cell polarity


Summary: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.

Top Publications

  1. Mason F, Tworoger M, Martin A. Apical domain polarization localizes actin-myosin activity to drive ratchet-like apical constriction. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:926-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, Twist establishes radial cell polarity of Rok/Myo-II and E-cadherin and promotes medioapical actin assembly in mesoderm cells to stabilize cell shape ..
  2. Akhtar N, Streuli C. An integrin-ILK-microtubule network orients cell polarity and lumen formation in glandular epithelium. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:17-27 pubmed
    ..We propose that this integrin signalling network controls the delivery of apical components to the correct surface and thereby governs the orientation of polarity and development of lumens. ..
  3. Bassuk A, Muthuswamy L, Boland R, Smith T, Hulstrand A, Northrup H, et al. Copy number variation analysis implicates the cell polarity gene glypican 5 as a human spina bifida candidate gene. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:1097-111 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, glypicans function in the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, and several PCP genes have been associated with NTDs...
  4. Dodgson J, Chessel A, Yamamoto M, Vaggi F, Cox S, Rosten E, et al. Spatial segregation of polarity factors into distinct cortical clusters is required for cell polarity control. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1834 pubmed publisher
    b>Cell polarity is regulated by evolutionarily conserved polarity factors whose precise higher-order organization at the cell cortex is largely unknown...
  5. Farías G, Cuitino L, Guo X, Ren X, Jarnik M, Mattera R, et al. Signal-mediated, AP-1/clathrin-dependent sorting of transmembrane receptors to the somatodendritic domain of hippocampal neurons. Neuron. 2012;75:810-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight the primary recognition event that underlies somatodendritic sorting and contribute to the evolving view of AP-1 as a global regulator of cell polarity.
  6. Angus K, Griffiths G. Cell polarisation and the immunological synapse. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2013;25:85-91 pubmed publisher
    ..of the immunological synapse at the site of cell-cell contact, concomitant with a dramatic induction of cell polarity. Recent findings provide us with insights into the various steps that are required for these processes: for ..
  7. Lawrence P, Casal J. The mechanisms of planar cell polarity, growth and the Hippo pathway: some known unknowns. Dev Biol. 2013;377:1-8 pubmed publisher
    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is a small but important area of research...
  8. Fievet B, Rodriguez J, Naganathan S, Lee C, Zeiser E, Ishidate T, et al. Systematic genetic interaction screens uncover cell polarity regulators and functional redundancy. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:103-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed RNAi screens for 17 Caenorhabditis elegans cell polarity mutants, generating the most comprehensive polarity network in a metazoan, connecting 184 genes...
  9. Struhl G, Casal J, Lawrence P. Dissecting the molecular bridges that mediate the function of Frizzled in planar cell polarity. Development. 2012;139:3665-74 pubmed publisher
    Many epithelia have a common planar cell polarity (PCP), as exemplified by the consistent orientation of hairs on mammalian skin and insect cuticle...

More Information


  1. Kuss P, Kraft K, Stumm J, Ibrahim D, Vallecillo García P, Mundlos S, et al. Regulation of cell polarity in the cartilage growth plate and perichondrium of metacarpal elements by HOXD13 and WNT5A. Dev Biol. 2014;385:83-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed a similar cell polarity defect in metacarpals of Wnt5a(-/-) mice...
  2. Andreeva A, Lee J, Lohia M, Wu X, Macara I, Lu X. PTK7-Src signaling at epithelial cell contacts mediates spatial organization of actomyosin and planar cell polarity. Dev Cell. 2014;29:20-33 pubmed publisher
    ..During mammalian development, PTK7 regulates epithelial morphogenesis and planar cell polarity (PCP) through modulation of actomyosin contractility, but the underlying mechanism is unknown...
  3. Artus C, Glacial F, Ganeshamoorthy K, Ziegler N, Godet M, Guilbert T, et al. The Wnt/planar cell polarity signaling pathway contributes to the integrity of tight junctions in brain endothelial cells. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2014;34:433-40 pubmed publisher
    ..independent signaling pathways, this study was designed to assess whether the noncanonical Wnt/Par/aPKC planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway might also control TJ integrity in brain endothelial cells...
  4. Mayor R, Theveneau E. The role of the non-canonical Wnt-planar cell polarity pathway in neural crest migration. Biochem J. 2014;457:19-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent work performed in chicks, zebrafish and frogs has shown that the non-canonical Wnt-PCP (planar cell polarity) pathway plays a major role in neural crest migration...
