Summary: A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.

Top Publications

  1. Bigby J, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M, Weaver J. Articaine for supplemental intraosseous anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis. J Endod. 2006;32:1044-7 pubmed
  2. Moore P, Boynes S, Hersh E, DeRossi S, Sollecito T, Goodson J, et al. The anesthetic efficacy of 4 percent articaine 1:200,000 epinephrine: two controlled clinical trials. J Am Dent Assoc. 2006;137:1572-81 pubmed
    ..The authors found that the A200 formulation provided a level of pulpal anesthesia comparable with that of the A100 formulation. ..
  3. Pogrel M. Permanent nerve damage from inferior alveolar nerve blocks--an update to include articaine. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2007;35:271-3 pubmed
    ..Nerve blocks can cause permanent damage to the nerves, independent of the local anesthetic used. Articaine is associated with this phenomenon in proportion to its usage. ..
  4. Elad S, Admon D, Kedmi M, Naveh E, Benzki E, Ayalon S, et al. The cardiovascular effect of local anesthesia with articaine plus 1:200,000 adrenalin versus lidocaine plus 1:100,000 adrenalin in medically compromised cardiac patients: a prospective, randomized, double blinded study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2008;105:725-30 pubmed publisher
    ..LA with articaine 4% with adrenalin 1:200,000 was comparably as safe as LA with standard concentrations of lidocaine and adrenalin in cardiovascular patients. Cardiac ischemic changes on ECG did not appear to be related to the LA. ..
  5. Sierra Rebolledo A, Delgado Molina E, Berini Aytís L, Gay Escoda C. Comparative study of the anesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine versus 2% lidocaine in inferior alveolar nerve block during surgical extraction of impacted lower third molars. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2007;12:E139-44 pubmed
    ..However, no statistically significant differences in anesthetic efficacy were recorded between the two solutions. ..
  6. Santos C, Modena K, Giglio F, Sakai V, Calvo A, Colombini B, et al. Epinephrine concentration (1:100,000 or 1:200,000) does not affect the clinical efficacy of 4% articaine for lower third molar removal: a double-blind, randomized, crossover study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65:2445-52 pubmed
    ..It is possible to successfully use the 4% articaine formulation with a lower concentration of epinephrine (1:200,000 or 5 mug/mL) for lower third molar extraction with or without bone removal. ..
  7. Adewumi A, Hall M, Guelmann M, Riley J. The incidence of adverse reactions following 4% septocaine (articaine) in children. Pediatr Dent. 2008;30:424-8 pubmed
    ..Since prolonged numbness appears to be the most frequent adverse event and occurred primarily in children younger than 7 years old, parents need to be informed and reassured accordingly. ..
  8. Srinivasan N, Kavitha M, Loganathan C, Padmini G. Comparison of anesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine and 2% lidocaine for maxillary buccal infiltration in patients with irreversible pulpitis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;107:133-6 pubmed publisher
    ..There was high significant difference between the articaine and lidocaine solutions (ANOVA; P < .001). The efficacy of 4% articaine was superior to 2% lidocaine for maxillary buccal infiltration in posterior teeth. ..
  9. Moore P, Doll B, Delie R, Hersh E, Korostoff J, Johnson S, et al. Hemostatic and anesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine HCl with 1:200,000 epinephrine and 4% articaine HCl with 1:100,000 epinephrine when administered intraorally for periodontal surgery. J Periodontol. 2007;78:247-53 pubmed
    ..For patients who can tolerate higher amounts of epinephrine, the 4% articaine 1:100,000 epinephrine formulation had the additional therapeutic advantage of providing better visualization of the surgical field and less bleeding. ..

More Information


  1. Mikesell P, Nusstein J, Reader A, Beck M, Weaver J. A comparison of articaine and lidocaine for inferior alveolar nerve blocks. J Endod. 2005;31:265-70 pubmed
    ..05) between the articaine and lidocaine solutions. We concluded that 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine was similar to 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in inferior alveolar nerve blocks. ..
