anoikis

Summary

Summary: APOPTOSIS triggered by loss of contact with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.

Top Publications

  1. Demers M, Thibodeau S, Noël D, Fujita N, Tsuruo T, Gauthier R, et al. Intestinal epithelial cancer cell anoikis resistance: EGFR-mediated sustained activation of Src overrides Fak-dependent signaling to MEK/Erk and/or PI3-K/Akt-1. J Cell Biochem. 2009;107:639-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that: (1) cancer cells display striking anoikis resistance, as opposed to undifferentiated/differentiated IECs; (2) under anoikis conditions and consequent Fak ..
  2. Ivanova I, Vermeulen J, Ercan C, Houthuijzen J, Saig F, Vlug E, et al. FER kinase promotes breast cancer metastasis by regulating ?6- and ?1-integrin-dependent cell adhesion and anoikis resistance. Oncogene. 2013;32:5582-92 pubmed publisher
    ..FER drives anoikis resistance, regulates tumour growth and is necessary for metastasis in a mouse model of human breast cancer...
  3. Howe E, Cochrane D, Cittelly D, Richer J. miR-200c targets a NF-?B up-regulated TrkB/NTF3 autocrine signaling loop to enhance anoikis sensitivity in triple negative breast cancer. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49987 pubmed publisher
    b>Anoikis is apoptosis initiated upon cell detachment from the native extracellular matrix...
  4. Brunquell C, Biliran H, Jennings S, IRELAND S, Chen R, Ruoslahti E. TLE1 is an anoikis regulator and is downregulated by Bit1 in breast cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2012;10:1482-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we found that TLE1 is a regulator of anoikis in normal mammary epithelial and breast carcinoma cells...
  5. Kim J, Yu J, Ko E, Lee K, Song A, Park S, et al. The alkaloid Berberine inhibits the growth of Anoikis-resistant MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines by inducing cell cycle arrest. Phytomedicine. 2010;17:436-40 pubmed publisher
    ..has been established to inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells, but its effects on the drug resistance and anoikis-resistance of breast cancer cells have yet to be elucidated...
  6. Mawji I, Simpson C, Gronda M, Williams M, Hurren R, Henderson C, et al. A chemical screen identifies anisomycin as an anoikis sensitizer that functions by decreasing FLIP protein synthesis. Cancer Res. 2007;67:8307-15 pubmed
    ..apoptosis that normally occurs upon loss of anchorage from the extracellular matrix, a process termed "anoikis." Resistance to anoikis enables malignant cells to survive in an anchorage-independent manner, which leads ..
  7. Haenssen K, Caldwell S, Shahriari K, Jackson S, Whelan K, Klein Szanto A, et al. ErbB2 requires integrin alpha5 for anoikis resistance via Src regulation of receptor activity in human mammary epithelial cells. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:1373-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of ErbB2 causes anoikis resistance that contributes to luminal filling in three-dimensional mammary epithelial acinar structures in vitro...
  8. Huang R, Wong M, Tan T, Kuay K, Ng A, Chung V, et al. An EMT spectrum defines an anoikis-resistant and spheroidogenic intermediate mesenchymal state that is sensitive to e-cadherin restoration by a src-kinase inhibitor, saracatinib (AZD0530). Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e915 pubmed publisher
    ..characterised by high N-cadherin and ZEB1 expression and low E-cadherin and ERBB3/HER3 expression and are more anoikis-resistant and spheroidogenic...
  9. Songserm T, Pongrakhananon V, Chanvorachote P. Sub-toxic cisplatin mediates anoikis resistance through hydrogen peroxide-induced caveolin-1 up-regulation in non-small cell lung cancer cells. Anticancer Res. 2012;32:1659-69 pubmed
    ..the molecular basis of such a phenomenon is largely unclear, we investigated the possible impact of cisplatin on anoikis response on human lung carcinoma cells...