  5. Peña E, Heinlein M. Cortical microtubule-associated ER sites: organization centers of cell polarity and communication. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2013;16:764-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that viruses interact with such hubs for replication and intercellular spread. ..
  6. Luga V, Wrana J. Tumor-stroma interaction: Revealing fibroblast-secreted exosomes as potent regulators of Wnt-planar cell polarity signaling in cancer metastasis. Cancer Res. 2013;73:6843-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The Wnt-planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway is the primary regulator of convergent extension cell movements during vertebrate development, ..
  7. David D, Wang Q, Feng J, Harris T. Bazooka inhibits aPKC to limit antagonism of actomyosin networks during amnioserosa apical constriction. Development. 2013;140:4719-29 pubmed publisher
    ..This later impact of aPKC inhibition is supported by mathematical modelling of the system. Overall, this work illustrates how shifting chemical signals can tune actomyosin network behaviour during development. ..
  8. Macara I, McCaffrey L. Cell polarity in morphogenesis and metastasis. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2013;368:20130012 pubmed publisher
    ..characteristics, and until recently there has been little conclusive evidence for an involvement of the cell polarity machinery in tumour growth and metastasis...
  9. Simões S, Mainieri A, Zallen J. Rho GTPase and Shroom direct planar polarized actomyosin contractility during convergent extension. J Cell Biol. 2014;204:575-89 pubmed publisher
  10. Cui C, Chatterjee B, Lozito T, Zhang Z, Francis R, Yagi H, et al. Wdpcp, a PCP protein required for ciliogenesis, regulates directional cell migration and cell polarity by direct modulation of the actin cytoskeleton. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001720 pubmed publisher
    Planar cell polarity (PCP) regulates cell alignment required for collective cell movement during embryonic development...
  11. Bloch D, Yalovsky S. Cell polarity signaling. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2013;16:734-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Cell polarity is a fundamental entity of living organisms...
  12. Guo X, Mattera R, Ren X, Chen Y, Retamal C, González A, et al. The adaptor protein-1 μ1B subunit expands the repertoire of basolateral sorting signal recognition in epithelial cells. Dev Cell. 2013;27:353-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that expression of distinct μ1 isoforms in epithelial cells expands the repertoire of signals recognized by AP-1 for sorting of a broader range of cargoes to the basolateral surface. ..
  13. Prunskaite Hyyryläinen R, Shan J, Railo A, Heinonen K, Miinalainen I, Yan W, et al. Wnt4, a pleiotropic signal for controlling cell polarity, basement membrane integrity, and antimüllerian hormone expression during oocyte maturation in the female follicle. FASEB J. 2014;28:1568-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These anomalies were associated with cell polarity defects in the follicle...
  14. Revenu C, Streichan S, Donà E, Lecaudey V, Hufnagel L, Gilmour D. Quantitative cell polarity imaging defines leader-to-follower transitions during collective migration and the key role of microtubule-dependent adherens junction formation. Development. 2014;141:1282-91 pubmed publisher
    ..A readout of three-dimensional cell polarity, based on centrosomal-nucleus axes, allows the transition from migrating leaders to assembled followers to be ..
  15. Rodriguez Boulan E, Macara I. Organization and execution of the epithelial polarity programme. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2014;15:225-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have provided insight into the interactions of the EPP with the polarized trafficking machinery and how these regulate epithelial polarization and depolarization. ..
  16. Williams M, Yen W, Lu X, Sutherland A. Distinct apical and basolateral mechanisms drive planar cell polarity-dependent convergent extension of the mouse neural plate. Dev Cell. 2014;29:34-46 pubmed publisher
    ..as shown by failure of mediolateral intercalation in embryos mutant for two proteins associated with planar cell polarity signaling: Vangl2 and Ptk7...
  17. Nechiporuk T, Klezovitch O, Nguyen L, Vasioukhin V. Dlg5 maintains apical aPKC and regulates progenitor differentiation during lung morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2013;377:375-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Cell polarity plays an important role in tissue morphogenesis; however, the mechanisms of polarity and their role in mammalian development are still poorly understood...
  18. Abley K, de Reuille P, Strutt D, Bangham A, Prusinkiewicz P, Marée A, et al. An intracellular partitioning-based framework for tissue cell polarity in plants and animals. Development. 2013;140:2061-74 pubmed publisher
    Tissue cell polarity plays a major role in plant and animal development...
