ventricular premature complexes


Summary: A type of cardiac arrhythmia with premature contractions of the HEART VENTRICLES. It is characterized by the premature QRS complex on ECG that is of abnormal shape and great duration (generally >129 msec). It is the most common form of all cardiac arrhythmias. Premature ventricular complexes have no clinical significance except in concurrence with heart diseases.

Top Publications

  1. Engel G, Cho S, Ghayoumi A, Yamazaki T, Chun S, Fearon W, et al. Prognostic significance of PVCs and resting heart rate. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2007;12:121-9 pubmed
    ..These findings together with the demonstrated independent association of heart rate with PVCs suggest that a hyperadrenergic state is present in patients with PVCs and that it likely contributes to their adverse prognosis. ..
  2. Agarwal S, Heiss G, Rautaharju P, Shahar E, Massing M, Simpson R. Premature ventricular complexes and the risk of incident stroke: the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) Study. Stroke. 2010;41:588-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that PVCs may contribute to atrioventricular remodeling or may be a risk marker for incident stroke, particularly embolic stroke. ..
  3. Jia L, Yue Chun L, Kang Ting J, Na Dan Z, Jia Xuan L, Wen Wu Z, et al. Premature ventricular contractions originating from the left ventricular septum: results of radiofrequency catheter ablation in twenty patients. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2011;11:27 pubmed publisher
    ..RFCA is an effective curative therapy for symptomatic PVCs originating from the left ventricular septum (not from the left anterior and posterior fascicle). ..
  4. Taieb J, Maury P, Shah D, Duparc A, Galinier M, Delay M, et al. Reversal of dilated cardiomyopathy by the elimination of frequent left or right premature ventricular contractions. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2007;20:9-13 pubmed
    ..Elimination of frequent isolated PVC in patients with DCM with RF can normalize the clinical status and LV systolic function and dimensions, regardless of the morphology or origin of the PVC. ..
  5. Beaufort Krol G, Dijkstra S, Bink Boelkens M. Natural history of ventricular premature contractions in children with a structurally normal heart: does origin matter?. Europace. 2008;10:998-1003 pubmed publisher
    ..Follow-up of these children seems not necessary. Premature ventricular contraction with left bundle branch block does not disappear and, therefore, it may be necessary to follow these children even during adulthood. ..
  6. Yamada T, Allison J, McElderry H, Doppalapudi H, Epstein A, Plumb V, et al. Successful catheter ablation of premature ventricular contractions originating from the tricuspid annulus using a Halo-type catheter. Europace. 2008;10:1228-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Successful catheter ablation was achieved at the ventricular site between those electrode pairs. A Halo-type catheter may be effective for mapping and catheter ablation of ventricular arrhythmias originating from the TA. ..
  7. Stein P, Sanghavi D, Sotoodehnia N, Siscovick D, Gottdiener J. Association of Holter-based measures including T-wave alternans with risk of sudden cardiac death in the community-dwelling elderly: the Cardiovascular Health Study. J Electrocardiol. 2010;43:251-9 pubmed publisher
    ..6 for SCD compared with 3.1 for having either. Results support a potential role for 24-hour Holter recordings to identify older adults at increased or lower risk of SCD. ..
  8. Cheriyath P, He F, Peters I, Li X, Alagona P, Wu C, et al. Relation of atrial and/or ventricular premature complexes on a two-minute rhythm strip to the risk of sudden cardiac death (the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities [ARIC] study). Am J Cardiol. 2011;107:151-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) and atrial premature complexes (APCs) are common findings on routinely obtained electrocardiograms...
  9. Kuroki K, Tada H, Seo Y, Ishizu T, Igawa M, Yamasaki H, et al. Prediction and mechanism of frequent ventricular premature contractions related to haemodynamic deterioration. Eur J Heart Fail. 2012;14:1112-20 pubmed
    ..This haemodynamically deteriorating subgroup could be identified by the surface electrocardiogram and improved dramatically with catheter ablation. ..