  2. Lima Júnior J, Dias Ribeiro E, de Araújo T, Ferreira Rocha J, Honfi Júnior E, Sarmento C, et al. Evaluation of the buccal vestibule-palatal diffusion of 4% articaine hydrochloride in impacted maxillary third molar extractions. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2009;14:E129-32 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the vestibular-palatal diffusion of 4% Articaine with epinephrine 1:100,000 and 1:200,000, in impacted maxillary third molar extractions, without palatal injection...
  3. Katyal V. The efficacy and safety of articaine versus lignocaine in dental treatments: a meta-analysis. J Dent. 2010;38:307-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this systematic review was to compare the efficacy and safety of articaine with lignocaine in maxillary and mandibular infiltrations and block anaesthesia in patients presenting for routine dental treatments...
  4. Trullenque Eriksson A, Guisado Moya B. Comparative study of two local anesthetics in the surgical extraction of mandibular third molars: bupivacaine and articaine. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2011;16:e390-6 pubmed
  5. Malamed S, Gagnon S, LeBlanc D. Articaine hydrochloride: a study of the safety of a new amide local anesthetic. J Am Dent Assoc. 2001;132:177-85 pubmed
    ..9 percent), hypesthesia (0.7 percent), headache (0.55 percent), infection (0.45 percent), and rash and pain (0.3 percent each). Articaine is a well-tolerated, safe and effective local anesthetic for use in clinical dentistry. ..
  6. Paxton K, Thome D. Efficacy of articaine formulations: quantitative reviews. Dent Clin North Am. 2010;54:643-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, it became the gold standard to which all new local anesthetics are compared. Despite the gold standard status of lidocaine, numerous reports and editorials have supported and recognized the use of articaine...
  7. Hersh E, Giannakopoulos H, Levin L, Secreto S, Moore P, Peterson C, et al. The pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of high-dose articaine with 1:100,000 and 1:200,000 epinephrine. J Am Dent Assoc. 2006;137:1562-71 pubmed
    ..A200 is as safe as A100, and may be preferable to A100 in patients with cardiovascular disease and in those taking drugs that reportedly enhance the systemic effects of epinephrine. ..
  8. Alemany Martínez A, Valmaseda Castellón E, Berini Aytés L, Gay Escoda C. Hemodynamic changes during the surgical removal of lower third molars. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;66:453-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We consider it essential to avoid pain and minimize patient anxiety to ensure safe clinical practice. ..
  9. Evans G, Nusstein J, Drum M, Reader A, Beck M. A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of articaine and lidocaine for maxillary infiltrations. J Endod. 2008;34:389-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, a maxillary infiltration of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine statistically improved anesthetic success when compared with 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in the lateral incisor but not in the first molar. ..
  10. Tortamano I, Siviero M, Costa C, Buscariolo I, Armonia P. A comparison of the anesthetic efficacy of articaine and lidocaine in patients with irreversible pulpitis. J Endod. 2009;35:165-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Neither of the solutions, however, resulted in an effective pain control during irreversible pulpitis treatments. ..
  11. Tofoli G, Ramacciato J, de Oliveira P, Volpato M, Groppo F, Ranali J. Comparison of effectiveness of 4% articaine associated with 1: 100,000 or 1: 200,000 epinephrine in inferior alveolar nerve block. Anesth Prog. 2003;50:164-8 pubmed
    ..No significant difference was found regarding PL (P = .47), CPA (P = .88), PA (P = .46), and AST (P = .85). The results indicated that both solutions presented the same clinical effectiveness in blocking the inferior alveolar nerve. ..
  12. Sherman M, Flax M, Namerow K, Murray P. Anesthetic efficacy of the Gow-Gates injection and maxillary infiltration with articaine and lidocaine for irreversible pulpitis. J Endod. 2008;34:656-9 pubmed publisher
    ..AE proved to be as effective but not superior to LE (P > .6002). These results demonstrated the similar anesthetic effectiveness of AE and LE when used during the endodontic treatment of teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis. ..