  19. Peng Y, Axelrod J. Asymmetric protein localization in planar cell polarity: mechanisms, puzzles, and challenges. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2012;101:33-53 pubmed publisher
    ..now studied in many model organisms, mechanistic understanding is rooted in intensive investigations of planar cell polarity (PCP) in Drosophila...
  20. Bergstralh D, Lovegrove H, St Johnston D. Discs large links spindle orientation to apical-basal polarity in Drosophila epithelia. Curr Biol. 2013;23:1707-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, different mechanisms recruit the conserved Dlg/Pins/Mud complex to orient the spindle in opposite directions in distinct cell types. ..
  21. Tanaka H, Kitakura S, Rakusová H, Uemura T, Feraru M, De Rycke R, et al. Cell polarity and patterning by PIN trafficking through early endosomal compartments in Arabidopsis thaliana. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003540 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that early endosomal trafficking is crucial for cell polarity and auxin-dependent regulation of plant architecture.
  22. Treyer A, Müsch A. Hepatocyte polarity. Compr Physiol. 2013;3:243-87 pubmed publisher
  23. Gao B. Wnt regulation of planar cell polarity (PCP). Curr Top Dev Biol. 2012;101:263-95 pubmed publisher
    Planar cell polarity (PCP), a process controlling coordinated, uniformly polarized cellular behaviors in a field of cells, has been identified to be critically required for many fundamental developmental processes...
  24. Tada M, Kai M. Planar cell polarity in coordinated and directed movements. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2012;101:77-110 pubmed publisher
    Planar cell polarity is a fundamental concept to understanding the coordination of cell movements in the plane of a tissue...
  25. Momose T, Kraus Y, Houliston E. A conserved function for Strabismus in establishing planar cell polarity in the ciliated ectoderm during cnidarian larval development. Development. 2012;139:4374-82 pubmed publisher
    Functional and morphological planar cell polarity (PCP) oriented along the oral-aboral body axis is clearly evident in the ectoderm of torpedo-shaped planula larvae of hydrozoan cnidarians such as Clytia hemisphaerica...
  26. McKinley R, Harris T. Displacement of basolateral Bazooka/PAR-3 by regulated transport and dispersion during epithelial polarization in Drosophila. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:4465-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work complements recent findings in Caenorhabditis elegans and thus suggests the coupling of transport and dispersion is a common protein polarization strategy...
  27. Mahaffey J, Grego Bessa J, Liem K, Anderson K. Cofilin and Vangl2 cooperate in the initiation of planar cell polarity in the mouse embryo. Development. 2013;140:1262-71 pubmed publisher
    The planar cell polarity (PCP; non-canonical Wnt) pathway is required to orient the cells within the plane of an epithelium...
  28. Slaughter B, Unruh J, Das A, Smith S, Rubinstein B, Li R. Non-uniform membrane diffusion enables steady-state cell polarization via vesicular trafficking. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1380 pubmed publisher
    ..in cell polarization, but it was recently debated whether this mechanism allows stable maintenance of cell polarity. Here we show that endocytosis and exocytosis are spatially segregated in the polar plasma membrane, with ..
  29. Harris H, Clerte C, Farquhar M, Goodall M, Hu K, Rassam P, et al. Hepatoma polarization limits CD81 and hepatitis C virus dynamics. Cell Microbiol. 2013;15:430-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these data highlight the dynamic nature of CD81 and demonstrate a role for CD81 lateral diffusion to regulate HCV infection in a polarization-dependent manner. ..
  30. Choi W, Harris N, Sumigray K, Peifer M. Rap1 and Canoe/afadin are essential for establishment of apical-basal polarity in the Drosophila embryo. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:945-63 pubmed publisher
    The establishment and maintenance of apical-basal cell polarity is critical for assembling epithelia and maintaining organ architecture. Drosophila embryos provide a superb model...
  31. Singh J, Mlodzik M. Planar cell polarity signaling: coordination of cellular orientation across tissues. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Dev Biol. 2012;1:479-99 pubmed
    Establishment of Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) in epithelia, in the plane of an epithelium, is an important feature of the development and homeostasis of most organs...
  32. Dohn M, Mundell N, Sawyer L, Dunlap J, Jessen J. Planar cell polarity proteins differentially regulate extracellular matrix organization and assembly during zebrafish gastrulation. Dev Biol. 2013;383:39-51 pubmed publisher
    ..of dynamic changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) organization and require the concerted action of planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins that regulate cell elongation and mediolateral alignment...
