retinal artery occlusion

Summary

Summary: Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.

Top Publications

  1. Hayreh S, Podhajsky P, Zimmerman M. Branch retinal artery occlusion: natural history of visual outcome. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:1188-94.e1-4 pubmed publisher
    To investigate systematically the natural history of visual outcome in branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO). Cohort study. We included 199 consecutive untreated patients (212 eyes) with BRAO, first seen in our clinic from 1973 to 2000...
  2. Ozkan Arat Y, Volpi J, Arat A, Klucznik R, Diaz O. Bilateral internal carotid artery and vertebral artery dissections with retinal artery occlusion after a roller coaster ride - case report and a review. Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg. 2011;17:75-8 pubmed
    ..history who developed dissections of bilateral carotid and bilateral vertebral arteries, as well as a retinal artery occlusion, after a roller coaster ride...
  3. Cope A, Eggert J, O Brien E. Retinal artery occlusion: visual outcome after treatment with hyperbaric oxygen. Diving Hyperb Med. 2011;41:135-8 pubmed
    We describe a case series of 11 patients with retinal artery occlusion treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) at Intermountain Dixie Regional Medical Center between 2005 and 2009...
  4. Shetty R, Boilling J, Stewart M, Heckman M. Differences in optical coherence tomography of the macula in advanced glaucoma and after a retinal artery occlusion. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2007;38:392-8 pubmed
    ..was used to evaluate the macular thickness in eyes with advanced glaucoma compared with eyes following a retinal artery occlusion. Ten patients with a retinal artery occlusion and 10 patients with severe glaucoma were evaluated with ..
  5. Narang S, Kochhar S, Gupta S, Gupta H, Bansal R, Sood S. Bilateral simultaneous central retinal artery occlusion following head injury. Int Ophthalmol. 2007;27:387-90 pubmed
    To report a case of bilateral simultaneous central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) following head injury in a young 29-year-old man. A 29-year-old man presented with head injury following road traffic accident...
  6. Rudkin A, Lee A, Chen C. Vascular risk factors for central retinal artery occlusion. Eye (Lond). 2010;24:678-81 pubmed publisher
    To determine the proportion of patients presenting with thromboembolic central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) who had undiagnosed vascular risk factors amenable to modification...
  7. Heckler L, Lederer D, Alwadani F, Koenekoop R. Idiopathic central retinal artery occlusion in a 6-year-old. Can J Ophthalmol. 2008;43:375-6 pubmed publisher
  8. Arashvand K. Images in clinical medicine. Central retinal artery occlusion. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:841 pubmed
  9. Noble J, Weizblit N, Baerlocher M, Eng K. Intra-arterial thrombolysis for central retinal artery occlusion: a systematic review. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008;92:588-93 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis of the evidence supporting intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT) for the treatment of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO)...

More Information

Publications72

  1. Hayreh S, Zimmerman M. Fundus changes in central retinal artery occlusion. Retina. 2007;27:276-89 pubmed
    To investigate systematically the ophthalmoscopic fundus findings associated with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). The study included 240 consecutive patients (248 eyes) with CRAO...
  2. Susac J, Egan R, Rennebohm R, Lubow M. Susac's syndrome: 1975-2005 microangiopathy/autoimmune endotheliopathy. J Neurol Sci. 2007;257:270-2 pubmed
    ..SS is an autoimmune endotheliopathy that requires treatment with immunosuppressants: steroids, cyclophosphamide, and intravenous immunoglobulin, usually in combination. Aspirin is a useful adjunct...
  3. Rishi P, Rishi E, Sharma T, Mahajan S. Hemi-central retinal artery occlusion in young adults. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2010;58:425-32 pubmed publisher
    Amongst the clinical presentations of retinal artery occlusion, hemi-central retinal artery occlusion (Hemi-CRAO) is rarely described...