  13. Gregorio L, Giglio F, Sakai V, Modena K, Colombini B, Calvo A, et al. A comparison of the clinical anesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine and 0.5% bupivacaine (both with 1:200,000 epinephrine) for lower third molar removal. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2008;106:19-28 pubmed publisher
    ..This study compared the clinical efficacy of 4% articaine (A200) and 0.5% bupivacaine (B200), both with 1:200,000 epinephrine, for lower third molar removal...
  14. Colombini B, Modena K, Calvo A, Sakai V, Giglio F, Dionísio T, et al. Articaine and mepivacaine efficacy in postoperative analgesia for lower third molar removal: a double-blind, randomized, crossover study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2006;102:169-74 pubmed
    ..The presence of a vasoconstrictor agent in local anesthetic solutions does not seem to influence hemodynamic parameters during lower third molar removal in healthy subjects. ..
  15. Kleinhans M, Boer A, Kaufmann R, Boehncke W. Fixed drug eruption caused by articain. Allergy. 2004;59:117 pubmed
  16. Zain M, Rehman Khattak S, Sikandar H, Shah S, Fayyaz -. Comparison of Anaesthetic Efficacy of 4% Articaine Primary Buccal Infiltration Versus 2% Lidocaine Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Symptomatic Mandibular First Molar Teeth. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2016;26:4-8 pubmed publisher
    ..4% articaine buccal infiltration can be considered a viable alternative to 2% lidocaine inferior alveolar nerve block in securing successful pulpal anaesthesia for endodontic therapy. ..
  17. Degerliyurt K, Denizci S. Does the topical use of epinephrine for sinus floor augmentation affect systemic hemodynamics?. Implant Dent. 2013;22:289-94 pubmed publisher
    ..05). This study showed that the topical use of 1/100,000 epinephrine ensures efficacy by helping the clinician to elevate the sinus membrane and keeps the changes in systemic hemodynamics within safe limitations. ..
  18. Garip H, Satilmis T, Dergin G, Uğurlu F, Göker K. Effects of midazolam/low-dose ketamine conscious intravenous sedation on pain, swelling, and trismus after surgical extraction of third molars. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;69:1023-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Intravenous low-dose ketamine may be safe and effective in reducing postoperative pain. ..
  19. Khoury F, Hinterthan A, Schürmann J, Arns H. [Clinical comparative study of local anesthetics. Random double blind study with four commercial preparations]. Dtsch Zahnarztl Z. 1991;46:822-4 pubmed
    ..Prilocaine can be used for extractions and surgical tooth removal. It can not be recommended for apicoectomy or implantation. The better results of Articaine 4% compared to Lidocaine 2% were statistically not significant. ..
  20. Altug H, Sencimen M, Varol A, Kocabiyik N, Dogan N, Gulses A. The efficacy of mylohyoid nerve anesthesia in dental implant placement at the edentulous posterior mandibular ridge. J Oral Implantol. 2012;38:141-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In group B, patients were operated on successfully. Local anesthetic infiltrations of the mylohyoid and the buccal nerve may be considered alternative methods of providing a convenient anesthetic state of the posterior mandibular ridge. ..
  21. de Morais H, de Santana Santos T, da Costa Araújo F, de Freitas Xavier R, Vajgel A, de Holanda Vasconcellos R. Hemodynamic changes comparing 2% lidocaine and 4% articaine with epinephrine 1: 100,000 in lower third molar surgery. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23:1204-11 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The hemodynamic parameters evaluated in third molar surgery with 2% lidocaine and 4% articaine (both with epinephrine 1:100,000) did not show significant differences. ..
  22. Wongsirichat N, Pairuchvej V, Arunakul S. Area extent anaesthesia from buccal nerve block. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;40:601-4 pubmed publisher
    ..It can serve as another informative indication for lower anterior surgery. ..
  23. Corbett I, Kanaa M, Whitworth J, Meechan J. Articaine infiltration for anesthesia of mandibular first molars. J Endod. 2008;34:514-8 pubmed publisher
    ..097). Subjective tooth numbness was more common after IANB than buccal infiltration (p = 0.005). The discomfort of buccal infiltration with articaine was volume dependent (p = 0.017) and similar to that of an IANB. ..
