g2 phase cell cycle checkpoints


Summary: CELL CYCLE regulatory signaling systems that are triggered by DNA DAMAGE or lack of nutrients during G2 PHASE. When triggered they restrain cells transitioning from G2 phase to M PHASE.

Top Publications

  1. Qin Q, Cheng H, Lu J, Zhan L, Zheng J, Cai J, et al. Small-molecule survivin inhibitor YM155 enhances radiosensitization in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by the abrogation of G2 checkpoint and suppression of homologous recombination repair. J Hematol Oncol. 2014;7:62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the abrogation of G2 checkpoint and the inhibition of HRR contribute to radiosensitization by YM155 in ESCC cells. ..
  2. Lee J, Kim K, Heo J, Cho D, Kim H, Han S, et al. Protective effect of Arthrospira platensis extracts against ultraviolet B-induced cellular senescence through inhibition of DNA damage and matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in human dermal fibroblasts. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2017;173:196-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we concluded that the microalgae extract can be a potential anti-photoaging agent. ..
  3. Shankaraiah N, Nekkanti S, Brahma U, Praveen Kumar N, Deshpande N, Prasanna D, et al. Synthesis of different heterocycles-linked chalcone conjugates as cytotoxic agents and tubulin polymerization inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem. 2017;25:4805-4816 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, molecular docking studies of the most active compounds 4a and 4b into the colchicine site of the tubulin, revealed the possible mode of interaction by these new conjugates. ..
  4. Meng S, Zhu Y, Li J, Wang X, Liang Z, Li S, et al. Apigenin inhibits renal cell carcinoma cell proliferation. Oncotarget. 2017;8:19834-19842 pubmed publisher
    ..Given its antitumor effects and low in vivo toxicity, apigenin is a highly promising agent for treatment of RCC. ..
  5. Majellaro M, Stefanachi A, Tardia P, Vicenti C, Boccarelli A, Pannunzio A, et al. Investigating Structural Requirements for the Antiproliferative Activity of Biphenyl Nicotinamides. ChemMedChem. 2017;12:1380-1389 pubmed publisher
    ..Relative to vinblastine, a well-known potent antimitotic agent, compound 36 also induced G1 -phase arrest at low doses (20-40 nm), but did not inhibit in vitro tubulin polymerization. ..
  6. Liu X, Zhang N, Wang D, Zhu D, Yuan Q, Zhang X, et al. Downregulation of reticulocalbin-1 differentially facilitates apoptosis and necroptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Cancer Sci. 2018;109:1147-1157 pubmed publisher
    ..In LNCaP cells, predominant activation of CaMKII is important for necroptosis in response to RCN1 depletion. Thus, RCN1 may promote cell survival and serve as a useful target for cancer therapy. ..
  7. Xie Y, Si J, Wang Y, Li H, Di C, Yan J, et al. E2F is involved in radioresistance of carbon ion induced apoptosis via Bax/caspase 3 signal pathway in human hepatoma cell. J Cell Physiol. 2018;233:1312-1320 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides a scientific rationale for the clinical use of heavy ion as radiotherapy in patients with p53-deficient tumors, which are often resistant to radiotherapy. ..
  8. Xie R, Yao Y, Tang P, Chen G, Liu X, Yun F, et al. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel hydroxamates and 2-aminobenzamides as potent histone deacetylase inhibitors and antitumor agents. Eur J Med Chem. 2017;134:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, 12a remarkably induced apoptosis and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in A549 cancer cells. Those results indicated that compound 12a could be a promising candidate for treatment of cancer. ..
  9. Li Y, Wen J, Du C, Hu S, Chen J, Zhang S, et al. Thymol inhibits bladder cancer cell proliferation via inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;491:530-536 pubmed publisher
    ..ROS scavenger NAC (N-acetyl cysteine) could block the thymol-triggered apoptosis and activation of MAPKs. These findings offer a novel therapeutic approach for bladder cancer. ..

More Information


  1. Duran Rehbein G, Vargas Zambrano J, Cuellar A, Puerta C, Gonzalez J. Induction of cellular proliferation in a human astrocytoma cell line by a Trypanosoma cruzi-derived antigen: a mechanism of pathogenesis?. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2017;63:23-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest the participation of a trypomastigote-derived mediator that induces astrocytoma cell proliferation without an inflammatory response; which may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurologic Chagas disease. ..