More Information

Publications61

  1. Li H, Baldwin B, Zahnow C. LIP expression is regulated by IGF-1R signaling and participates in suppression of anoikis. Mol Cancer. 2011;10:100 pubmed publisher
    ..Metastasis is highly dependent upon the suppression of anoikis and the role of C/EBP? and LIP in this anchorage-independent, survival process is currently not known in mammary ..
  2. Smit M, Peeper D. Zeb1 is required for TrkB-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition, anoikis resistance and metastasis. Oncogene. 2011;30:3735-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Anoikis (detachment-induced apoptosis) prevents the survival of cells at inappropriate sites of the body and can therefore act as a barrier to metastasis...
  3. Miñambres R, Guasch R, Perez Arago A, Guerri C. The RhoA/ROCK-I/MLC pathway is involved in the ethanol-induced apoptosis by anoikis in astrocytes. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:271-82 pubmed
    b>Anoikis is a programmed cell death induced by loss of anchorage that is involved in tissue homeostasis and disease. Ethanol is an important teratogen that induces marked central nervous system (CNS) dysfunctions...
  4. Bouchard V, Harnois C, Demers M, Thibodeau S, Laquerre V, Gauthier R, et al. B1 integrin/Fak/Src signaling in intestinal epithelial crypt cell survival: integration of complex regulatory mechanisms. Apoptosis. 2008;13:531-42 pubmed publisher
    The molecular determinants which dictate survival and apoptosis/anoikis in human intestinal crypt cells remain to be fully understood...
  5. Laguinge L, Samara R, Wang W, El Deiry W, Corner G, Augenlicht L, et al. DR5 receptor mediates anoikis in human colorectal carcinoma cell lines. Cancer Res. 2008;68:909-17 pubmed publisher
    ..cancer (CRC) cells metastasize to distant sites, they are susceptible to detachment-induced cell death or anoikis - a form of apoptosis that occurs when anchorage-dependent CRC cells go into suspension...
  6. Andre S, Sanchez Ruderisch H, Nakagawa H, Buchholz M, Kopitz J, Forberich P, et al. Tumor suppressor p16INK4a--modulator of glycomic profile and galectin-1 expression to increase susceptibility to carbohydrate-dependent induction of anoikis in pancreatic carcinoma cells. FEBS J. 2007;274:3233-56 pubmed
    ..tumor suppressor p16(INK4a) after stable transfection can restore the susceptibility of epithelial tumor cells to anoikis. This property is linked to increases in the expression and cell-surface presence of the fibronectin receptor...
  7. Kumar S, Banerjee R, Nandi N, Sardar A, Das P. Anoikis potential of Entameba histolytica secretory cysteine proteases: evidence of contact independent host cell death. Microb Pathog. 2012;52:69-76 pubmed publisher
    ..upon their detachment from the extracellular matrix (ECM) undergo a specialized kind of apoptosis, known as anoikis. Entameba histolytica cysteine proteases have been implicated in degradation of the host ECM, which may induce ..
  8. Zhu P, Tan M, Huang R, Tan C, Chong H, Pal M, et al. Angiopoietin-like 4 protein elevates the prosurvival intracellular O2(-):H2O2 ratio and confers anoikis resistance to tumors. Cancer Cell. 2011;19:401-15 pubmed publisher
    ..ratio of O(2)(-):H(2)O(2) oxidizes/activates Src, triggering the PI3K/PKB? and ERK prosurvival pathways to confer anoikis resistance, thus promoting tumor growth...
  9. Yamaki N, Negishi M, Katoh H. RhoG regulates anoikis through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent mechanism. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:2821-32 pubmed
    ..and proliferation, whereas disruption of this interaction causes epithelial cells to undergo apoptosis called anoikis. Here we show that the small GTPase RhoG plays an important role in the regulation of anoikis...
  10. Plotkin L, Manolagas S, Bellido T. Glucocorticoids induce osteocyte apoptosis by blocking focal adhesion kinase-mediated survival. Evidence for inside-out signaling leading to anoikis. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:24120-30 pubmed
    ..apoptosis via a receptor-mediated mechanism that does not require gene transcription and that is mediated by rapid activation of Pyk2 and JNK, followed by inside-out signaling that leads to cell detachment-induced apoptosis or anoikis.