  24. Kanaa M, Whitworth J, Meechan J. A prospective randomized trial of different supplementary local anesthetic techniques after failure of inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with irreversible pulpitis in mandibular teeth. J Endod. 2012;38:421-5 pubmed publisher
  25. Szabo A, Szentandrássy N, Birinyi P, Horvath B, Szabo G, Banyasz T, et al. Effects of articaine on action potential characteristics and the underlying ion currents in canine ventricular myocytes. Br J Anaesth. 2007;99:726-33 pubmed
    ..Since its suppressive effects on the inward and outward currents are relatively well balanced, the articaine-induced changes in action potential morphology may be moderate even in the case of overdose. ..
  26. Lux E, Wahl G, Erlenwein J, Wiese C, Wirz S. [Is supplemental ear acupuncture for surgical tooth removal with local anesthesia effective? : A pilot study]. Schmerz. 2017;31:489-498 pubmed publisher
    ..As a treatment method with low adverse effects ear acupuncture can contribute to postoperative pain control, especially in patients with preoperative anxiety. ..
  27. Jeske A, Blanton P. Selection of local anesthetics in dentistry: clinical impression versus scientific assessment. J Am Coll Dent. 2006;73:21-4 pubmed
  28. Wynn R, Bergman S, Meiller T. Paresthesia associated with local anesthetics: a perspective on articaine. Gen Dent. 2003;51:498-501 pubmed
  29. Ram D, Amir E. Comparison of articaine 4% and lidocaine 2% in paediatric dental patients. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2006;16:252-6 pubmed
    ..Articaine 4% with 1 : 200 000 epinephrine is as effective as lidocaine 2% with 1 : 100 000 epinephrine. The effect of numbness of soft tissues was longer lasting with articaine than with lidocaine. ..
  30. Hillerup S, Bakke M, Larsen J, Thomsen C, Gerds T. Concentration-dependent neurotoxicity of articaine: an electrophysiological and stereological study of the rat sciatic nerve. Anesth Analg. 2011;112:1330-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanical injury of needle penetration with saline injection had no significant effect on nerve conduction or histomorphology. ..
  31. Biocanin V, Brkovic B, Milicic B, Stojić D. Efficacy and safety of intraseptal and periodontal ligament anesthesia achieved by computer-controlled articaine + epinephrine delivery: a dose-finding study. Clin Oral Investig. 2013;17:525-33 pubmed publisher
    ..It seems that dental procedures requiring profound pulpal, bone, and soft tissue anesthesia could be effectively and safely obtained by mentioned anesthetic protocol. ..
  32. Martínez Rodríguez N, Barona Dorado C, Martín Arés M, Cortés Bretón Brinkman J, Martinez Gonzalez J. Evaluation of the anaesthetic properties and tolerance of 1:100,000 articaine versus 1:100,000 lidocaine. A comparative study in surgery of the lower third molar. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2012;17:e345-51 pubmed
    ..There were 4 adverse events that did not require the patients to be withdrawn from the study. The anaesthetics in this study have very similar properties for use in surgery and have demonstrated a good safety and tolerability profile. ..
  33. Stiagaĭlo S. [Local anesthesia failure problems in conservative dental therapy clinic]. Stomatologiia (Mosk). 2006;85:6-10 pubmed
    ..Prevalence of anesthesia failure differs depending on dental diagnosis and number of tooth. It is more for pulpitis in comparison with caries. The most difficult for achieving adequate anesthesia teeth are lower molars. ..
  34. Sert H, Muslu B, Usta B, Colak N, Irem Demircioglu R, Gozdemir M. A comparison of articaine and fentanyl-supplemented articaine for hemodialysis fistula creation under ultrasound-guided axillary block. Ren Fail. 2011;33:280-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Hemodynamic parameters were similar in the two groups. In conclusion, the addition of fentanyl to articaine in axillary block prolongs the duration of sensory and motor blocks, as well as the time of first analgesic requirement. ..
  35. Ay S, Küçük D, Gumus C, Kara M. Distribution and absorption of local anesthetics in inferior alveolar nerve block: evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;69:2722-30 pubmed publisher
    ..006 and 0.012 mg/mL epinephrine. All solutions were noticeably absorbed at 120 minutes after injection. ..