  4. Ahn S, Kim J, Hong J, Woo S, Ahn J, Park K, et al. Efficacy and safety of intra-arterial thrombolysis in central retinal artery occlusion. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:7746-55 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the efficacy and safety of intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT) for acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO).
  5. Schmidt D, Hetzel A, Geibel Zehender A, Schulte Mönting J. Systemic diseases in non-inflammatory branch and central retinal artery occlusion--an overview of 416 patients. Eur J Med Res. 2007;12:595-603 pubmed
    ..To determine the frequency of essential cardiovascular risk factors in different vascular ocular diseases. -..
  6. Ghazi N, Tilton E, Patel B, Knape R, Newman S. Comparison of macular optical coherence tomography findings between postacute retinal artery occlusion and nonacute optic neuropathy. Retina. 2010;30:578-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to report differentiating optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings between postacute retinal arterial occlusion (PARAO) and nonacute optic neuropathy (NAON)...
  7. Takahashi H, Iijima H. Sectoral thinning of the retina after branch retinal artery occlusion. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2009;53:494-500 pubmed publisher
    We studied the temporal aspects of retinal thickness in eyes with branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) to demonstrate the retinal thinning process subsequent to the acute stage of the disease.
  8. Matsumoto C, Shinoda K, Yamada K, Nakatsuka K. Photopic negative response reflects severity of ocular circulatory damage after central retinal artery occlusion. Ophthalmologica. 2009;223:362-9 pubmed publisher
    To determine the relationship of the photopic negative response (PhNR) of the photopic electroretinogram (ERG) with the degree of circulatory disturbances in eyes following central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO).
  9. Mason J, Shah A, Vail R, Nixon P, Ready E, Kimble J. Branch retinal artery occlusion: visual prognosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;146:455-7 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the visual prognosis in eyes with branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO).
  10. Salinas Alaman A, Garcia Layana A, Heras Mulero H, Garcia Gomez P. [Optical coherence tomography in central retinal artery occlusion]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2006;81:553-6 pubmed
    Three eyes with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) have been studied. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed in each of them. Ophthalmoscopic signs of CRAO were equivocal in the three eyes...
  11. Goldenberg Cohen N, Dadon S, Avraham B, Kramer M, Hasanreisoglu M, Eldar I, et al. Molecular and histological changes following central retinal artery occlusion in a mouse model. Exp Eye Res. 2008;87:327-33 pubmed publisher
    ..was to characterize the molecular and histological changes that occur in the retina following central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) in a mouse model...
  12. Chong C, Chang A. Traumatic optic nerve avulsion and central retinal artery occlusion following rugby injury. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2006;34:88-9 pubmed
    ..He was later diagnosed with ONA, and this was associated with central retinal artery occlusion, which was rarely reported in the literature...
  13. Ozdemir H, Karacorlu M, Karacorlu S, Senturk F. Localized foveal detachment in a patient with central retinal artery occlusion with cilioretinal sparing. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2012;22:492-4 pubmed publisher
    To report the optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings of acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) with cilioretinal sparing.
  14. Chen C, Lee A. Management of acute central retinal artery occlusion. Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2008;4:376-83 pubmed publisher
    Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is considered to be an acute stroke of the eye that results in profound visual loss. Spontaneous recovery rates are poor. Most CRAOs are caused by thromboembolism in the central retinal artery...
  15. Opremcak E, Rehmar A, Ridenour C, Borkowski L, Kelley J. Restoration of retinal blood flow via translumenal Nd:YAG embolysis/embolectomy (TYL/E) for central and branch retinal artery occlusion. Retina. 2008;28:226-35 pubmed publisher
    Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) may be a result of platelet-fibrin emboli, cholesterol plaques, or calcific emboli that typically lodge at the bifurcation of retinal arterioles or at a ..
  16. Rudkin A, Lee A, Chen C. Ocular neovascularization following central retinal artery occlusion: prevalence and timing of onset. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2010;20:1042-6 pubmed
    Debate exists in the literature on the prevalence and etiology of neovascularization following central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). The reported prevalence varies from 2.5% to 31.6%...