  2. Huang X, Huang R, Gou S, Wang Z, Liao Z, Wang H. Platinum(IV) complexes conjugated with phenstatin analogue as inhibitors of microtubule polymerization and reverser of multidrug resistance. Bioorg Med Chem. 2017;25:4686-4700 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, complex 10 effectively inhibited the tumor growth in the NCI-H460 xenograft model. ..
  3. Zhang G, Yuan J, Qian G, Gu C, Wei K, Mo D, et al. Phthalazino[1,2-b]quinazolinones as p53 Activators: Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptotic Response and Bak-Bcl-xl Complex Reorganization in Bladder Cancer Cells. J Med Chem. 2017;60:6853-6866 pubmed publisher
    ..Our present studies furnish new insights into the molecular interactions and anticancer mechanisms of phospho-p53-dependent quinazolinone compound. ..
  4. Jaiswal H, Benada J, Müllers E, Akopyan K, Burdova K, Koolmeister T, et al. ATM/Wip1 activities at chromatin control Plk1 re-activation to determine G2 checkpoint duration. EMBO J. 2017;36:2161-2176 pubmed publisher
    ..Our model shows how cell cycle restart can occur before completion of DNA repair and suggests a mechanism for checkpoint adaptation in human cells. ..
  5. Aida S, Hozumi M, Ichikawa D, Iida K, Yonemura Y, Tabata N, et al. A novel phenylphthalimide derivative, pegylated TC11, improves pharmacokinetic properties and induces apoptosis of high-risk myeloma cells via G2/M cell-cycle arrest. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;493:514-520 pubmed publisher
    ..TC11 and its derivatives did not bind to cereblon (CRBN), which is a responsible molecule for thalidomide-induced teratogenicity. These results suggest that PEG(E)-TC11 is a good candidate drug for treating high-risk MM. ..
  6. Chang Y, Wu C, Tang J, Huang C, Liaw C, Wu S, et al. Sinularin induces oxidative stress-mediated G2/M arrest and apoptosis in oral cancer cells. Environ Toxicol. 2017;32:2124-2132 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, sinularin induces oxidative stress-mediated antiproliferation, G2/M arrest, and apoptosis against oral cancer cells and may be a potential marine drug for antioral cancer therapy. ..
  7. Vazquez Ortiz G, Chisholm C, Xu X, Lahusen T, Li C, Sakamuru S, et al. Drug repurposing screen identifies lestaurtinib amplifies the ability of the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 inhibitor AG14361 to kill breast cancer associated gene-1 mutant and wild type breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res. 2014;16:R67 pubmed publisher
    ..Each of these drugs has been approved for clinical trials for several different cancers, thus, their combination treatment should be applicable for a breast cancer trial in the future. ..
  8. Nikkilä J, Kumar R, Campbell J, Brandsma I, Pemberton H, Wallberg F, et al. Elevated APOBEC3B expression drives a kataegic-like mutation signature and replication stress-related therapeutic vulnerabilities in p53-defective cells. Br J Cancer. 2017;117:113-123 pubmed publisher
    ..Although loss of p53 might allow tumour cells to tolerate elevated APOBEC3B expression, continued expression of this enzyme might impart a number of therapeutic vulnerabilities upon tumour cells. ..
  9. Takahashi D, Orihara Y, Kitagawa S, Kusakabe M, Shintani T, Oma Y, et al. Quantitative regulation of histone variant H2A.Z during cell cycle by ubiquitin proteasome system and SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2017;81:1557-1560 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of H2A.Z induced defects in mitotic progression, suggesting functional importance of this quantitative control. ..
  10. Cave D, Desiderio V, Mosca L, Ilisso C, Mele L, Caraglia M, et al. S-Adenosylmethionine-mediated apoptosis is potentiated by autophagy inhibition induced by chloroquine in human breast cancer cells. J Cell Physiol. 2018;233:1370-1383 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest, for the first time, that autophagy can act as an escape mechanism from the apoptotic activity of AdoMet, and that AdoMet could be used in combination with CLC or its analogs in the treatment of breast cancer. ..