More Information


  1. Liao D, Whitsel E, Duan Y, Lin H, Quibrera P, Smith R, et al. Ambient particulate air pollution and ectopy--the environmental epidemiology of arrhythmogenesis in Women's Health Initiative Study, 1999-2004. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2009;72:30-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Acute PM(2.5) and PM(10) exposure is directly associated with the odds of VE among smokers, suggesting that they are more vulnerable to the arrhythmogenic effects of PM. ..
  2. Baman T, Ilg K, Gupta S, Good E, Chugh A, Jongnarangsin K, et al. Mapping and ablation of epicardial idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias from within the coronary venous system. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2010;3:274-9 pubmed publisher
    ..ECG characteristics help to differentiate epicardial arrhythmias from endocardial ventricular arrhythmias. The SOO of epicardial arrhythmias can be ablated from within the CVS in approximately 70% of patients. ..
  3. Hirose M, Takeishi Y, Niizeki T, Nakada T, Shimojo H, Kashihara T, et al. Diacylglycerol kinase ? inhibits ventricular tachyarrhythmias in a mouse model of heart failure. Circ J. 2011;75:2333-42 pubmed
    ..Moreover, SK&F96365 prevented the EAD. These results demonstrated that DGK? inhibited VT in a mouse model of HF and suggest that TRPC channels participate in VT induction in failing hearts. ..
  4. Yue Chun L, Wen Wu Z, Na Dan Z, Teng Z, Pin Xiao W, Bei G, et al. Idiopathic premature ventricular contractions and ventricular tachycardias originating from the vicinity of tricuspid annulus: results of radiofrequency catheter ablation in thirty-five patients. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2012;12:32 pubmed publisher
    ..RFCA is an effective curative therapy for symptomatic PVCs/IVTs originating from the vicinity of TA. There are specific characteristics in ECG and the ablation site could be located by ECG analysis. ..
  5. Bian C, Ma J, Yao S, Lv X, Wang J. Transjugular approach for radiofrequency ablation of premature ventricular contractions originating from the superior tricuspid annulus. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2012;35:e358-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The PVCs were successfully abolished via a transjugular approach because of poor contact of the ablation catheter via a femoral vein approach. ..
  6. Shiraishi H, Ishibashi K, Urao N, Tsukamoto M, Hyogo M, Keira N, et al. A case of cardiomyopathy induced by premature ventricular complexes. Circ J. 2002;66:1065-7 pubmed
    ..Frequent PVCs could be the cause of left ventricular dysfunction in a subset of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and radiofrequency ablation should be the choice of therapy in those patients. ..
  7. Takemoto M, Yoshimura H, Ohba Y, Matsumoto Y, Yamamoto U, Mohri M, et al. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of premature ventricular complexes from right ventricular outflow tract improves left ventricular dilation and clinical status in patients without structural heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;45:1259-65 pubmed
    ..0 +/- 0.0, respectively; p < 0.05 compared with before RFA). These findings suggest that frequent (>20%) RVOT-PVC may be a possible cause of LV dysfunction and/or heart failure, and RFA produces clinical benefits in these patients. ..
  8. Yarlagadda R, Iwai S, Stein K, Markowitz S, Shah B, Cheung J, et al. Reversal of cardiomyopathy in patients with repetitive monomorphic ventricular ectopy originating from the right ventricular outflow tract. Circulation. 2005;112:1092-7 pubmed
  9. Sekiguchi Y, Aonuma K, Yamauchi Y, Obayashi T, Niwa A, Hachiya H, et al. Chronic hemodynamic effects after radiofrequency catheter ablation of frequent monomorphic ventricular premature beats. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2005;16:1057-63 pubmed
    ..Significant improvement in LV dimensions and serum BNP level appeared to indicate that RFCA of VPBs ameliorated occult cardiac dysfunction induced by frequent VPBs. ..
  10. Simpson R, Cascio W, Schreiner P, Crow R, Rautaharju P, Heiss G. Prevalence of premature ventricular contractions in a population of African American and white men and women: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Am Heart J. 2002;143:535-40 pubmed
    ..Hypertension is likely to be a major cause of PVCs in adults. ..