  17. Feltgen N, Neubauer A, Jurklies B, Schmoor C, Schmidt D, Wanke J, et al. Multicenter study of the European Assessment Group for Lysis in the Eye (EAGLE) for the treatment of central retinal artery occlusion: design issues and implications. EAGLE Study report no. 1 : EAGLE Study report no. 1. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2006;244:950-6 pubmed
    The natural course of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) often leads to legal blindness in the affected eye. To date, none of the conservative therapies had proven effective in retrospective studies...
  18. Kramer M, Goldenberg Cohen N, Axer Siegel R, Weinberger D, Cohen Y, Monselise Y. Inflammatory reaction in acute retinal artery occlusion: cytokine levels in aqueous humor and serum. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2005;13:305-10 pubmed
    To investigate the role of inflammation in acute retinal artery occlusion (RAO).
  19. Leavitt J, Larson T, Hodge D, Gullerud R. The incidence of central retinal artery occlusion in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011;152:820-3.e2 pubmed publisher
    To determine the incidence of central retinal artery occlusion in Olmsted County, Minnesota.
  20. Liem R, Calamaras D, Chhabra M, Files B, Minniti C, Thompson A. Sudden-onset blindness in sickle cell disease due to retinal artery occlusion. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008;50:624-7 pubmed
    Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is a rare and potentially devastating cause of acute blindness in sickle cell disease (SCD) that is unique compared to classic sickle retinopathy...
  21. Skrapari I, Kagkelari E, Charitatos E, Pantelidaki C, Gounaris T, Sioula E. Acute painless monocular visual loss due to central retinal artery occlusion in a patient with Churg-Strauss vasculitis. Clin Rheumatol. 2008;27:125-7 pubmed
    ..Central retinal artery occlusion was diagnosed by fundoscopic findings (retinal whitening with a cherry-red spot)...
  22. Tang J, Weiter J. Branch retinal artery occlusion after injection of a long-acting risperidone preparation. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147:283-4 pubmed
  23. Karacorlu M, Ozdemir H, Arf Karacorlu S. Optical coherence tomography findings in branch retinal artery occlusion. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2006;16:352-3 pubmed
    To report the optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings in a 35-year-old man with acute inferior branch retinal artery occlusion.
  24. Hamann S, Johansen S. Combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion in Churg-Strauss syndrome: case report. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2006;84:703-6 pubmed
    ..To describe a rare case of Churg-Strauss syndrome presenting with severe visual loss due to a combined central retinal vein and artery occlusion...
  25. Yu D, Cringle S, Yu P, Su E. Intraretinal oxygen distribution and consumption during retinal artery occlusion and graded hyperoxic ventilation in the rat. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:2290-6 pubmed
    To determine intraretinal oxygen distribution and consumption in a rat model of retinal artery occlusion during air breathing and stepwise systemic hyperoxia.
  26. Cella W, Avila M. Optical coherence tomography as a means of evaluating acute ischaemic retinopathy in branch retinal artery occlusion. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2007;85:799-801 pubmed
  27. Schumacher M, Schmidt D, Jurklies B, Gall C, Wanke I, Schmoor C, et al. Central retinal artery occlusion: local intra-arterial fibrinolysis versus conservative treatment, a multicenter randomized trial. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:1367-75.e1 pubmed publisher
    The reported outcomes of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) with or without treatment vary considerably...
  28. Gutteridge I, McDonald R, Plenderleith J. Branch retinal artery occlusion during a migraine attack. Clin Exp Optom. 2007;90:371-5 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis of branch arterial occlusion secondary to migraine was made after exclusion of numerous possible medical conditions. The possible role of vasospasm in this condition is discussed...