  11. Müllers E, Silva Cascales H, Burdova K, Macurek L, Lindqvist A. Residual Cdk1/2 activity after DNA damage promotes senescence. Aging Cell. 2017;16:575-584 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the same activity that triggers mitosis in an unperturbed cell cycle enforces senescence in the presence of DNA damage, ensuring a robust response when most needed. ..
  12. Nath S, Somyajit K, Mishra A, Scully R, Nagaraju G. FANCJ helicase controls the balance between short- and long-tract gene conversions between sister chromatids. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:8886-8900 pubmed publisher
    ..These data unravel the novel function of FANCJ helicase in regulating SCR and SCR associated gene amplification/duplications and imply that these functions of FANCJ are crucial for the genome maintenance and tumor suppression. ..
  13. Schmitt F, Gold M, Begemann G, Andronache I, Biersack B, Schobert R. Fluoro and pentafluorothio analogs of the antitumoral curcuminoid EF24 with superior antiangiogenic and vascular-disruptive effects. Bioorg Med Chem. 2017;25:4894-4903 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, 3c and 3d showed potential as vascular-disruptive agents in chorioallantoic/vitelline membrane (CA/VM) assays. ..
  14. Nan J, Guan S, Jin X, Jian Z, Linshan F, Jun G. Down-regulation of C-terminal binding protein 2 (CtBP2) inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion of human SHSY5Y cells in vitro. Neurosci Lett. 2017;647:104-109 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that CtBP2 may be a potential target to suppress tumorigenesis in neuroblastoma. ..
  15. Sivanand S, Rhoades S, Jiang Q, Lee J, Benci J, Zhang J, et al. Nuclear Acetyl-CoA Production by ACLY Promotes Homologous Recombination. Mol Cell. 2017;67:252-265.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon PARP inhibition, ACLY silencing promotes genomic instability and cell death. Thus, the spatial and temporal control of acetyl-CoA production by ACLY participates in the mechanism of DNA repair pathway choice. ..
  16. Sisinni L, Maddalena F, Condelli V, Pannone G, Simeon V, Li Bergolis V, et al. TRAP1 controls cell cycle G2-M transition through the regulation of CDK1 and MAD2 expression/ubiquitination. J Pathol. 2017;243:123-134 pubmed publisher
    ..Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ..
  17. Wang D, Tian Y, Feng W, Zhao L, Zhao M, Liu J, et al. Pseudolaric acid B induces endometrial cancer Ishikawa cell apoptosis and inhibits metastasis through AKT-GSK-3β and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Anticancer Drugs. 2017;28:603-612 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data indicated that PAB can be expected to be a novel treatment agent for endometrial cancer therapy. ..
  18. Liu Z, Lou H, Xie K, Wang H, Chen N, Aparicio O, et al. Reconstructing cell cycle pseudo time-series via single-cell transcriptome data. Nat Commun. 2017;8:22 pubmed publisher
  19. Glück S, Buttafuoco A, Meier A, Arnoldi F, Vogt B, Schraner E, et al. Rotavirus replication is correlated with S/G2 interphase arrest of the host cell cycle. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179607 pubmed publisher
    ..We used a MA104-Fucci system to identify three RV proteins (NSP3, NSP5, and VP2) involved in cell cycle arrest in the S-phase. Our data indicate that there is a strong correlation between the cell cycle arrest and RV replication. ..
  20. Sánchez Carranza J, Alvarez L, Marquina Bahena S, Salas Vidal E, Cuevas V, Jiménez E, et al. Phenolic Compounds Isolated from Caesalpinia coriaria Induce S and G2/M Phase Cell Cycle Arrest Differentially and Trigger Cell Death by Interfering with Microtubule Dynamics in Cancer Cell Lines. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    ..This work constitutes the first phytochemical and cytotoxic study of C. coriaria and showed the action of its phenolic constituents on cell cycle, cell death and microtubules organization. ..
  21. Lee E, An Y, Kwon J, Kim K, Jeon R. Optimization and biological evaluation of 2-aminobenzothiazole derivatives as Aurora B kinase inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem. 2017;25:3614-3622 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the reported compounds have the potential to be further developed as anticancer therapeutics. ..