  11. Massing M, Simpson R, Rautaharju P, Schreiner P, Crow R, Heiss G. Usefulness of ventricular premature complexes to predict coronary heart disease events and mortality (from the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities cohort). Am J Cardiol. 2006;98:1609-12 pubmed
    The clinical relevance of ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) in apparently healthy patients is not clear and is typically not considered when evaluating risk...
  12. Tada H, Tadokoro K, Ito S, Naito S, Hashimoto T, Kaseno K, et al. Idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias originating from the tricuspid annulus: Prevalence, electrocardiographic characteristics, and results of radiofrequency catheter ablation. Heart Rhythm. 2007;4:7-16 pubmed
    ..Idiopathic VT/PVCs arising from tricuspid annulus are not rare, and the detailed origin can be determined by ECG analysis. The preferential site of origin was the septum but also could be the free wall of the tricuspid annulus. ..
  13. Simpson R, Cascio W, Crow R, Schreiner P, Rautaharju P, Heiss G. Association of ventricular premature complexes with electrocardiographic-estimated left ventricular mass in a population of African-American and white men and women (The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities. Am J Cardiol. 2001;87:49-53 pubmed
    ..hypothesis that an electrocardiographic estimate of LV mass--the Cornell voltage--is associated with ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) in free-living adults, a cross-sectional analysis of the predictors of VPCs on a 2-minute ..
  14. Schmidt G, Malik M, Barthel P, Schneider R, Ulm K, Rolnitzky L, et al. Heart-rate turbulence after ventricular premature beats as a predictor of mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Lancet. 1999;353:1390-6 pubmed
  15. Bogun F, Crawford T, Reich S, Koelling T, Armstrong W, Good E, et al. Radiofrequency ablation of frequent, idiopathic premature ventricular complexes: comparison with a control group without intervention. Heart Rhythm. 2007;4:863-7 pubmed
    ..LV dysfunction in the setting of frequent, idiopathic PVCs may represent a form of cardiomyopathy that can be reversed by catheter ablation of the PVCs. ..
  16. Kamakura S, Shimizu W, Matsuo K, Taguchi A, Suyama K, Kurita T, et al. Localization of optimal ablation site of idiopathic ventricular tachycardia from right and left ventricular outflow tract by body surface ECG. Circulation. 1998;98:1525-33 pubmed
    ..R/S>/=1 in lead V3 was an index suggesting the LVOT origin. The origin or the optimum ablation site of idiopathic VT from RVOT and LVOT can be localized with the use of indexes obtained with a BSM or 12-lead ECG. ..
  17. Ito S, Tada H, Naito S, Kurosaki K, Ueda M, Hoshizaki H, et al. Development and validation of an ECG algorithm for identifying the optimal ablation site for idiopathic ventricular outflow tract tachycardia. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2003;14:1280-6 pubmed
    ..We describe a new ECG algorithm having a high sensitivity and specificity to identify the optimal ablation site for idiopathic ventricular outflow tachycardia or premature ventricular contractions. ..
  18. Tada H, Ito S, Naito S, Kurosaki K, Kubota S, Sugiyasu A, et al. Idiopathic ventricular arrhythmia arising from the mitral annulus: a distinct subgroup of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;45:877-86 pubmed
    ..Mitral annular VT/PVC is a rare but distinct subgroup of IVT/PVC. MAVT/PVC origin could be determined by ECG analysis. The AL and PS sites of the MA were preferential. ..
  19. Segerson N, Wasmund S, Abedin M, Pai R, Daccarett M, Akoum N, et al. Heart rate turbulence parameters correlate with post-premature ventricular contraction changes in muscle sympathetic activity. Heart Rhythm. 2007;4:284-9 pubmed
    ..Future studies are needed to evaluate the prognostic role of baroreflex control of sympathetic activity in patients with structural heart disease. ..
  20. Zweytick B, Pignoni Mory P, Zweytick G, Steinbach K. Prognostic significance of right ventricular extrasystoles. Europace. 2004;6:123-9 pubmed
    ..Patients with RVES carry a good prognosis in terms of morbidity and mortality no matter whether echomorphologic abnormalities are present or not. ..