  33. Gerisch G, Schroth Diez B, Müller Taubenberger A, Ecke M. PIP3 waves and PTEN dynamics in the emergence of cell polarity. Biophys J. 2012;103:1170-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Actin clusters were remodeled into a ring along the perimeter of the expanding PIP3 wave. The reverse transition of PIP3 to PTEN was linked to the previous site of wave initiation: where PIP3 decayed first, the entry of PTEN was primed. ..
  34. Moschou P, Smertenko A, Minina E, Fukada K, Savenkov E, Robert S, et al. The caspase-related protease separase (extra spindle poles) regulates cell polarity and cytokinesis in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2013;25:2171-86 pubmed publisher
    Vesicle trafficking plays an important role in cell division, establishment of cell polarity, and translation of environmental cues to developmental responses...
  35. McCloskey R, Kemphues K. Deubiquitylation machinery is required for embryonic polarity in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003092 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans raises the possibility that these DUBs act through an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to control cell polarity.
  36. Chaki S, Barhoumi R, Berginski M, Sreenivasappa H, Trache A, Gomez S, et al. Nck enables directional cell migration through the coordination of polarized membrane protrusion with adhesion dynamics. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:1637-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this study identifies Nck as a key coordinator of cytoskeletal changes that enable cell polarization and directional migration, which are crucial processes in development and disease. ..
  37. Bulyha I, Lindow S, Lin L, Bolte K, Wuichet K, Kahnt J, et al. Two small GTPases act in concert with the bactofilin cytoskeleton to regulate dynamic bacterial cell polarity. Dev Cell. 2013;25:119-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Cell polarity is essential for many bacterial activities, but the mechanisms responsible for its establishment are poorly understood...
  38. Yang Y, de la Roche M, Crawley S, Li Z, Furmaniak Kazmierczak E, C t G. PakB binds to the SH3 domain of Dictyostelium Abp1 and regulates its effects on cell polarity and early development. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:2216-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that PakB plays a critical role in regulating the cellular functions of dAbp1, which are mediated largely by its SH3 domain...
  39. Hebert A, DUBOFF B, Casaletto J, Gladden A, McClatchey A. Merlin/ERM proteins establish cortical asymmetry and centrosome position. Genes Dev. 2012;26:2709-23 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins in spatiotemporally organizing the cell cortex and suggest that Merlin's role in restricting cortical Ezrin may contribute to tumorigenesis by disrupting cell polarity, spindle orientation, and, potentially, genome stability.
  40. Oubaha M, Lin M, Margaron Y, Filion D, Price E, Zon L, et al. Formation of a PKC?/?-catenin complex in endothelial cells promotes angiopoietin-1-induced collective directional migration and angiogenic sprouting. Blood. 2012;120:3371-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal that PKC? and ?-catenin function in a complex at adherens junctions and at the leading edge of migrating endothelial cells to modulate collective and directional migration during angiogenesis. ..
  41. Vaggi F, Dodgson J, Bajpai A, Chessel A, Jordán F, Sato M, et al. Linkers of cell polarity and cell cycle regulation in the fission yeast protein interaction network. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012;8:e1002732 pubmed publisher
    ..the method on a highly characterized subset of the genome consisting of proteins controlling the cell cycle, cell polarity and cytokinesis and identify proteins likely to play a key role in controlling the temporal changes in the ..
  42. Lan C, Huang X, Lin S, Huang H, Cai Q, Wan T, et al. Expression of M2-polarized macrophages is associated with poor prognosis for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2013;12:259-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that the infiltration of CD163-positive M2 macrophages as well as activation of macrophages towards the M2 phenotype may contribute to poor survival in advanced ovarian cancer. ..
  43. Hoege C, Hyman A. Principles of PAR polarity in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2013;14:315-22 pubmed publisher
    A hallmark of cell polarity in metazoans is the distribution of partitioning defective (PAR) proteins into two domains on the membrane...
  44. Adler P, Sobala L, Thom D, Nagaraj R. dusky-like is required to maintain the integrity and planar cell polarity of hairs during the development of the Drosophila wing. Dev Biol. 2013;379:76-91 pubmed publisher
    ..the adult Drosophila epidermis and the denticles found on the embryo have been used in studies on planar cell polarity and as models for the cytoskeletal mediated morphogenesis of cellular extensions...
  45. Sawa H. Control of cell polarity and asymmetric division in C. elegans. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2012;101:55-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike the PCP pathway that regulates cell polarity in other organisms, this Wnt pathway in C. elegans requires ?-catenin...