  11. Pongrakhananon V, Nimmannit U, Luanpitpong S, Rojanasakul Y, Chanvorachote P. Curcumin sensitizes non-small cell lung cancer cell anoikis through reactive oxygen species-mediated Bcl-2 downregulation. Apoptosis. 2010;15:574-85 pubmed publisher
    b>Anoikis, an apoptosis triggered by loss of cell anchorage, has been shown to be a principal mechanism of inhibition of tumor metastasis...
  12. Hu B, An H, Shen K, Xu L, Du Q, Deng S, et al. Modified Yi Guan Jian, a Chinese herbal formula, induces anoikis in Bel-7402 human hepatocarcinoma cells in vitro. Oncol Rep. 2011;26:1465-70 pubmed publisher
    ..MYGJ also inhibited anchorage-independent growth of Bel-7402 cells in soft agar. MYGJ induced anoikis in Bel-7402 cells accompanied by caspase-3, -8 and -9 activation, which was blocked by the pan-..
  13. Park E, Park M, Lee S, Li Y, Kim J, Lee J, et al. Cholesterol depletion induces anoikis-like apoptosis via FAK down-regulation and caveolae internalization. J Pathol. 2009;218:337-49 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that cholesterol depletion induced an anoikis-like cell death involving actin reorganization, resulting in a decrease in cell spreading and an increase in cell ..
  14. Zhang X, Zhang B, Gao J, Wang X, Liu Z. Regulation of the microRNA 200b (miRNA-200b) by transcriptional regulators PEA3 and ELK-1 protein affects expression of Pin1 protein to control anoikis. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:32742-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Normally, cells will undergo anoikis after losing interaction with the extracellular matrix...
  15. Wang X, Wu Y, Ye B, Lin D, Feng Y, Zhang Z, et al. Suppression of anoikis by SKP2 amplification and overexpression promotes metastasis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:12-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockdown of SKP2 expression sensitized cancer cells to anoikis, and a wobble mutant of SKP2 that is resistant to SKP2 small interfering RNA can rescue this effect...
  16. Kochetkova M, Kumar S, McColl S. Chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 promote metastasis by preventing anoikis in cancer cells. Cell Death Differ. 2009;16:664-73 pubmed publisher
    ..here a novel property of the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 in inhibiting detachment-induced cell death--anoikis, which is believed to be one of the major blocks in the metastatic spread of various neoplasms...
  17. Battini L, Fedorova E, Macip S, Li X, Wilson P, Gusella G. Stable knockdown of polycystin-1 confers integrin-alpha2beta1-mediated anoikis resistance. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17:3049-58 pubmed
    ..seemed to be essential for the survival because PC1 knockdown cells were significantly less susceptible to anoikis by a mechanism that was reversible by anti-integrin-alpha2beta1 blocking antibodies...
  18. Zhang L, Wang X, Chen P. MiR-204 down regulates SIRT1 and reverts SIRT1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition, anoikis resistance and invasion in gastric cancer cells. BMC Cancer. 2013;13:290 pubmed publisher
    ..Annexin V/PI assay was used to investigate the cell sensitivity of anoikis. Western blot analysis to assess SIRT1, Vimentin, E-Cadherin, LKB1, and ?-actin expression was performed in ..
  19. Rafiq K, Hanscom M, Valerie K, Steinberg S, Sabri A. Novel mode for neutrophil protease cathepsin G-mediated signaling: membrane shedding of epidermal growth factor is required for cardiomyocyte anoikis. Circ Res. 2008;102:32-41 pubmed
    ..G) has been shown to induce neonatal rat cardiomyocyte detachment and apoptosis by anoikis. However, the involved signaling mechanisms for Cat.G are not well understood...
  20. Zhang Z, Han L, Cao L, Liang X, Liu Y, Liu H, et al. Aggregation formation mediated anoikis resistance of BEL7402 hepatoma cells. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2008;46:331-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Anoikis resistance is the prerequisite of cancer cells metastasis. Elucidation of the mechanism of anoikis resistance remains a significant challenge. We reported here a model to mimic anoikis resistant process of hepatoma cells in vitro...