  36. Mojumdar E, Lyubartsev A. Molecular dynamics simulations of local anesthetic articaine in a lipid bilayer. Biophys Chem. 2010;153:27-35 pubmed publisher
    ..It was shown that addition of both charged and neutral forms of articaine causes increase of the dipole electrostatic potential in the membrane interior. ..
  37. Randall C. Anaesthetic solutions. Br Dent J. 2003;195:482 pubmed
  38. Moore P, Hersh E. Local anesthetics: pharmacology and toxicity. Dent Clin North Am. 2010;54:587-99 pubmed publisher
    ..This introductory article provides a brief update of the clinical pharmacology of local anesthetic agents and formulations used in dentistry at present. ..
  39. Krzeminski T, Mitrega K, Zorniak M, Porc M. Differential effects of four xylidine derivatives in the model of ischemia- and re-perfusion-induced arrhythmias in rats in vivo. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;644:120-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Articaine showed beneficial effects but they weren't as pronounced as that of lidocaine. Nevertheless, in the light of our results, articaine could supposedly be used as a substitute for lidocaine in patients with hypertension. ..
  40. Bachmann M, Pere P, Kairaluoma P, Rosenberg P, Kallio H. Randomised comparison of hyperbaric articaine and hyperbaric low-dose bupivacaine along with fentanyl in spinal anaesthesia for day-case inguinal herniorrhaphy. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2012;29:22-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Hypotension is more common with articaine. The onset and extension of the spinal block are unpredictable when using these techniques. ..
  41. Ettlin D, Lukic N, Abazi J, Widmayer S, Meier M. Tracking local anesthetic effects using a novel perceptual reference approach. J Neurophysiol. 2016;115:1730-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose using this method for future experimental investigations of analgesic/anesthetic drug efficacy. ..
  42. Aggarwal V, Singla M, Kabi D. Comparative evaluation of anesthetic efficacy of Gow-Gates mandibular conduction anesthesia, Vazirani-Akinosi technique, buccal-plus-lingual infiltrations, and conventional inferior alveolar nerve anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;109:303-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Gow-Gates mandibular conduction anesthesia may increase the success rates in patients with irreversible pulpitis compared with conventional IANB. None of the techniques provided acceptable success rates. ..
  43. Garisto G, Gaffen A, Lawrence H, Tenenbaum H, Haas D. Occurrence of paresthesia after dental local anesthetic administration in the United States. J Am Dent Assoc. 2010;141:836-44 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine if the type of local anesthetic administered had any effect on reports of paresthesia in dentistry in the United States...
  44. Malamed S. Nerve injury caused by mandibular block analgesia. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;35:876-7; author reply 878 pubmed
  45. Yenisey M. Comparison of the pain levels of computer-controlled and conventional anesthesia techniques in prosthodontic treatment. J Appl Oral Sci. 2009;17:414-20 pubmed
    ..However, these two techniques have the same pain levels for tooth preparation. ..
  46. Petrovskaia L, Maksimovskiĭ I, Grinin V. [Comparative efficiency of local anesthetics from the group of complex amides during therapeutic stomatological interventions]. Stomatologiia (Mosk). 2002;81:38-41 pubmed
    ..These anesthetics maximally realized their effects at intraligamental injection during the treatment of caries and periodontitis. ..
  47. Pedlar J. Prolonged paraesthesia. Br Dent J. 2003;194:181 pubmed
  48. Meechan J. Re: Prolonged paraesthesia following inferior alveolar nerve block using articaine. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003;41:201 pubmed
  49. Medvedev D, Petrikas A, Dyubaylo M. Aspiration in intra-ligamental anaesthesia of lower first molar teeth: a pilot study. Oral Health Dent Manag. 2012;11:95-9 pubmed
    ..When there was negative aspiration of blood after the administration of an ILA, in rare cases pulpal analgesia developed after a delay of 3-5 minutes. ..
  50. Pogrel M. Permanent nerve damage from inferior alveolar nerve blocks: a current update. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2012;40:795-7 pubmed
    ..It does appear that inferior alveolar nerve blocks can cause permanent nerve damage with any local anesthetic, but the incidences may vary. ..
