giant cell arteritis


Summary: A systemic autoimmune disorder that typically affects medium and large ARTERIES, usually leading to occlusive granulomatous vasculitis with transmural infiltrate containing multinucleated GIANT CELLS. The TEMPORAL ARTERY is commonly involved. This disorder appears primarily in people over the age of 50. Symptoms include FEVER; FATIGUE; HEADACHE; visual impairment; pain in the jaw and tongue; and aggravation of pain by cold temperatures. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Goldstein B, Gedmintas L, Todd D. Drug-associated polymyalgia rheumatica/giant cell arteritis occurring in two patients after treatment with ipilimumab, an antagonist of ctla-4. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014;66:768-9 pubmed publisher
  2. Shu X, Xu X, Peng Q, Lu X, Ma L, Mi N, et al. Diagnostic value of PET/CT for giant cell arteritis combined with pulmonary embolism presenting: Case report and literature review. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7651 pubmed publisher
    b>Giant cell arteritis (GCA) combined with concomitant pulmonary embolism (PE) is extremely difficult to diagnose because of its low incidence and atypical clinical presentations. A 62-year-old male developed fever of unknown origin...
  3. Chaudet A, Goujon J, Ghazali A. Febrile abdominal pain revealing Horton's disease. Am J Emerg Med. 2017;35:1583.e3-1583.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..It should not be ignored in etiological hypotheses regarding febrile abdominal pain in the elderly. Corticosteroids should be started rapidly at high doses and temporal artery biopsy should be planned. ..
  4. Soriano A, Muratore F, Pipitone N, Boiardi L, Cimino L, Salvarani C. Visual loss and other cranial ischaemic complications in giant cell arteritis. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2017;13:476-484 pubmed publisher
    b>Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common form of vasculitis in individuals aged 50 years and over. GCA typically affects large and medium-sized arteries, with a predilection for the extracranial branches of the carotid artery...
  5. Planas Rigol E, Terrades García N, Corbera Bellalta M, Lozano E, Alba M, Segarra M, et al. Endothelin-1 promotes vascular smooth muscle cell migration across the artery wall: a mechanism contributing to vascular remodelling and intimal hyperplasia in giant-cell arteritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017;76:1624-1634 pubmed publisher
    ..ET-1 is upregulated in GCA lesions and, by promoting VSMC migration towards the intimal layer, may contribute to intimal hyperplasia and vascular occlusion in GCA. ..
  6. Mahr A, Aouba A, Richebe P, Gonzalez Chiappe S. [Epidemiology and natural history of giant cell arteritis]. Rev Med Interne. 2017;38:663-669 pubmed publisher
    Knowledge of the natural history and epidemiology of giant cell arteritis (GCA) is growing...
  7. Alba M, Mena Madrazo J, Flores Suarez L. Giant cell arteritis and disseminated tuberculosis: presentation of two cases. Scand J Rheumatol. 2013;42:509-12 pubmed publisher
  8. Zuckerman R, Patel M, Alpert D. A tale of two vasculitides: biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis followed by the independent development of renal-limited microscopic polyangiitis. BMJ Case Rep. 2017;2017: pubmed publisher
    ..She was diagnosed with giant cell arteritis, which was confirmed by temporal artery biopsy...
  9. Gonzalez Gay M, Vazquez Rodriguez T, Lopez Diaz M, Miranda Filloy J, Gonzalez Juanatey C, Martin J, et al. Epidemiology of giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;61:1454-61 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Petersen C, Francis C. Nonarteritic Jaw Claudication. J Neuroophthalmol. 2017;37:281-284 pubmed publisher
    ..Although jaw claudication is often considered to be pathognomonic for giant cell arteritis, it has a broad differential diagnosis including both vascular and nonvascular conditions.
  2. de Boysson H, Liozon E, Lambert M, Dumont A, Boutemy J, Maigne G, et al. Giant-Cell Arteritis: Do We Treat Patients with Large-Vessel Involvement Differently?. Am J Med. 2017;130:992-995 pubmed publisher
    ..Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings. ..
  3. Ly K, Régent A, Molina E, Saada S, Sindou P, Le Jeunne C, et al. Neurotrophins are expressed in giant cell arteritis lesions and may contribute to vascular remodeling. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014;16:487 pubmed publisher
    b>Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is characterized by intimal hyperplasia leading to ischaemic manifestations that involve large vessels...
  4. Jakobsson K, Jacobsson L, Warrington K, Matteson E, Turesson C. Biopsy findings in giant cell arteritis: relationship to baseline factors and corticosteroid treatment. Scand J Rheumatol. 2013;42:331-2 pubmed publisher
  5. Dasgupta B, Borg F, Hassan N, Alexander L, Barraclough K, Bourke B, et al. BSR and BHPR guidelines for the management of giant cell arteritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2010;49:1594-7 pubmed publisher
  6. Hassan N, Dasgupta B, Barraclough K. Giant cell arteritis. BMJ. 2011;342:d3019 pubmed publisher
  7. Paskins Z, Whittle R, Sultan A, Muller S, Blagojevic Bucknall M, Helliwell T, et al. Risk of fracture among patients with polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis: a population-based study. BMC Med. 2018;16:4 pubmed publisher
    ..with increased fracture risk and are the mainstay of treatment in polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and giant cell arteritis (GCA). However, fracture risk in these conditions has not been previously quantified...
