tetralogy of fallot

Summary

Summary: A combination of congenital heart defects consisting of four key features including VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECTS; PULMONARY STENOSIS; RIGHT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY; and a dextro-positioned AORTA. In this condition, blood from both ventricles (oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor) is pumped into the body often causing CYANOSIS.

Top Publications

  1. Wei D, Bao H, Liu X, Zhou N, Wang Q, Li R, et al. GATA5 loss-of-function mutations underlie tetralogy of fallot. Int J Med Sci. 2013;10:34-42 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report on the association of GATA5 loss-of-function mutations with TOF, suggesting potential implications for the early prophylaxis and allele-specific therapy of human TOF. ..
  2. Seki M, Kurishima C, Kawasaki H, Masutani S, Senzaki H. Aortic stiffness and aortic dilation in infants and children with tetralogy of Fallot before corrective surgery: evidence for intrinsically abnormal aortic mechanical property. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2012;41:277-82 pubmed publisher
    ..tested the hypothesis that there is an intrinsic abnormality of aortic elasticity in infants/children with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) before corrective surgery...
  3. Wang J, Luo X, Xin Y, Liu Y, Liu Z, Wang Q, et al. Novel GATA6 mutations associated with congenital ventricular septal defect or tetralogy of fallot. DNA Cell Biol. 2012;31:1610-7 pubmed publisher
    ..D404Y and p.E460X, were identified in two families with ventricular septal defect and tetralogy of Fallot, respectively...
  4. Guida V, Ferese R, Rocchetti M, Bonetti M, Sarkozy A, Cecchetti S, et al. A variant in the carboxyl-terminus of connexin 40 alters GAP junctions and increases risk for tetralogy of Fallot. Eur J Hum Genet. 2013;21:69-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Pro265Ser mutant disrupts overall morphology of the heart tube in the 37% (22/60) of embryos, compared with the 6% (4/66) of the GJA5 wild-type-injected embryos. These findings implicate GJA5 gene as a novel susceptibility gene for TOF. ..
  5. Kola S, Koneti N, Golla J, Akka J, Gundimeda S, Mundluru H. Mutational analysis of JAG1 gene in non-syndromic tetralogy of Fallot children. Clin Chim Acta. 2011;412:2232-6 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is essentially a right sided heart disease with characteristic features of ventricular septal defect, ..
  6. Palomino Doza J, Topf A, Bentham J, Bhattacharya S, Cosgrove C, Brook J, et al. Low-frequency intermediate penetrance variants in the ROCK1 gene predispose to Tetralogy of Fallot. BMC Genet. 2013;14:57 pubmed publisher
    Epidemiological studies indicate a substantial excess familial recurrence of non-syndromic Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), implicating genetic factors that remain largely unknown...
  7. Cordell H, Töpf A, Mamasoula C, Postma A, Bentham J, Zelenika D, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies loci on 12q24 and 13q32 associated with tetralogy of Fallot. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:1473-81 pubmed publisher
    We conducted a genome-wide association study to search for risk alleles associated with Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), using a northern European discovery set of 835 cases and 5159 controls. A region on chromosome 12q24 was associated (P = 1...
  8. Lee C, Kim Y, Lee C, Kwak J, Park C, Song J, et al. Outcomes of pulmonary valve replacement in 170 patients with chronic pulmonary regurgitation after relief of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction: implications for optimal timing of pulmonary valve replacement. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;60:1005-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Midterm outcomes of PVR in patients with chronic PR were acceptable. PVR should be considered before RV EDVI exceeds 163 ml/m(2) or RV ESVI exceeds 80 ml/m(2), with more attention to RV ESVI. ..
  9. Soemedi R, Topf A, Wilson I, Darlay R, Rahman T, Glen E, et al. Phenotype-specific effect of chromosome 1q21.1 rearrangements and GJA5 duplications in 2436 congenital heart disease patients and 6760 controls. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:1513-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the 1q21.1 locus in 948 patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), 1488 patients with other forms of CHD and 6760 ethnically matched controls using single nucleotide ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Huang R, Xue S, Xu Y, Yang Y. Somatic mutations in the GATA6 gene underlie sporadic tetralogy of Fallot. Int J Mol Med. 2013;31:51-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common cyanotic congenital heart disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality in humans...