  21. Harada K, Hiramoto Yamaki N, Negishi M, Katoh H. Ephexin4 and EphA2 mediate resistance to anoikis through RhoG and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Exp Cell Res. 2011;317:1701-13 pubmed publisher
    Disruption of cell-extracellular matrix interaction causes epithelial cells to undergo apoptosis called anoikis, and resistance to anoikis has been suggested to be a critical step for cancer cells to metastasize...
  22. Pallero M, Elzie C, Chen J, Mosher D, Murphy Ullrich J. Thrombospondin 1 binding to calreticulin-LRP1 signals resistance to anoikis. FASEB J. 2008;22:3968-79 pubmed publisher
    b>Anoikis, apoptotic cell death due to loss of cell adhesion, is critical for regulation of tissue homeostasis in tissue remodeling. Fibrogenesis is associated with reduced fibroblast apoptosis...
  23. Lee H, Park S, Kim J, Kim J, Kim H. Entrapped doxorubicin nanoparticles for the treatment of metastatic anoikis-resistant cancer cells. Cancer Lett. 2013;332:110-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, anoikis-resistant breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 were developed as models of chemoresistant and metastatic ..
  24. Liu G, Meng X, Jin Y, Bai J, Zhao Y, Cui X, et al. Inhibitory role of focal adhesion kinase on anoikis in the lung cancer cell A549. Cell Biol Int. 2008;32:663-70 pubmed publisher
    Resistance to anoikis is a characteristic of malignant cells with increased tumorigenesis and metastasis...
  25. Sanchez Ruderisch H, Detjen K, Welzel M, Andre S, Fischer C, Gabius H, et al. Galectin-1 sensitizes carcinoma cells to anoikis via the fibronectin receptor ?5?1-integrin. Cell Death Differ. 2011;18:806-16 pubmed publisher
    b>Anoikis resistance is a hallmark of transformed epithelial cells...
  26. Guadamillas M, Cerezo A, Del Pozo M. Overcoming anoikis--pathways to anchorage-independent growth in cancer. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:3189-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Anoikis (or cell-detachment-induced apoptosis) is a self-defense strategy that organisms use to eliminate 'misplaced' cells, i.e. cells that are in an inappropriate location...
  27. Bertrand K. Survival of exfoliated epithelial cells: a delicate balance between anoikis and apoptosis. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2011;2011:534139 pubmed publisher
    ..Such exfoliated cells are believed to enter rapidly in anoikis after exfoliation...
  28. Zhang Y, Yang M, Ji Q, Fan D, Peng H, Yang C, et al. Anoikis induction and metastasis suppression by a new integrin ?v?3 inhibitor in human melanoma cell line M21. Invest New Drugs. 2011;29:666-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the induction effects of anoikis in human melanoma cell line M21 by IH1062, by detecting caspase activity, measuring the expression levels of ..
  29. Lee H, Yang W, Hour M, Wu C, Peng W, Bao B, et al. Photodynamic activity of aloe-emodin induces resensitization of lung cancer cells to anoikis. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;648:50-8 pubmed publisher
    ..aloe-emodin-induced disruption of cytoskeleton, we verify that aloe-emodin with irradiation induces anoikis of H460 cells...
  30. Wei L, Dai Q, Zhou Y, Zou M, Li Z, Lu N, et al. Oroxylin A sensitizes non-small cell lung cancer cells to anoikis via glucose-deprivation-like mechanisms: c-Src and hexokinase II. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1830:3835-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro studies were performed using 2D and 3D conditions. The effects on anoikis-sensitization and glycolysis-inhibition of oroxylin A in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells were ..
  31. Park S, Riley P, Frisch S. Regulation of anoikis by deleted in breast cancer-1 (DBC1) through NF-κB. Apoptosis. 2013;18:949-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Anoikis-resistance of tumor cells is critical for anchorage-independent growth and metastasis...