  51. Fathi A, Soliman M. Carticaine versus lidocaine for peribulbar anesthesia in cataract surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2002;28:513-6 pubmed
    To compare carticaine 4% and lidocaine 2% for peribulbar anesthesia in cataract surgery. Ain Shams and Cairo University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt...
  52. Niemi M, Laaksonen J, Vähätalo K, Tuomainen J, Aaltonen O, Happonen R. Effects of transitory lingual nerve impairment on speech: an acoustic study of vowel sounds. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002;60:647-52; discussion 653 pubmed
    ..Some of these changes were so extensive that they also could be perceptually detectable. Lingual nerve impairment seems to have potential to change speech production. ..
  53. Pozos A, Martinez R, Aguirre P, Perez J. The effects of tramadol added to articaine on anesthesia duration. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2006;102:614-7 pubmed
    ..0; 140-287) was significantly longer than that in group C (124.5; 79-154 min). Tramadol can be used as an adjunctive drug in the management of pain since it improves the quality of transoperative anesthesia. ..
  54. Claffey E, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M, Weaver J. Anesthetic efficacy of articaine for inferior alveolar nerve blocks in patients with irreversible pulpitis. J Endod. 2004;30:568-71 pubmed
    ..There was no significant difference (p = 0.89) between the articaine and lidocaine solutions. Neither solution resulted in an acceptable rate of anesthetic success in patients with irreversible pulpitis. ..
  55. Sreekumar K, Bhargava D. Comparison of onset and duration of action of soft tissue and pulpal anesthesia with three volumes of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in maxillary infiltration anesthesia. Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;15:195-9 pubmed publisher
    ..2 mL is used than when volumes less than 1.0 mL are used. Palatal tissues were anesthetized with the highest concentration (1.2 mL) in our study (30% of cases). ..
  56. Juodzbalys G, Giedraitis R, Machiulskiene V, Huys L, Kubilius R. New method of sedation in oral surgery. J Oral Implantol. 2005;31:304-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, anterograde amnesia was determined for the 80% of the patients in the test group. ..
  57. Lygre H, Moe G, Nerdal W, Holmsen H. Interaction of articaine hydrochloride with prokaryotic membrane lipids. Acta Odontol Scand. 2009;67:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Interaction of articaine hydrochloride with prokaryotic membrane lipids is indicated. Hence, further research is necessary to gain insight into where these compounds exert their effects at the molecular level. ..
  58. Dower J. Anesthetic study questioned. J Am Dent Assoc. 2007;138:708, 710; author reply 710, 712 pubmed
  59. Kuivalainen A, Niemi Murola L, Widenius T, Elonen E, Rosenberg P. Comparison of articaine and lidocaine for infiltration anaesthesia in patients undergoing bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. Eur J Pain. 2010;14:160-3 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the quality of infiltration anaesthesia for bone marrow punctures and aspiration with articaine and lidocaine was similarly poor. Several patients experienced strong pain which correlated with the degree of anxiety. ..
  60. Szentandrássy N, Szabó A, Almassy J, Jona I, Horvath B, Szabo G, et al. Effects of articaine and ropivacaine on calcium handling and contractility in canine ventricular myocardium. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2010;27:153-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed negative inotropic actions of articaine and ropivacaine are similar in magnitude, and can be mainly attributed to a reduction in net trans-sarcolemmal Ca influx. ..
  61. Nusstein J, Berlin J, Reader A, Beck M, Weaver J. Comparison of injection pain, heart rate increase, and postinjection pain of articaine and lidocaine in a primary intraligamentary injection administered with a computer-controlled local anesthetic delivery system. Anesth Prog. 2004;51:126-33 pubmed
    ..For both anesthetic solutions, heart rate did not significantly increase with the intraligamentary injection using the computer-controlled local anesthetic system. ..
  62. Ozeç I, Taşdemir U, Gumus C, Solak O. Is it possible to anesthetize palatal tissues with buccal 4% articaine injection?. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;68:1032-7 pubmed publisher
    ..05). We could not establish the presence of anesthesia or 4% articaine HCl at the palatal tissues after buccal injection. Maxillary tooth removal without palatal injection requires further objective investigations. ..