  29. Theoulakis P, Livieratou A, Petropoulos I, Lepidas J, Brinkmann C, Katsimpris J. Cilioretinal artery occlusion combined with central retinal vein occlusion - a report of two cases and review of the literature. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2010;227:302-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe the clinical findings and course of cilioretinal artery occlusion (CAO) combined with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) in two patients and present a review of the relevant literature...
  30. Inoue H, Muneuchi J, Ohno T, Arikawa A, Ishibashi T, Hara T. Central retinal artery occlusion following transcatheter balloon aortic valvuloplasty in an adolescent with aortic valvular stenosis. Pediatr Cardiol. 2008;29:830-3 pubmed
    ..examination showed white swelling around the macular region, indicating ischemia, consistent with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO)...
  31. Weiss J. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment of retinal artery occlusion. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2010;37:167-72 pubmed
    Five patients with a one- to 12-day history of symptoms secondary to retinal artery occlusion (RAO) were treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO2) for one hour at 1.5 ATA...
  32. Hayreh S, Podhajsky P, Zimmerman M. Retinal artery occlusion: associated systemic and ophthalmic abnormalities. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:1928-36 pubmed publisher
    To investigate systematically the various associated systemic and ophthalmic abnormalities in different types of retinal artery occlusion (RAO).
  33. Nicolo M, Artioli S, La Mattina G, Ghiglione D, Calabria G. Branch retinal artery occlusion combined with branch retinal vein occlusion in a patient with hepatitis C treated with interferon and ribavirin. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2005;15:811-4 pubmed
    ..To report a case of a combined branch retinal artery and vein occlusion in a patient with hepatitis C treated with interferon and ribavirin...
  34. Ayati M, Gori T, Munzel T. Lesions of the mitral valve as a cause of central retinal artery occlusion: presentation and discussion of two cases. Echocardiography. 2010;27:E1-3 pubmed publisher
    We present two cases of mitral valve lesions that manifested with unilateral blindness caused by central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO): Case 1. A 68-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic for sudden blindness...
  35. Asok T, Aziz S, Faisal H, Tan A, Mallika P. Central retinal artery occlusion and ophthalmoplegia following spinal surgery in the prone position. Med J Malaysia. 2009;64:323-4 pubmed
    ..This report highlights the importance of being aware of the possible complications of external ocular compression in non-ocular surgery...
  36. Zhang X, Ji X, Luo Y, Liu D, Guo L, Wu H, et al. Intra-arterial thrombolysis for acute central retinal artery occlusion. Neurol Res. 2009;31:385-9 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we aimed at exploring the effect and safety of local intra-arterial thrombolysis on acute central retinal artery occlusion.
  37. Tan C, Sabel B, Goh K. Visual hallucinations during visual recovery after central retinal artery occlusion. Arch Neurol. 2006;63:598-600 pubmed
    Charles Bonnet syndrome is characterized by complex, formed visual hallucinations that occur in patients without psychiatric disorders. To the best of our knowledge, it has not been described following central retinal artery occlusion.
  38. Weger M, Steinbrugger I, El Shabrawi Y, Wegscheider B, Weger W, Renner W, et al. Haplotype-tagging interleukin-10 promoter polymorphism is associated with reduced risk of retinal artery occlusion. Mol Vis. 2007;13:549-52 pubmed
    ..The purpose of the present study was to investigate a hypothesized association between the haplotype-tagging IL10 -592C>A polymorphism and the presence of retinal artery occlusion (RAO).
  39. De Salvo G, Li Calzi C, Anastasi M, Lodato G. Branch retinal vein occlusion followed by central retinal artery occlusion in Churg-Strauss syndrome: unusual ocular manifestations in allergic granulomatous angiitis. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009;19:314-7 pubmed
    To describe a rare branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) followed by central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) in a patient with Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS).
  40. Emad Y, Basaffar S, Ragab Y, Zeinhom F, Gheita T. A case of polyarteritis nodosa complicated by left central retinal artery occlusion, ischemic optic neuropathy, and retinal vasculitis. Clin Rheumatol. 2007;26:814-6 pubmed
    ..Ophthalmological examination of the patient revealed evidence of left central retinal artery occlusion, ischemic optic neuropathy...