  2. Mather C, Treuting P. Onchocerca armillata contamination of a bovine pericardial xenograft in a human patient with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Cardiovasc Pathol. 2012;21:e35-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present a case of parasitic contamination of a bovine pericardium used as a transannular patch during repair of tetralogy of Fallot 28 years prior at a hospital in China.
  3. Ji Q, Mei Y, Wang X, Feng J, Wusha D, Cai J, et al. Effect of ischemic postconditioning in correction of tetralogy of Fallot. Int Heart J. 2011;52:312-7 pubmed
    ..myocardial protection is considered one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity in the correction of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)...
  4. Goodship J, Hall D, Topf A, Mamasoula C, Griffin H, Rahman T, et al. A common variant in the PTPN11 gene contributes to the risk of tetralogy of Fallot. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2012;5:287-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the commonest cyanotic form of congenital heart disease. In 80% of cases, TOF behaves as a complex genetic condition exhibiting significant heritability...
  5. Silka M, Bar Cohen Y. A contemporary assessment of the risk for sudden cardiac death in patients with congenital heart disease. Pediatr Cardiol. 2012;33:452-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Sudden cardiac death in CHD patients has been studied most extensively in tetralogy of Fallot. More than 30 risk factors have been proposed, with age at repair, QRS duration, right ventricular ..
  6. Chiu S, Wang J, Chen H, Lin M, Wu E, Chen C, et al. Long-term survival and unnatural deaths of patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot in an Asian cohort. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2012;5:120-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common cyanotic congenital heart disease in Taiwan. This study investigates the long-term survival and risks of TOF in an Asian cohort. This study enrolled 819 consecutive patients with TOF (61...
  7. Esposito G, Butler T, Blue G, Cole A, Sholler G, Kirk E, et al. Somatic mutations in NKX2–5, GATA4, and HAND1 are not a common cause of tetralogy of Fallot or hypoplastic left heart. Am J Med Genet A. 2011;155A:2416-21 pubmed
    ..We used samples of right ventricular myocardium from patients undergoing surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and hypoplastic left heart (HLH) to examine the incidence of somatic mutation in cardiac tissue...
  8. Valente A, Gauvreau K, Assenza G, Babu Narayan S, Evans S, Gatzoulis M, et al. Rationale and design of an International Multicenter Registry of patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot to define risk factors for late adverse outcomes: the INDICATOR cohort. Pediatr Cardiol. 2013;34:95-104 pubmed publisher
    Although early survival after tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair in the modern era is excellent, studies on late outcomes have shown increasing rates of mortality and morbidity...
  9. O Brien J, Kibiryeva N, Zhou X, Marshall J, Lofland G, Artman M, et al. Noncoding RNA expression in myocardium from infants with tetralogy of Fallot. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2012;5:279-86 pubmed publisher
    ..miRNAs and small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) in right ventricular myocardium from 16 infants with nonsyndromic tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) without a 22q11.2 deletion, 3 fetal heart samples, and 8 normally developing infants...
  10. Sarikouch S, Koerperich H, Dubowy K, Boethig D, Boettler P, Mir T, et al. Impact of gender and age on cardiovascular function late after repair of tetralogy of Fallot: percentiles based on cardiac magnetic resonance. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2011;4:703-11 pubmed publisher
    The impact of gender and age on cardiac function by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is unknown, which limits the value of currently discussed volumetric thresholds and the accuracy of individual ..
  11. Sheng W, Wang H, Ma X, Qian Y, Zhang P, Wu Y, et al. LINE-1 methylation status and its association with tetralogy of fallot in infants. BMC Med Genomics. 2012;5:20 pubmed publisher
    ..To derive insight into the association between genome-wide methylation status and tetralogy of fallot (TOF), we compared the methylation status of LINE-1 element between TOF patients and controls...