  32. Simpson C, Mawji I, Anyiwe K, Williams M, Wang X, Venugopal A, et al. Inhibition of the sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase pump sensitizes cancer cells to anoikis and prevents distant tumor formation. Cancer Res. 2009;69:2739-47 pubmed publisher
    Normal epithelial cells undergo apoptosis upon detachment from the extracellular matrix, a process termed "anoikis." However, malignant epithelial cells with metastatic potential resist anoikis and can survive in an anchorage-..
  33. Howard E, Leung S, Yuen H, Chua C, Lee D, Chan K, et al. Decreased adhesiveness, resistance to anoikis and suppression of GRP94 are integral to the survival of circulating tumor cells in prostate cancer. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2008;25:497-508 pubmed publisher
    ..We also indicate the novel involvement of GRP94 suppression in prostate cancer metastasis. ..
  34. Diaz Montero C, Wygant J, McIntyre B. PI3-K/Akt-mediated anoikis resistance of human osteosarcoma cells requires Src activation. Eur J Cancer. 2006;42:1491-500 pubmed
    Considerable advances in understanding the mechanisms associated with anoikis resistance of normal and malignant epithelial cells have been made...
  35. Marconi A, Dallaglio K, Lotti R, Vaschieri C, Truzzi F, Fantini F, et al. Survivin identifies keratinocyte stem cells and is downregulated by anti-beta1 integrin during anoikis. Stem Cells. 2007;25:149-55 pubmed
    ..Blocking beta1 integrin signal downregulates WT survivin mRNA and protein expression and induces apoptosis (anoikis) in KSCs. On the other hand, inhibition of beta1 integrin upregulates mRNA expression of survivin-2alpha...
  36. Kamarajugadda S, Stemboroski L, Cai Q, Simpson N, Nayak S, Tan M, et al. Glucose oxidation modulates anoikis and tumor metastasis. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:1893-907 pubmed publisher
    ..glycolysis or the Warburg effect, and the cells resist matrix detachment-induced apoptosis, which is called anoikis, a barrier to metastasis. It remains largely unclear whether tumor metabolism influences anoikis and metastasis...
  37. Sood A, Lutgendorf S. Stress influences on anoikis. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011;4:481-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, stress hormones can have a significant impact on protecting cancer cells from undergoing the anoikis form of programmed cell death, thus, providing a mechanistic advantage for metastasis...
  38. Sakuma Y, Yamazaki Y, Nakamura Y, Yoshihara M, Matsukuma S, Nakayama H, et al. WZ4002, a third-generation EGFR inhibitor, can overcome anoikis resistance in EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinomas more efficiently than Src inhibitors. Lab Invest. 2012;92:371-83 pubmed publisher
    Src has a role in the anoikis resistance in lung adenocarcinomas...
  39. Benoit Y, Larrivée J, Groulx J, Stankova J, Vachon P, Beaulieu J. Integrin alpha8beta1 confers anoikis susceptibility to human intestinal epithelial crypt cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;399:434-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we show that the integrin alpha8 shRNA-mediated knockdown in HIECs leads to a decrease in anoikis susceptibility under cell suspension culture conditions, marked by a reduction in PARP cleavage and propidium ..
  40. Zhao Q, Barclay M, Hilkens J, Guo X, Barrow H, Rhodes J, et al. Interaction between circulating galectin-3 and cancer-associated MUC1 enhances tumour cell homotypic aggregation and prevents anoikis. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:154 pubmed publisher
    ..the survival of the tumour cells under anchorage-independent conditions by allowing them to avoid initiation of anoikis (suspension-induced apoptosis)...
  41. Yu X, Liu L, Cai B, He Y, Wan X. Suppression of anoikis by the neurotrophic receptor TrkB in human ovarian cancer. Cancer Sci. 2008;99:543-52 pubmed publisher
    TrkB is a neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor (Trk). To investigate its role in anoikis suppression in human ovarian cancer, we used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and real-time polymerase chain reaction, ..
