 signaling pathway in oxidative stress and erythropoiesis. Blood. 2012;119:5276-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Atf4 signaling pathway in reducing oxidative stress and in promoting erythroid differentiation during erythropoiesis. On acute oxidative stress, Hri(-/-) erythroblasts suffered from increased levels of reactive oxygen species (..
  38. Yu Y, Mo Y, Ebenezer D, Bhattacharyya S, Liu H, Sundaravel S, et al. High resolution methylome analysis reveals widespread functional hypomethylation during adult human erythropoiesis. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:8805-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed widespread epigenetic differences between early and late stages of erythropoiesis with progressive loss of methylation being the dominant change during differentiation...
  39. Schuler B, Vogel J, Grenacher B, Jacobs R, Arras M, Gassmann M. Acute and chronic elevation of erythropoietin in the brain improves exercise performance in mice without inducing erythropoiesis. FASEB J. 2012;26:3884-90 pubmed publisher
    ..mouse line Tg21, which constitutively overexpresses human Epo exclusively in the brain without affecting erythropoiesis, and wild-type mice treated with a single high dose of rhEpo, demonstrate an unexpected improvement in maximal ..
  40. Ferreira R, Spensberger D, Silber Y, Dimond A, Li J, Green A, et al. Impaired in vitro erythropoiesis following deletion of the Scl (Tal1) +40 enhancer is largely compensated for in vivo despite a significant reduction in expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:1254-66 pubmed publisher
    ..of Map17, the 3' flanking gene of Scl, and is active in transgenic mice during primitive and definitive erythropoiesis. To analyze the in vivo function of the Scl +40 enhancer within the Scl/Map17 transcriptional domain, we ..
  41. Zou Z, Enis D, Bui H, Khandros E, Kumar V, Jakus Z, et al. The secreted lymphangiogenic factor CCBE1 is essential for fetal liver erythropoiesis. Blood. 2013;121:3228-36 pubmed publisher that loss of CCBE1 also confers severe anemia in midgestation mouse embryos due to defective definitive erythropoiesis. Fetal liver erythroid precursors of Ccbe1 null mice exhibit reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis...
  42. Lee P, Hsu M, Welser Alves J, Peng H. Severe microcytic anemia but increased erythropoiesis in mice lacking Hfe or Tfr2 and Tmprss6. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2012;48:173-8 pubmed publisher
    ..and Tmprss6 differed from Tmprss6 deficient mice alone, in that the double mutant mice exhibited much greater erythropoiesis. Hfe and Tfr2 have been shown to play important roles in the erythron, independent of their role in regulating ..
  43. Ingley E. Integrating novel signaling pathways involved in erythropoiesis. IUBMB Life. 2012;64:402-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The challenge of future research is to flesh out the details of these new signaling regulators/networks and integrate their influences during the different stages of erythropoiesis.
  44. Sanaka T, Mochizuki T, Kinugasa E, Kusano E, Ohwada S, Kuno T, et al. Randomized controlled open-label trial of vitamin E-bonded polysulfone dialyzer and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent response. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;8:969-78 pubmed publisher
    ..randomized controlled study was conducted on the effects of vitamin E-bonded polysulfone dialyzers on erythropoiesis-stimulating agent response in hemodialysis patients...
  45. Satchwell T, Pellegrin S, Bianchi P, Hawley B, Gampel A, Mordue K, et al. Characteristic phenotypes associated with congenital dyserythropoietic anemia (type II) manifest at different stages of erythropoiesis. Haematologica. 2013;98:1788-96 pubmed publisher
    ..little is known regarding the stage at which the disparate phenotypes of this disease manifest during erythropoiesis. We employ an in vitro culture system to monitor the appearance of the defining phenotypes associated with ..
  46. Blanc L, Ciciotte S, Gwynn B, Hildick Smith G, Pierce E, Soltis K, et al. Critical function for the Ras-GTPase activating protein RASA3 in vertebrate erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:12099-104 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Erythropoiesis is severely blocked in scat crisis mice, and ~94% succumb during the second crisis (~30 d of age) from ..
  47. Wang F, Zhu Y, Guo L, Dong L, Liu H, Yin H, et al. A regulatory circuit comprising GATA1/2 switch and microRNA-27a/24 promotes erythropoiesis. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:442-57 pubmed publisher
    ..As erythropoiesis proceeded, GATA-1 directly activated miR-27a?24 transcription, and this involved a GATA-1-mediated ..
  48. Ross J, Mavoungou L, Bresnick E, Milot E. GATA-1 utilizes Ikaros and polycomb repressive complex 2 to suppress Hes1 and to promote erythropoiesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:3624-38 pubmed publisher
    ..that Ikaros favors Hes1 repression in erythroid cells by facilitating recruitment of the master regulator of erythropoiesis GATA-1 alongside FOG-1, which mediates Hes1 repression...
  49. Vemula S, Shi J, Mali R, Ma P, Liu Y, Hanneman P, et al. ROCK1 functions as a critical regulator of stress erythropoiesis and survival by regulating p53. Blood. 2012;120:2868-78 pubmed publisher
    b>Erythropoiesis is a dynamic, multistep process whereby hematopoietic stem cells differentiate toward a progressively committed erythroid lineage through intermediate progenitors...
  50. Pishesha N, Thiru P, Shi J, Eng J, Sankaran V, Lodish H. Transcriptional divergence and conservation of human and mouse erythropoiesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:4103-8 pubmed publisher
    ..have been used extensively for decades and have been instrumental in improving our understanding of mammalian erythropoiesis. Nonetheless, there are several examples of variation between human and mouse erythropoiesis...
  51. Tanaka T, Nangaku M. Recent advances and clinical application of erythropoietin and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Exp Cell Res. 2012;318:1068-73 pubmed publisher essential glycoprotein that facilitates red blood cell maturation from erythroid progenitors and mediates erythropoiesis. The use of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) dramatically changed management of anemic patients with chronic ..
  52. Liu J, Zhang J, Ginzburg Y, Li H, Xue F, De Franceschi L, et al. Quantitative analysis of murine terminal erythroid differentiation in vivo: novel method to study normal and disordered erythropoiesis. Blood. 2013;121:e43-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Although it is well established that during murine erythropoiesis in vivo, 1 proerythroblast undergoes 3 mitosis to generate sequentially 2 basophilic, 4 polychromatic, and 8 ..
  53. Díaz V, Gammella E, Recalcati S, Santambrogio P, Naldi A, Vogel J, et al. Liver iron modulates hepcidin expression during chronically elevated erythropoiesis in mice. Hepatology. 2013;58:2122-32 pubmed publisher
    ..expression in mice constitutively overexpressing erythropoietin (Epo) (Tg6 mice), which leads to excessive erythropoiesis. We observed a very strong down-regulation of hepcidin in Tg6 mice that was accompanied by a strong increase ..