  12. Silversides C, Kiess M, Beauchesne L, Bradley T, Connelly M, Niwa K, et al. Canadian Cardiovascular Society 2009 Consensus Conference on the management of adults with congenital heart disease: outflow tract obstruction, coarctation of the aorta, tetralogy of Fallot, Ebstein anomaly and Marfan's syndrome. Can J Cardiol. 2010;26:e80-97 pubmed
    ..and bicuspid aortic valve disease, coarctation of the aorta, right ventricular outflow tract obstruction, tetralogy of Fallot, Ebstein anomaly and Marfan's syndrome...
  13. Therrien J, Marx G, Gatzoulis M. Late problems in tetralogy of Fallot--recognition, management, and prevention. Cardiol Clin. 2002;20:395-404 pubmed
    Most adults with previous repair of tetralogy of Fallot lead unrestricted lives and are asymptomatic...
  14. Sun A, Alhabshan F, Cheung M, Bronzetti G, Redington A, Benson L, et al. Delayed onset of tricuspid valve flow in repaired tetralogy of Fallot: an additional mechanism of diastolic dysfunction and interventricular dyssynchrony. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2011;13:43 pubmed publisher
    Diastolic dysfunction of the right ventricle (RV) is common after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. While restrictive physiology in late diastole has been well known, dysfunction in early diastole has not been described...
  15. Silversides C, Lionel A, Costain G, Merico D, Migita O, Liu B, et al. Rare copy number variations in adults with tetralogy of Fallot implicate novel risk gene pathways. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002843 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease, but to date little is known about the ..
  16. Devendra G, Hart S, Kim Y, Setser R, Flamm S, Krasuski R. Modified INOvent for delivery of inhaled nitric oxide during cardiac MRI. Magn Reson Imaging. 2011;29:1145-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of standard oxygen tubing without significantly affecting dose delivery. This technique has potential application in patients with right-sided structural heart disease for determination of dynamic physiological changes. ..
  17. Walker S, Danton M, Peng E, Lyall F. Heat shock protein 27 is increased in cyanotic tetralogy of Fallot myocardium and is associated with improved cardiac output and contraction. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2013;18:269-77 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a congenital heart condition in which the right ventricle is exposed to cyanosis and pressure overload. Patients have an increased risk of right ventricle dysfunction following corrective surgery...
  18. Diller G, Kempny A, Liodakis E, Alonso Gonzalez R, Inuzuka R, Uebing A, et al. Left ventricular longitudinal function predicts life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia and death in adults with repaired tetralogy of fallot. Circulation. 2012;125:2440-6 pubmed publisher
    ..cardiac death and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia remain a concern in adult patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Longitudinal left ventricular (LV) function is sensitive in detecting early myocardial damage and may have ..
  19. Ordovas K, Carlsson M, Lease K, Foster E, Meadows A, Martin A, et al. Impaired regional left ventricular strain after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2012;35:79-85 pubmed publisher
    ..LV) dysfunction in patients with pulmonary regurgitation and normal LV ejection fraction after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Patients (n = 18) with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary regurgitation were prospectively ..
  20. Geva T. Repaired tetralogy of Fallot: the roles of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in evaluating pathophysiology and for pulmonary valve replacement decision support. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2011;13:9 pubmed publisher
    Surgical management of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) results in anatomic and functional abnormalities in the majority of patients...
  21. Lu J, Cotts T, Agarwal P, Attili A, Dorfman A. Relation of right ventricular dilation, age of repair, and restrictive right ventricular physiology with patient-reported quality of life in adolescents and adults with repaired tetralogy of fallot. Am J Cardiol. 2010;106:1798-802 pubmed publisher
    ..quality of life and restrictive right ventricular (RV) physiology in adolescents and adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. A total of 62 patients (median age 28...