  8. Dejaco C, Brouwer E, Mason J, Buttgereit F, Matteson E, Dasgupta B. Giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica: current challenges and opportunities. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2017;13:578-592 pubmed publisher
    The fields of giant cell arteritis (GCA) and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) have advanced rapidly, resulting in a new understanding of these diseases...
  9. Skeik N, Ostertag Hill C, Garberich R, Alden P, Alexander J, Cragg A, et al. Diagnosis, Management, and Outcome of Aortitis at a Single Center. Vasc Endovascular Surg. 2017;51:470-479 pubmed publisher
    ..We retrospectively reviewed all patients' charts who were diagnosed with giant cell arteritis, Takayasu arteritis, or noninfectious aortitis presenting at a single center between January 1, 2009, and ..
  10. Papaliodis G. Ophthalmologic manifestations of systemic vasculitis. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2017;28:613-616 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will provide a synopsis of the diseases with associated ocular manifestations. The implication for clinicians is to highlight recent case reports/series demonstrating the pathology. ..
  11. Di Comite G, Previtali P, Rossi C, Dell Antonio G, Rovere Querini P, Praderio L, et al. High blood levels of chromogranin A in giant cell arteritis identify patients refractory to corticosteroid treatment. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009;68:293-5 pubmed publisher
  12. Koster M, Warrington K. Classification of large vessel vasculitis: Can we separate giant cell arteritis from Takayasu arteritis?. Presse Med. 2017;46:e205-e213 pubmed publisher
    The two main variants of large vessel vasculitis include Takayasu arteritis and giant cell arteritis. While these two conditions have historically been considered different conditions, recent evidence questions whether they are a spectrum ..
  13. Wang H, Smith R, Spooner A, Isselbacher E, Cambria R, MacGillivray T, et al. Giant cell aortitis of the ascending aorta without signs or symptoms of systemic vasculitis is associated with elevated risk of distal aortic events. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:317-9 pubmed publisher
  14. Grossman C, Barshack I, Koren Morag N, Ben Zvi I, Bornstein G. Risk factors for severe cranial ischaemic events in patients with giant cell arteritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2017;35 Suppl 103:88-93 pubmed
    Cranial ischaemic events constitute a significant component in the clinical spectrum of giant cell arteritis (GCA)...
  15. Schäfer V, Juche A, Ramiro S, Krause A, Schmidt W. Ultrasound cut-off values for intima-media thickness of temporal, facial and axillary arteries in giant cell arteritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2017;56:1479-1483 pubmed publisher
    ..7 and 98.8% for parietal branches and facial arteries, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient was between 0.87 and 0.98. IMT measurement can correctly distinguish vasculitic from normal arteries in suspected GCA. ..
  16. McAlinden C, Ioannidis P, Roberts S, Skiadaresi E. Giant cell arteritis. Lancet. 2014;383:1182 pubmed publisher
  17. Emamifar A, Hess S, Gerke O, Hermann A, Laustrup H, Hansen P, et al. Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis-three challenges-consequences of the vasculitis process, osteoporosis, and malignancy: A prospective cohort study protocol. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7297 pubmed publisher
    Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and giant cell arteritis (GCA) are common inflammatory conditions. The diagnosis of PMR/GCA poses many challenges since there are no specific diagnostic tests...
  18. Wendling D, Blagosklonov O, Boulahdour H, Prati C. Positron emission tomography: the ideal tool in polymyalgia rheumatica?. Joint Bone Spine. 2014;81:381-3 pubmed publisher
  19. Stone J, Tuckwell K, Dimonaco S, Klearman M, Aringer M, Blockmans D, et al. Trial of Tocilizumab in Giant-Cell Arteritis. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:317-328 pubmed publisher
    ..Longer follow-up is necessary to determine the durability of remission and safety of tocilizumab. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche; number, NCT01791153 .). ..
  20. Kermani T, Schäfer V, Crowson C, Hunder G, Gabriel S, Matteson E, et al. Increase in age at onset of giant cell arteritis: a population-based study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010;69:780-1 pubmed publisher
  21. Pulsatelli L, Boiardi L, Assirelli E, Pazzola G, Muratore F, Addimanda O, et al. Interleukin-6 and soluble interleukin-6 receptor are elevated in large-vessel vasculitis: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2017;35 Suppl 103:102-110 pubmed
    ..Sera were obtained from 33 Takayasu's arteritis (TAK) patients and 14 giant cell arteritis (GCA) patients, and from 60 age-matched normal controls (NCs)...
  22. Samson M, Bonnotte B. [From pathogenesis of giant cell arteritis to new therapeutic targets]. Rev Med Interne. 2017;38:670-678 pubmed publisher
    b>Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common vasculitis in adults. GCA is a granulomatous large-vessel vasculitis involving the aorta and its major branches in people>50 years...
  23. Barraclough K, Mallen C, Helliwell T, Hider S, Dasgupta B. Diagnosis and management of giant cell arteritis. Br J Gen Pract. 2012;62:329-30 pubmed publisher
  24. Coeman M, De Pauw M. Large-vessel giant cell arteritis fever of unknown origin in a patient with a prosthetic valve. Acta Cardiol. 2013;68:529-30 pubmed