  42. Yoo B, Berezkin A, Wang Y, Zagryazhskaya A, Rosen K. Tumor suppressor protein kinase Chk2 is a mediator of anoikis of intestinal epithelial cells. Int J Cancer. 2012;131:357-66 pubmed publisher
    Resistance of carcinoma cells to anoikis, apoptosis that is normally induced by detachment of nonmalignant epithelial cells from the extracellular matrix, is thought to be critical for carcinoma progression...
  43. Benoit D, Tripodi M, Blanchette J, Langer S, Leinwand L, Anseth K. Integrin-linked kinase production prevents anoikis in human mesenchymal stem cells. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2007;81:259-68 pubmed
    ..integrin-linked kinase (ILK) to understand the role of cell-ECM signal transduction cascades in suppressing anoikis. Survivability of ILK-infected hMSCs encapsulated in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels, an anoikis-inducing ..
  44. Kamarajan P, Alhazzazi T, Danciu T, D Silva N, Verdin E, Kapila Y. Receptor-interacting protein (RIP) and Sirtuin-3 (SIRT3) are on opposite sides of anoikis and tumorigenesis. Cancer. 2012;118:5800-10 pubmed publisher
    Regulating cross-talk between anoikis and survival signaling pathways is crucial to regulating tissue processes and mitigating diseases like cancer...
  45. Mailleux A, Overholtzer M, Schmelzle T, Bouillet P, Strasser A, Brugge J. BIM regulates apoptosis during mammary ductal morphogenesis, and its absence reveals alternative cell death mechanisms. Dev Cell. 2007;12:221-34 pubmed
    ..These data provide important mechanistic information on the processes involved in sculpting the mammary gland and demonstrate that BIM is a critical regulator of apoptosis in vivo. ..
  46. Zheng Y, Gierut J, Wang Z, Miao J, Asara J, Tyner A. Protein tyrosine kinase 6 protects cells from anoikis by directly phosphorylating focal adhesion kinase and activating AKT. Oncogene. 2013;32:4304-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of FAK and Palm-PTK6-YF in Fak-/- MEFs synergistically activates AKT and protects cells against anoikis. However, expression of Palm-PTK6-YF in Akt1/2-/- MEFs fails to protect cells from anoikis, indicating AKT is ..
  47. Coates J, Galante J, Bold R. Cancer therapy beyond apoptosis: autophagy and anoikis as mechanisms of cell death. J Surg Res. 2010;164:301-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Anoikis is also a physiologic process in normal cells used to maintain homeostasis, in which cell death is induced in ..
  48. Smit M, Geiger T, Song J, Gitelman I, Peeper D. A Twist-Snail axis critical for TrkB-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like transformation, anoikis resistance, and metastasis. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:3722-37 pubmed publisher
    In a genomewide anoikis suppression screen for metastasis genes, we previously identified the neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase TrkB. In mouse xenografts, activated TrkB caused highly invasive and metastatic tumors...
  49. Voulgari A, Pintzas A. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer metastasis: mechanisms, markers and strategies to overcome drug resistance in the clinic. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1796:75-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, it cites the recent literature concerning the mechanisms of drug resistance related to EMT in the context of anti-tumour therapies and proposes related new targets for therapy. ..
  50. Goldstein N, Johannes W, Gadeliya A, Green M, Fujita M, Norris D, et al. Active N-Ras and B-Raf inhibit anoikis by downregulating Bim expression in melanocytic cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:432-7 pubmed publisher
    ..contribute to melanoma's resistance to apoptosis induced by detachment from the extracellular matrix (anoikis)...
  51. Kandala P, Srivastava S. Diindolylmethane-mediated Gli1 protein suppression induces anoikis in ovarian cancer cells in vitro and blocks tumor formation ability in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:28745-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Anoikis is a cell death that occurs due to detachment of a cell from the extracellular matrix (ECM). Resistance to anoikis is a primary feature of a cell that undergoes metastasis...
  52. DeMasi J, Chao M, Kumar A, Howley P. Bovine papillomavirus E7 oncoprotein inhibits anoikis. J Virol. 2007;81:9419-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that BPV-1 E6 and E7 can each independently inhibit anoikis, a type of apoptosis that is induced upon cell detachment...