  21. Evenson K, Welch V, Cascio W, Simpson R. Validation of a short rhythm strip compared to ambulatory ECG monitoring for ventricular ectopy. J Clin Epidemiol. 2000;53:491-7 pubmed
    ..However, an awareness that PVCs on a 2-min rhythm strip consistently identify high frequency PVCs on 24-hr recordings should be helpful to clinicians. ..
  22. Sajadieh A, Nielsen O, Rasmussen V, Hein H, Frederiksen B, Davanlou M, et al. Ventricular arrhythmias and risk of death and acute myocardial infarction in apparently healthy subjects of age >or=55 years. Am J Cardiol. 2006;97:1351-7 pubmed
    ..In total, 84% had 0 to 10 ventricular premature complexes (VPCs)/hour, 8% had 11 to 30 VPCs/hour, and 8% had >30 VPCs/hour; 10...
  23. Huang C, Liang J, Yang B, Jiang H, Tang Q, Liu X, et al. Quality of life and cost for patients with premature ventricular contractions by radiofrequency catheter ablation. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2006;29:343-50 pubmed
    ..It also improved the QoL and reduced health-care resource utilization and cost. RFCA is a safe and effective treatment for PVCs, and it is a viable alternative to drugs in the presence of disabling symptoms. ..
  24. Ghuran A, Reid F, La Rovere M, Schmidt G, Bigger J, Camm A, et al. Heart rate turbulence-based predictors of fatal and nonfatal cardiac arrest (The Autonomic Tone and Reflexes After Myocardial Infarction substudy). Am J Cardiol. 2002;89:184-90 pubmed
    ..By combining HR turbulence, BRS, and SDNN, a comprehensive assessment of cardiac autonomic reflexes and modulation can be obtained. ..
  25. Lin L, Lai L, Lin J, Du C, Shau W, Chan H, et al. Tight mechanism correlation between heart rate turbulence and baroreflex sensitivity: sequential autonomic blockade analysis. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2002;13:427-31 pubmed
    ..Heart rate turbulence of turbulence onset and turbulence slope is critically vagal dependent and highly correlated with spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, which underscores its clinical importance in cardiovascular risk stratification. ..
  26. Fang Y, Wen C, Yang L, Zhang X, Chu W, Zeng C. Radiofrequency ablation can reverse the structural remodeling caused by frequent premature ventricular contractions originating from the right ventricular outflow tract even in a "normal heart". Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2013;68:1312-7 pubmed publisher
  27. Bala R, Garcia F, Hutchinson M, Gerstenfeld E, Dhruvakumar S, Dixit S, et al. Electrocardiographic and electrophysiologic features of ventricular arrhythmias originating from the right/left coronary cusp commissure. Heart Rhythm. 2010;7:312-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In the majority of cases, the site of successful ablation has late potentials in sinus rhythm. ..
  28. Chan H, Wang C, Fang S, Chao P, Wei J. Recognition of ventricular extrasystoles over the reconstructed phase space of electrocardiogram. Ann Biomed Eng. 2010;38:813-23 pubmed
    ..However, the phase space information performed better in situations of noise contaminations and waveform deformations. ..
  29. Myles R, Wang L, Kang C, Bers D, Ripplinger C. Local ?-adrenergic stimulation overcomes source-sink mismatch to generate focal arrhythmia. Circ Res. 2012;110:1454-64 pubmed publisher
  30. Yao J, Yang R, Xu D, Zhuang Y, Yong Y, Cao K. Circumferential myocardial contraction patterns in patients with idiopathic frequent premature ventricular complexes from the right ventricular outflow tract. Int J Cardiol. 2013;166:166-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Circumferential contraction dyssynchrony of patients during sinus beats relates to PVC frequency. Therefore, attention should be paid to patients with frequent RVOT-PVCs, especially those with a high prevalence of PVCs. ..