  63. Faytrouny M, Okte Z, Kucukyavuz Z. Comparison of two different dosages of hydroxyzine for sedation in the paediatric dental patient. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2007;17:378-82 pubmed
    ..05) between behavioural attitudes and sedation degree of the patients. Twenty milligrams of hydroxyzine administered 24 h preoperatively has no significant benefit on sedation of the child. ..
  64. Meechan J. Infiltration anesthesia in the mandible. Dent Clin North Am. 2010;54:621-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper considers the evidence for the efficacy of infiltration anesthesia in the mandible in the adult dentition, both as a primary and as a supplemental method. ..
  65. Stehr S, Oertel R, Schindler C, Hübler M. Re: deterioration of Kearns-Sayre syndrome following articaine administration for local anesthesia. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2005;28:253 pubmed
  66. Duque S, Fernandez L. Delayed-type hypersensitivity to amide local anesthetics. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2004;32:233-4 pubmed
    ..Patch tests showed delayed-type-hypersensitivity to the amide local anesthetics lidocaine and mepivacaine with cross reaction to other amynoacylderivatives (prilocaine,bupivacaine) but not articaine. ..
  67. Wong D, Gadsden J. Acute upper airway angioedema secondary to acquired C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency: a case report. Can J Anaesth. 2003;50:900-3 pubmed
    ..Anesthesiologists should consider C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency in the differential diagnosis of patients with airway edema and be familiar with the acute and prophylactic treatment of patients with this diagnosis. ..
  68. Jung I, Kim J, Kim E, Lee C, Lee S. An evaluation of buccal infiltrations and inferior alveolar nerve blocks in pulpal anesthesia for mandibular first molars. J Endod. 2008;34:11-3 pubmed
    ..03). In conclusion, BI with 4% articaine for mandibular first molars can be a useful alternative for clinicians because compared with IANB it has a faster onset and a similar success rate. ..
  69. de Morais H, Holanda Vasconcellos R, de Santana Santos T, Rocha N, da Costa Araújo F, de Carvalho R. Clinical study of hemodynamic changes comparing 4% articaine hydrochloride with 1:100,000 and 1:200,000 epinephrine. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2013;116:e14-22 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The epinephrine concentration (1:100,000 or 1:200,000) in a 4% articaine solution influences hemodynamic parameters without perceptible clinical changes in healthy patients undergoing lower third molar removal. ..
  70. Kocer B, Ergan S, Nazliel B. Isolated abducens nerve palsy following mandibular block articaine anesthesia, a first manifestation of multiple sclerosis: a case report. Quintessence Int. 2009;40:251-6 pubmed
    ..This case indicates that dental clinicians and neurologists may be alerted to isolated abducens palsy as a possible adverse effect of mandibular block articaine anesthesia. ..
  71. Heine G, Gabriel H, Weindler J, Ruprecht K, Kindermann W. Painful regional anaesthesia induces an immunological stress reaction: the model of retrobulbar anaesthesia. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2001;18:505-10 pubmed
  72. Mestre Aspa R, Carrera Grañó I, Berini Aytes L, Gay Escoda C. Pulsioxymetry monitorization during lower third molar extraction. A comparative study of three local anesthetics with epinephrine 1:100,000. Med Oral. 2001;6:195-204 pubmed
  73. Hendriks M, de Weert C, Snoeck M, Hu H, Pluim M, Gielen M. Plain articaine or prilocaine for spinal anaesthesia in day-case knee arthroscopy: a double-blind randomized trial. Br J Anaesth. 2009;102:259-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Articaine is thought to have a faster onset and shorter duration of action than prilocaine, although no comparative study has been published in the anaesthetic literature...
  74. Hernandez Alfaro F, Mareque Bueno J, Diaz A, Pagés C. Minimally invasive surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion with limited approach under sedation: a report of 283 consecutive cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;68:2154-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The minimal approach and incision used in the technique guarantee vascular support to the maxilla via the vestibular corridors. ..