  41. Leung C, Tham C, Mohammed S, Li E, Leung K, Chan W, et al. In vivo measurements of macular and nerve fibre layer thickness in retinal arterial occlusion. Eye (Lond). 2007;21:1464-8 pubmed
    ..To investigate the structure-function relationship in patients with retinal arterial occlusion by measuring the macular and the peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness and the visual sensitivity...
  42. Pandey V, Rao P, Rao S, Acharya K. Monocular blindness due to central retinal artery occlusion in bipolar hemireplacement arthroplasty of the hip. Singapore Med J. 2008;49:e96-7 pubmed
    ..for a fractured neck of femur, and developed perioperative monocular visual loss due to central retinal artery occlusion, a complication hitherto unreported in hip replacement surgeries...
  43. Mejzlíková E, Novak J, Adámková H. [Examination of the acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT3)]. Cesk Slov Oftalmol. 2009;65:75-8 pubmed
    ..The aim of the study is to determine dynamics of edematous changes in the central retina using the OCT (Optical Coherence Tomography)...
  44. Falkenberry S, Ip M, Blodi B, Gunther J. Optical coherence tomography findings in central retinal artery occlusion. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2006;37:502-5 pubmed
    This article describes optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings in patients with central retinal artery occlusion by conducting a retrospective review of two cases...
  45. Kanungo S, Shukla D, Kim R. Branch retinal artery occlusion secondary to dengue fever. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2008;56:73-4 pubmed
    ..Her best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 bilaterally. Fundus examination revealed a branch retinal artery occlusion in the right eye...
  46. Chen Y, Chen W, Tsai W, Tsao Y. Sentinel central retinal artery occlusion: a forme fruste of idiopathic renal infarction. Am J Emerg Med. 2009;27:253.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    Central retinal artery occlusion is one of the most challenging practices and is not an infrequent presentation at the emergency department...
  47. Martinet N, Fardeau C, Adam R, Bodaghi B, Papo T, Piette J, et al. Fluorescein and indocyanine green angiographies in Susac syndrome. Retina. 2007;27:1238-42 pubmed
    ..Susac syndrome is a rare microangiopathy of the brain, retina, and cochlea that mainly affects young women. We studied the management of this disease using retinal fluorescein and indocyanine green angiographies...
  48. Park S, Woo S, Park K, Huh J, Jung C, Kwon O. Iatrogenic retinal artery occlusion caused by cosmetic facial filler injections. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012;154:653-662.e1 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the clinical manifestations and visual prognosis of retinal artery occlusion resulting from cosmetic facial filler injections.
  49. Jenisch T, Dietrich Ntoukas T, Renner A, Helbig H, Gamulescu M. [Combined retinal artery and vein occlusions associated with interferon beta therapy]. Ophthalmologe. 2012;109:71-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thromboembolic and cardiovascular risk factors responsible for this event were excluded. The appearance of retinal vein and artery occlusions in our patient indicates an association with the long-term use of IFN beta...
  50. Pierre Filho P, Medina F, Rodrigues F, Carrera C. Central retinal artery occlusion associated with traumatic carotid cavernous fistula: case report. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2007;70:868-70 pubmed
    ..The authors report a rare case of central retinal artery occlusion complicating traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula, resulting in severe visual acuity loss...
  51. Aldrich E, Lee A, Chen C, Gottesman R, Bahouth M, Gailloud P, et al. Local intraarterial fibrinolysis administered in aliquots for the treatment of central retinal artery occlusion: the Johns Hopkins Hospital experience. Stroke. 2008;39:1746-50 pubmed publisher
    Central retinal artery occlusion results in acute visual loss with poor spontaneous recovery. Current standard therapies do not alter the natural history of disease...