  31. Cozma D, Streian C, Petrescu L, Mornos C. Subclinical left atrium remodelling in patients with frequent premature ventricular contractions. Kardiol Pol. 2014;72:1141-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Frequent PVCs are associated with larger LAV and trapezoidal LA shape in otherwise healthy patients, suggesting LA remodelling in response to increased LV filling pressure. ..
  32. Jadhav A, Ingole A, Chockalingam A. RETRACTED: Ventricular Ectopic Beats: An Overview of Management Considerations. Am J Med Sci. 2012;343:150-154 pubmed publisher
    ..This article discusses the current knowledge and practice in this commonly encountered clinical problem. ..
  33. De Ponti R, Ho S. Mapping of right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia/ectopies: activation mapping versus pace mapping. Heart Rhythm. 2008;5:345-7 pubmed publisher
  34. Welzig C, Park H, Naggar J, Confalone D, Rhofiry J, Shea J, et al. Differential effects of statins (pravastatin or simvastatin) on ventricular ectopic complexes: Galpha(i2), a possible molecular marker for ventricular irritability. Am J Cardiol. 2010;105:1112-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Pravastatin treatment decreased the incidence of ventricular premature complexes by 22.5 + or - 3.4% (n = 20, p <0...
  35. Solem K, Laguna P, Martinez J, Sornmo L. Model-based detection of heart rate turbulence. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2008;55:2712-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show that T(x) exhibits larger mean values in HtR patients than in HtP, suggesting that HRT is mostly present in HtR patients. The overlap between the two groups was larger for TO and TS than for T(x). ..
  36. Yamada T, McElderry H, Allred J, Doppalapudi H, Kay G. Ventricular fibrillation induced by a radiofrequency energy delivery for idiopathic premature ventricular contractions arising from the left ventricular anterior papillary muscle. Europace. 2009;11:1115-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Ventricular fibrillation may occur as a complication during RF catheter ablation of papillary muscle ventricular arrhythmias even if the clinical arrhythmia is limited to PVCs. ..
  37. Chinushi M, Sato A, Iijima K, Suzuki K, Hiroshi F, Izumi D, et al. Exercise-related QT interval shortening with a peaked T wave in a healthy boy with a family history of sudden cardiac death. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2012;35:e239-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic analysis did not show the mutation in KCNQ1, KCNH2, KCNE1, KCNE2, KCNJ2, SCN5A genes but revealed single nucleotide polymorphism (C5457T) in SCN5A gene. ..
  38. Hoang A, Ahmed J, Glancy D. Atypical Initiation of Typical Atrioventricular Node Reentry Tachycardia With a Ventricular Couplet. Am J Cardiol. 2016;118:936-937 pubmed publisher
    In a woman with sinus rhythm a couplet of ventricular premature complexes is followed by a retrograde P wave. A subsequent couplet of ventricular premature complexes is followed by typical atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia.
  39. Sanchez Munoz J, García Alberola A, Martinez Sanchez J, Peñafiel Verdú P, Caro Martínez C, Manzano Fernandez S, et al. Same morphology of ventricular premature complexes triggering repeated ventricular fibrillation. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2010;28:95-100 pubmed publisher
    Episodes ventricular fibrillation (VF) initiated by ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) of a single morphology have been reported. However, the characteristics of the VPCs over long periods of time are unknown...
  40. Latchamsetty R, Bogun F. Premature Ventricular Complex-induced Cardiomyopathy. Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed). 2016;69:365-9 pubmed publisher
  41. Huang Z, Li T, Yang M, Wu Y, Li Y. [Efficacy and safety of amiodarone and metoprolol in the treatment of ventricular premature beats: a meta-analysis]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2010;30:2577-80 pubmed
    ..The total response rate of amiodarone does not seem to be superior to metoprolol in the treatment of premature ventricular contractions, and amiodarone is associated with higher incidence of adverse reactions. ..
  42. Othong R, Trakulsrichai S, Wananukul W. Diospyros rhodocalyx (Tako-Na), a Thai folk medicine, associated with hypokalemia and generalized muscle weakness: a case series. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2017;55:986-990 pubmed publisher
    ..Glycyrrhetic acid is potent in inhibiting 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and causes pseudoaldosteronism. We hypothesize that the compounds in Tako-Na act in the same way as glycyrrhetic acid in producing pseudoaldosteronism. ..