  75. Kanaa M, Whitworth J, Meechan J. A comparison of the efficacy of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine in achieving pulpal anesthesia in maxillary teeth with irreversible pulpitis. J Endod. 2012;38:279-82 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no significant difference in efficacy between 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine in achieving anesthesia in maxillary teeth with irreversible pulpitis after buccal infiltration. ..
  76. Förster J, Rosenberg P. Revival of old local anesthetics for spinal anesthesia in ambulatory surgery. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2011;24:633-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This is also dependent on various organizational and local traditional factors. ..
  77. Schulze K, Cohen P, Nelson B. Articaine: an effective adjunctive local anesthetic for painless surgery at the depth of the muscular fascia. Dermatol Surg. 2006;32:407-10 pubmed
    ..Articaine is a unique amide anesthetic that contains a thiophene ring and an additional ester group. The rapid diffusion and enhanced tissue-penetrating properties of articaine enable its use for infiltrative anesthesia...
  78. Kauferstein S, Kiehne N, Peigneur S, Tytgat J, Bratzke H. Cardiac channelopathy causing sudden death as revealed by molecular autopsy. Int J Legal Med. 2013;127:145-51 pubmed publisher
  79. Gaffen A, Haas D. Survey of local anesthetic use by Ontario dentists. J Can Dent Assoc. 2009;75:649 pubmed
    ..Patterns of use were similar for early and late survey respondents. These data provide a current account of the use of local anesthetics by Ontario dentists. ..
  80. Ozer S, Yaltirik M, Kirli I, Yargic I. A comparative evaluation of pain and anxiety levels in 2 different anesthesia techniques: locoregional anesthesia using conventional syringe versus intraosseous anesthesia using a computer-controlled system (Quicksleeper). Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2012;114:S132-9 pubmed publisher
  81. Niemi M, Laaksonen J, Aaltonen O, Happonen R. Effects of transitory lingual nerve impairment on speech: an acoustic study of diphthong sounds. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004;62:44-51 pubmed
    ..A comparison between monophthongs and diphthongs showed that the alterations are more significant for the diphthongs than for other vowels indicating the more demanding, complicated, and complex manner of articulation of diphthongs. ..
  82. Jaber A, Whitworth J, Corbett I, Al Baqshi B, Kanaa M, Meechan J. The efficacy of infiltration anaesthesia for adult mandibular incisors: a randomised double-blind cross-over trial comparing articaine and lidocaine buccal and buccal plus lingual infiltrations. Br Dent J. 2010;209:E16 pubmed publisher
    ..4% articaine was more effective than 2% lidocaine (both with 1:100,000 adrenaline) in anaesthetising the pulps of lower incisor teeth after buccal or buccal plus lingual infiltrations. ..
  83. Becker D, Reed K. Essentials of local anesthetic pharmacology. Anesth Prog. 2006;53:98-108; quiz 109-10 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this review is to update the practitioner on issues regarding the basic pharmacology and clinical use of local anesthetic formulations. ..
  84. Johnson B. Changing the perception of root canal therapy. Pract Proced Aesthet Dent. 2007;19:549-50, 552 pubmed
  85. Gladstein E. More about articaine. J Am Dent Assoc. 2007;138:1420; author reply 1420 pubmed
  86. Matthews R, Drum M, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M. Articaine for supplemental buccal mandibular infiltration anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis when the inferior alveolar nerve block fails. J Endod. 2009;35:343-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Unfortunately, the modest success rate would not provide predictable pulpal anesthesia for all patients requiring profound anesthesia. ..
  87. Kaczmarzyk T, Wichlinski J, Stypulkowska J, Zaleska M, Woron J. Preemptive effect of ketoprofen on postoperative pain following third molar surgery. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;39:647-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Ketoprofen administered after third molar surgery provides more effective pain control than ketoprofen administered before the surgery or placebo. ..
  88. Takara D, Sanchez G, Alonso G. Effect of carticaine on the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-dependent adenosine triphosphatase. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2000;362:497-503 pubmed
    ..b>Carticaine is a local anesthetic of frequent use in dentistry which is now entering other clinical fields...