  22. Lin X, Huo Z, Liu X, Zhang Y, Li L, Zhao H, et al. A novel GATA6 mutation in patients with tetralogy of Fallot or atrial septal defect. J Hum Genet. 2010;55:662-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The same heterozygous missense mutation (Ser184Asn) was identified in three patients, including one with tetralogy of Fallot and two with atrial septal defects...
  23. Balci A, Drenthen W, Mulder B, Roos Hesselink J, Voors A, Vliegen H, et al. Pregnancy in women with corrected tetralogy of Fallot: occurrence and predictors of adverse events. Am Heart J. 2011;161:307-13 pubmed publisher
    In women with corrected tetralogy of Fallot (ToF), pregnancy is associated with maternal cardiac, obstetric, and offspring complications...
  24. Cheung E, Wong W, Cheung Y. Meta-analysis of pulmonary valve replacement after operative repair of tetralogy of fallot. Am J Cardiol. 2010;106:552-7 pubmed publisher
    ..right ventricular (RV) function of surgical pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) in patients after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. The reported outcomes of surgical PVR in children and adults after tetralogy of Fallot repair were from ..
  25. Mueller M, Rentzsch A, Hoetzer K, Raedle Hurst T, Boettler P, Stiller B, et al. Assessment of interventricular and right-intraventricular dyssynchrony in patients with surgically repaired tetralogy of Fallot by two-dimensional speckle tracking. Eur J Echocardiogr. 2010;11:786-92 pubmed publisher
    We aimed to assess interventricular and right-intraventricular dyssynchrony in patients after tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair by two-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking and to identify factors associated with dyssynchrony...
  26. Therrien J, Provost Y, Merchant N, Williams W, Colman J, Webb G. Optimal timing for pulmonary valve replacement in adults after tetralogy of Fallot repair. Am J Cardiol. 2005;95:779-82 pubmed
    The timing of pulmonary valve replacement in adult patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot remains controversial...
  27. Boni L, Garcia E, Galletti L, Perez A, Herrera D, Ramos V, et al. Current strategies in tetralogy of Fallot repair: pulmonary valve sparing and evolution of right ventricle/left ventricle pressures ratio. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2009;35:885-9; discussion 889-90 pubmed publisher
    Chronic volume overload in repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with transannular patch leads to significant late morbidity and mortality...
  28. Wu M, Huang Y, Hsieh K, Huang J, Peng N, Pan J, et al. Influence of pulmonary regurgitation inequality on differential perfusion of the lungs in tetralogy of Fallot after repair: a phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging and perfusion scintigraphy study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;49:1880-6 pubmed
    ..to evaluate the influence of pulmonary regurgitation inequality on differential perfusion of the lungs in tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) after repair...
  29. Yasuoka K, Harada K, Toyono M, Tamura M, Yamamoto F. Tei index determined by tissue Doppler imaging in patients with pulmonary regurgitation after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Pediatr Cardiol. 2004;25:131-6 pubmed
    ..We examined 15 patients (6.3 +/- 2.2 years) with significant PR after repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and 24 age-matched healthy children...
  30. Sharma H, Peters T, Moorhouse M, van der Spek P, Bogers A. DNA microarray analysis for human congenital heart disease. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2006;44:1-9 pubmed
    Right ventricular hypertrophy and failure are prominent features in cyanotic congenital heart disease, tetralogy of Fallot (TF). Patients with TF require primary cardiac surgery at a very young age...
  31. Ooi A, Moorjani N, Baliulis G, Keeton B, Salmon A, Monro J, et al. Medium term outcome for infant repair in tetralogy of Fallot: Indicators for timing of surgery. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2006;30:917-22 pubmed
    To assess the impact of early corrective surgery on the short and medium term outcome in tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)...
  32. Sheehan F, Ge S, Vick G, Urnes K, Kerwin W, Bolson E, et al. Three-dimensional shape analysis of right ventricular remodeling in repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Am J Cardiol. 2008;101:107-13 pubmed
    ..We imaged 15 patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and 8 normal subjects by magnetic resonance imaging in long- and short-axis views...