  46. Cortijo C, Gouzi M, Tissir F, Grapin Botton A. Planar cell polarity controls pancreatic beta cell differentiation and glucose homeostasis. Cell Rep. 2012;2:1593-606 pubmed publisher
    Planar cell polarity (PCP) refers to the collective orientation of cells within the epithelial plane. We show that progenitor cells forming the ducts of the embryonic pancreas express PCP proteins and exhibit an active PCP pathway...
  47. Noatynska A, Tavernier N, Gotta M, Pintard L. Coordinating cell polarity and cell cycle progression: what can we learn from flies and worms?. Open Biol. 2013;3:130083 pubmed publisher
    ..In recent years, emerging data have strengthened the notion that tight coupling of cell cycle progression and cell polarity in dividing cells is crucial for asymmetric cell division and ultimately for metazoan development...
  48. Gao B, Yang Y. Planar cell polarity in vertebrate limb morphogenesis. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2013;23:438-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway that controls uniformly polarized cell behaviors in a field of cells has emerged to be critical ..
  49. Escobedo N, Contreras O, Muñoz R, Farías M, Carrasco H, Hill C, et al. Syndecan 4 interacts genetically with Vangl2 to regulate neural tube closure and planar cell polarity. Development. 2013;140:3008-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that Sdc4 can participate in the Wnt/PCP pathway, unveiling its importance during neural tube closure in mammalian embryos. ..
  50. Tissir F, Goffinet A. Shaping the nervous system: role of the core planar cell polarity genes. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2013;14:525-35 pubmed publisher
    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is complementary to the intrinsic polarization of single cells and refers to the global coordination of cell behaviour in the plane of a tissue and, by extension, to the signalling pathways that control it...
  51. Hase K, Nakatsu F, Ohmae M, Sugihara K, Shioda N, Takahashi D, et al. AP-1B-mediated protein sorting regulates polarity and proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells in mice. Gastroenterology. 2013;145:625-35 pubmed publisher
    ..cells, protein sorting mechanisms regulate localization of plasma membrane proteins that generate and maintain cell polarity. The clathrin-adaptor protein (AP) complex AP-1B is expressed specifically in polarized epithelial cells, ..
  52. Goehring N, Grill S. Cell polarity: mechanochemical patterning. Trends Cell Biol. 2013;23:72-80 pubmed publisher
    ..spatial patterning in reaction-diffusion systems - provides a framework for understanding many cases of cell polarity. Importantly, we find that the core ingredients in this framework - symmetry breaking, self-amplifying ..
  53. Buckley C, Ren X, Ward L, Girdler G, Araya C, Green M, et al. Mirror-symmetric microtubule assembly and cell interactions drive lumen formation in the zebrafish neural rod. EMBO J. 2013;32:30-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the midline division is not necessary for apical polarisation, it confers a morphogenetic advantage by efficiently eliminating cellular processes that would otherwise bridge the developing lumen. ..
  54. Srinivasan K, Wright G, Hames N, Housman M, Roberts A, Aufderheide K, et al. Delineating the core regulatory elements crucial for directed cell migration by examining folic-acid-mediated responses. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:221-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that similar components control gradient sensing during FA- and cAMP-mediated motility, but the response of polarized cells is more stable, which ultimately helps maintain their directionality. ..
  55. Sharma P, McNeill H. Regulation of long-range planar cell polarity by Fat-Dachsous signaling. Development. 2013;140:3869-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Ft) and Dachsous (Ds) are large cadherins that bind each other and have conserved roles in regulating planar cell polarity (PCP)...
  56. Wu J, Roman A, Carvajal Gonzalez J, Mlodzik M. Wg and Wnt4 provide long-range directional input to planar cell polarity orientation in Drosophila. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:1045-55 pubmed publisher
    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is cellular polarity within the plane of an epithelial tissue or organ...
  57. Chen J, Zhang M. The Par3/Par6/aPKC complex and epithelial cell polarity. Exp Cell Res. 2013;319:1357-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Both internal polarity factors and the external extracellular matrices play fundamental roles in epithelial cell polarity establishment and maintenance...
  58. Thapa N, Anderson R. PIP2 signaling, an integrator of cell polarity and vesicle trafficking in directionally migrating cells. Cell Adh Migr. 2012;6:409-12 pubmed publisher
    ..overview of our current understandings on the phosphoinositide signaling and its implication in regulation of cell polarity and vesicle trafficking in migrating cells...