  52. Hattenbach L, Kuhli Hattenbach C, Scharrer I, Baatz H. Intravenous thrombolysis with low-dose recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in central retinal artery occlusion. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;146:700-6 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the beneficial effect of intravenous thrombolysis aiming at rapid restoration of blood flow during the early hours of a central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO).
  53. Kramer M, Dadon S, Hasanreisoglu M, Monselise Y, Avraham B, Feldman A, et al. Proinflammatory cytokines in a mouse model of central retinal artery occlusion. Mol Vis. 2009;15:885-94 pubmed
    To analyze cytokines in the retina and serum in an experimental model of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) in mice.
  54. von Hanno T, Kinge B, Fossen K. Retinal artery occlusion following intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy. Acta Ophthalmol. 2010;88:263-6 pubmed publisher
    ..VEGF is a signalling molecule that has a variety of roles, including vasoregulation and effects on the coagulation homeostasis. Anti-VEGF therapy may therefore have adverse effects on ocular blood flow...
  55. Biousse V, Calvetti O, Bruce B, Newman N. Thrombolysis for central retinal artery occlusion. J Neuroophthalmol. 2007;27:215-30 pubmed
    Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) frequently causes severe and irreversible visual loss. For many years, various conservative treatments have been proposed for acute CRAO, but their efficacy remains unproven...
  56. Turkcuoglu P, Isik A, Deniz N, Turgut B, Kan E. Central retinal artery occlusion in an ANCA negative Churg-Strauss syndrome patient. Int Ophthalmol. 2007;27:369-71 pubmed
    To describe a central retinal artery occlusion in a patient with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) negative Churg-Strauss syndrome.
  57. Hayreh S, Fraterrigo L, Jonas J. Central retinal vein occlusion associated with cilioretinal artery occlusion. Retina. 2008;28:581-94 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe the clinical characteristics and pathogenesis of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) associated with cilioretinal artery occlusion (CLRAO)...
  58. Chen C, Lee A, Campbell B, Lee T, Paine M, Fraser C, et al. Efficacy of intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator in central retinal artery occlusion: report from a randomized, controlled trial. Stroke. 2011;42:2229-34 pubmed publisher
    Central retinal artery occlusion is caused by a platelet-fibrin thrombus or embolic occlusion and is a stroke of the eye. Observational studies suggest that thrombolytics may restore ocular perfusion and visual function...
  59. Kreis A, Nguyen T, Rogers S, Wang J, Harper C, Clark D, et al. Acute retinal arteriolar emboli after cardiac catheterization. Stroke. 2008;39:3086-7 pubmed publisher
    ..There are concerns that cardiac catheterization may cause retinal embolization, a risk marker for cerebrovascular emboli and stroke. We describe the incidence of acute retinal embolism after cardiac catheterization...
  60. Wakabayashi Y, Yagihashi T, Kezuka J, Muramatsu D, Usui M, Iwasaki T. Glutamate levels in aqueous humor of patients with retinal artery occlusion. Retina. 2006;26:432-6 pubmed
    We analyzed the levels of glutamate and other amino acids in aqueous humor of patients with retinal artery occlusion (RAO) to determine whether glutamate is associated with retinal ischemia in RAO.
  61. Asefzadeh B, Ninyo K. Longitudinal analysis of retinal changes after branch retinal artery occlusion using optical coherence tomography. Optometry. 2008;79:85-9 pubmed publisher
    Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) causes inner retinal ischemia leading to permanent inner retinal dysfunction and visual field loss in affected retinal sectors...
  62. Yahia S, Kahloun R, Jelliti B, Khairallah M. Branch retinal artery occlusion associated with Behçet disease. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2011;19:293-5 pubmed publisher
    To report 2 cases of branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) associated with Behçet disease (BD).
  63. Ozdemir H, Karacorlu S, Karacorlu M. Optical coherence tomography findings in central retinal artery occlusion. Retina. 2006;26:110-2 pubmed