  33. Ghai A, Silversides C, Harris L, Webb G, Siu S, Therrien J. Left ventricular dysfunction is a risk factor for sudden cardiac death in adults late after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;40:1675-80 pubmed
    ..LV) systolic dysfunction was also a predictor of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in adults late after repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)...
  34. Redington A. Determinants and assessment of pulmonary regurgitation in tetralogy of Fallot: practice and pitfalls. Cardiol Clin. 2006;24:631-9, vii pubmed
    This article describe the primary determinants of pulmonary regurgitation after the repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Furthermore, the methods by which pulmonary regurgitation is measured and some of the pitfalls therein are highlighted.
  35. Dabir T, McCrossan B, Sweeney L, Magee A, Sands A. Down syndrome, achondroplasia and tetralogy of Fallot. Neonatology. 2008;94:68-70 pubmed publisher
    This paper describes a female infant with achondroplasia, Down syndrome and tetralogy of Fallot. Down syndrome and achondroplasia were confirmed by karyotyping and presence of a common fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 mutation (..
  36. Ghavidel A, Javadpour H, Tabatabaei M, Adambeig A, Raeisi K, Noohi F. Complete surgical repair of Tetralogy of Fallot in adults, is it ever too late?. J Card Surg. 2008;23:23-6 pubmed publisher
    A minority of patients with Tetralogy of Fallot (TF) survive into adulthood. These patients have been subjected to a prolong period of cyanosis and hypoxia...
  37. Apitz C, Webb G, Redington A. Tetralogy of Fallot. Lancet. 2009;374:1462-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetralogy of Fallot is the most common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease, and one of the first to be successfully repaired by congenital heart surgeons...
  38. Mooij C, de Wit C, Graham D, Powell A, Geva T. Reproducibility of MRI measurements of right ventricular size and function in patients with normal and dilated ventricles. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2008;28:67-73 pubmed publisher
    ..a normal RV group (N = 20) and two groups with RV dilation-atrial septal defect (ASD) (N = 20) and repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) (N = 20). Two independent observers analyzed each study on two separate occasions...
  39. Samyn M, Powell A, Garg R, Sena L, Geva T. Range of ventricular dimensions and function by steady-state free precession cine MRI in repaired tetralogy of Fallot: right ventricular outflow tract patch vs. conduit repair. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2007;26:934-40 pubmed
    ..free precession (SSFP) cine magnetic resonance (MR) in a large cohort of patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), and to compare these measurements in those with a right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) patch vs...
  40. Kaguelidou F, Fermont L, Boudjemline Y, Le Bidois J, Batisse A, Bonnet D. Foetal echocardiographic assessment of tetralogy of Fallot and post-natal outcome. Eur Heart J. 2008;29:1432-8 pubmed publisher
    Outcome of foetuses diagnosed with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) or pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect (PA-VSD) and the reliability of foetal echocardiography to predict post-natal surgical outcome...
  41. Khairy P, Landzberg M, Gatzoulis M, Lucron H, Lambert J, Marçon F, et al. Value of programmed ventricular stimulation after tetralogy of fallot repair: a multicenter study. Circulation. 2004;109:1994-2000 pubmed
    ..that ventricular tachycardia (VT) and sudden cardiac death (SCD) complicate the long-term outcome after tetralogy of Fallot repair, yet the diagnostic and predictive value of electrophysiological testing in this population is ..
  42. Giannopoulos N, Chatzis A, Bobos D, Kirvassilis G, Tsoutsinos A, Sarris G. Tetralogy of Fallot: influence of right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction on late outcome. Int J Cardiol. 2004;97 Suppl 1:87-90 pubmed
    Surgical repair of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is followed by very good early and medium-term results (perioperative mortality < or =5%), but there is increasing awareness of the occurrence of late adverse events: many patients ..
  43. Agarwal S, Mishra B, Mukherjee K, Satsangi D. Coronary-to-pulmonary artery collateral in tetralogy of Fallot. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 2009;17:304-6 pubmed publisher
    Angiography in a 14-year-old boy with cyanosis since birth confirmed the diagnosis of tetralogy of Fallot with a subaortic ventricular septal defect, large overriding aorta, severe pulmonary stenosis, and a large collateral arising from ..