  22. Ha S, Choi J, Min N, Lee K, Ham S. Inhibition of Importin ?1 With a 2-Aminothiazole Derivative Resulted in G2/M Cell-cycle Arrest and Apoptosis. Anticancer Res. 2017;37:2373-2379 pubmed
    ..Compound 1, as a KPNB1 inhibitor, might be a good target for future development of anticancer agents showing the activities of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. ..
  23. Sarin N, Engel F, Kalayda G, Mannewitz M, Cinatl J, Rothweiler F, et al. Cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer cells is associated with an abrogation of cisplatin-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181081 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these findings suggest that acquired resistance of NSCLC cells against cisplatin is the consequence of altered signaling leading to reduced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. ..
  24. Bai Z, Gao M, Zhang H, Guan Q, Xu J, Li Y, et al. BZML, a novel colchicine binding site inhibitor, overcomes multidrug resistance in A549/Taxol cells by inhibiting P-gp function and inducing mitotic catastrophe. Cancer Lett. 2017;402:81-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study also offers a new strategy to solve the problem of apoptosis-resistance. ..
  25. Yang Y, Gao Y, Mutter Rottmayer L, Zlatanou A, Durando M, Ding W, et al. DNA repair factor RAD18 and DNA polymerase Polκ confer tolerance of oncogenic DNA replication stress. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:3097-3115 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results show that the RAD18-Polκ signaling axis allows tolerance of CDK2-mediated oncogenic stress and may allow neoplastic cells to breach tumorigenic barriers. ..
  26. Le Gac G, Angenard G, Clement B, Laviolle B, Coulouarn C, Beloeil H. Local Anesthetics Inhibit the Growth of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells. Anesth Analg. 2017;125:1600-1609 pubmed publisher
    ..The data demonstrate that LAs induced profound modifications in gene expression profiles of tumor cells, including modulations in the expression of cell cycle-related genes that result in a cytostatic effect and induction of apoptosis. ..
  27. Erdmann K, Ringel J, Hampel S, Rieger C, Huebner D, Wirth M, et al. Chemosensitizing effects of carbon-based nanomaterials in cancer cells: enhanced apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation as underlying mechanisms. Nanotechnology. 2014;25:405102 pubmed
    ..The combination of carbon-based nanomaterials and conventional chemotherapeutics represents a novel approach in cancer therapy to bypass chemoresistance by minimizing the chemotherapeutic dosing. ..
  28. Li Y, Cui Y, Wang W, Ma M, Li M, Chen S. Effect of the Serum Inhibited Gene (Si1) on Autophagy and Apoptosis in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;41:2268-2278 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, it also improves the current understanding of the mechanisms related to the effect of Si1 on tumor cells and also provides a foundation for gene-targeted therapy. ..
  29. Li Y, Chen J, Liu Y, Zhang W, He W, Xu H, et al. Nanoscale quantification of the biophysical characterization of combretastatin A-4-treated tumor cells using atomic force microscopy. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179115 pubmed publisher
  30. Etti I, Abdullah R, Kadir A, Hashim N, Yeap S, Imam M, et al. The molecular mechanism of the anticancer effect of Artonin E in MDA-MB 231 triple negative breast cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182357 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, livin, a new member of the inhibitors of apoptosis was confirmed to be significantly repressed. In all, Artonin E showed the potential as a promising candidate to combat the aggressive triple negative breast cancer. ..
  31. Branzei D, Menolfi D. G2/M chromosome transactions essentially relying on Smc5/6. Cell Cycle. 2016;15:611-2 pubmed publisher
  32. Liu W, Wang X, Liu Z, Wang Y, Yin B, Yu P, et al. SGK1 inhibition induces autophagy-dependent apoptosis via the mTOR-Foxo3a pathway. Br J Cancer. 2017;117:1139-1153 pubmed publisher
    ..Although inhibition of SGK1 has been shown to delay cancer progression, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been elucidated...
  33. Jones M, Osawa G, Regal J, Weinberg D, Taggart J, Kocak H, et al. Hematopoietic stem cells are acutely sensitive to Acd shelterin gene inactivation. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:353-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the consequences of telomere shortening are progressive and unsynchronized, acute loss of shelterin function represents an attractive alternative for studying telomere crisis in hematopoietic progenitors. ..