  43. Li Y, Zhe Wei S, Cheng Z, Guang Yi C, De Pu Z, Xiao Wei L, et al. Clinical and electrocardiographic characteristics of infarctional ventricular ectopic beats: An observational study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7007 pubmed publisher
    ..The infarctional morphological changes of IVEB could be found before the same period in sinus rhythm and elevated myocardial enzymes.IVEBs were not rare. They were useful for early diagnosis and location of AMI. ..
  44. Shah A, Niemann J, Youngquist S, Josephson G, Rosborough J. Endothelin-1 is not predictive of ventricular ectopy or ventricular fibrillation during acute myocardial ischemia. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2008;28:639-41 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a significant increase in ET-1 level within 20 min of acute myocardial ischemia. Despite known effects of ET-1 on the AP, this increase did not correlate with the occurrence of VF. ..
  45. Sagar R, Berry N, Sadhu R, Mishra S, Kahn D. Clozapine-induced cardiomyopathy presenting as panic attacks. J Psychiatr Pract. 2008;14:182-5 pubmed publisher
  46. Anter E, Buxton A, Silverstein J, Josephson M. Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation originating from the moderator band. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2013;24:97-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Ventricular fibrillation was pause-dependent and triggered by an early-coupled right ventricular premature complex. The characteristic premature beat was mapped and successfully ablated from Purkinje fibers of the moderator band. ..
  47. Cakulev I, Sahadevan J, Arruda M, Goldstein R, Hong M, Intini A, et al. Confirmation of novel noninvasive high-density electrocardiographic mapping with electrophysiology study: implications for therapy. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2013;6:68-75 pubmed publisher
    ..ECM successfully provided valid activation sequence maps obtained noninvasively in a variety of rhythm disorders that correlated well with invasive electrophysiological studies. ..
  48. Romero J, Ajijola O, Shivkumar K, Tung R. Characterization of Aortic Valve Closure Artifact During Outflow Tract Mapping: Correlation With Hemodynamics and Mechanical Valves. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2017;10: pubmed publisher
    ..The timing of this artifact correlates with invasive hemodynamics and mechanical aortic valve artifacts. Recognition of this physiological phenomenon is useful when assigning near-field activation. ..
  49. Jackson B, Adin D, Lehmkuhl L. Effect of atenolol on heart rate, arrhythmias, blood pressure, and dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in cats with subclinical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Vet Cardiol. 2015;17 Suppl 1:S296-305 pubmed publisher
    ..The total number of ventricular origin complexes (TotVent) and ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) decreased after atenolol...
  50. Yamada T, McElderry H, Doppalapudi H, Kay G. Evidence for an intramural origin of idiopathic premature ventricular contractions successfully ablated within the great cardiac vein. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2011;34:e112-4 pubmed publisher
    ..A radiofrequency application delivered at this site eliminated the PVCs. These findings suggested that the PVC origin might have been intramural rather than epicardial. ..
  51. Wu J, Wang J. [Detection of premature ventricular contraction and atrial premature contraction based on mode entropy]. Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 2010;27:516-8 pubmed
    ..The detection method based on the mode entropy technique is proven to be rational and accurate, and it does not need large data sets. ..
  52. Yamabe H, Miyazaki T, Takashio S, Morihisa K, Koyama J, Uemura T, et al. Radiofrequency energy induced ventricular fibrillation in a case of idiopathic premature ventricular contraction originating from the left ventricular papillary muscle. Intern Med. 2010;49:1863-6 pubmed
    ..Repeated application of radiofrequency energy eliminated PVC accompanied by the split of the diastolic potential. ..
  53. Dewey F, Perez M, Hadley D, Freeman J, Wang P, Ashley E, et al. Statin use and ventricular arrhythmias during clinical treadmill testing. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2009;20:193-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Statin use was associated with reduced odds of frequent PVCs during and after clinical exercise testing in a manner independent of associations with coronary disease or ischemia in our study population. ..