  44. Costain G, Silversides C, Marshall C, Shago M, Costain N, Bassett A. 13q13.1-q13.2 deletion in tetralogy of Fallot: clinical report and a literature review. Int J Cardiol. 2011;146:134-9 pubmed publisher
    Recent advances in microarray technology are helping to identify more genetic anomalies associated with tetralogy of Fallot and other congenital heart defects...
  45. Anwar A, Nosir Y, Ajam A, Mushtaq M, Alama M, Chamsi Pasha H. Multivalvular infective endocarditis in a tetralogy of fallot. Echocardiography. 2008;25:88-90 pubmed publisher
    Infective endocarditis (IE) is still a problem in patients with adult congenital heart disease. Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is one of the most important manifestations of congenital heart disease, which carries a high risk for the ..
  46. Geva T, Sandweiss B, Gauvreau K, Lock J, Powell A. Factors associated with impaired clinical status in long-term survivors of tetralogy of Fallot repair evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43:1068-74 pubmed
    ..study was to identify independent factors associated with impaired clinical status in late survivors of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair...
  47. Carroll S, Solowiejczyk D, Gersony W. Preoperative diagnosis of co-existing divided left atrium and tetralogy of Fallot. Cardiol Young. 2004;14:456-9 pubmed
    We present the eighth published case of divided left atrium co-existing with tetralogy of Fallot. This is the first report of preoperative echocardiographic diagnosis of this unusual combination of defects...
  48. Dave H, Buechel E, Dodge Khatami A, Kadner A, Rousson V, Bauersfeld U, et al. Early insertion of a pulmonary valve for chronic regurgitation helps restoration of ventricular dimensions. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;80:1615-20; discussion 1620-1 pubmed
    ..A RV end-diastolic volume index of 150 mL/m2 seems to be a practical cutoff value to prescribe pulmonary valve insertion. ..
  49. Scherptong R, Mollema S, Blom N, Kroft L, de Roos A, Vliegen H, et al. Right ventricular peak systolic longitudinal strain is a sensitive marker for right ventricular deterioration in adult patients with tetralogy of Fallot. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2009;25:669-76 pubmed publisher
    ..RV) longitudinal peak systolic strain (LPSS) assessment for the follow-up of adult patients with corrected tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)...
  50. Khositseth A, Manop J, Khowsathit P, Siripornpitak S, Pornkul R, Lolekha P, et al. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide as a marker in follow-up patients with tetralogy of Fallot after total correction. Pediatr Cardiol. 2007;28:333-8 pubmed
    Patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) after total correction usually have residual pulmonary regurgitation resulting in right ventricular (RV) dilatation and dysfunction...
  51. Alsoufi B, Williams W, Hua Z, Cai S, Karamlou T, Chan C, et al. Surgical outcomes in the treatment of patients with tetralogy of Fallot and absent pulmonary valve. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2007;31:354-9; discussion 359 pubmed
    b>Tetralogy of Fallot and absent pulmonary valve (TOF/APV) is associated with significant pulmonary artery dilatation and airway compression...
  52. Atik F, Atik E, da Cunha C, Caneo L, Assad R, Jatene M, et al. Long-term results of correction of tetralogy of Fallot in adulthood. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2004;25:250-5 pubmed
    The natural history of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) allows that a minority of patients reach adulthood without any treatment, representing mild forms of the disease...
  53. Van Den Akker N, Molin D, Peters P, Maas S, Wisse L, van Brempt R, et al. Tetralogy of fallot and alterations in vascular endothelial growth factor-A signaling and notch signaling in mouse embryos solely expressing the VEGF120 isoform. Circ Res. 2007;100:842-9 pubmed
    ..both humans and mouse models relate to a high susceptibility to develop outflow tract malformations such as tetralogy of Fallot and peripheral pulmonary stenosis, no etiology has been proposed so far...