retinal artery

Summary

Summary: Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.

Top Publications

  1. Calvo P, Ferreras A, Polo V, Güerri N, Seral P, Fuertes Lazaro I, et al. Predictive value of retrobulbar blood flow velocities in glaucoma suspects. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:3875-84 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether retrobulbar blood flow (RBF) velocities are predictive of conversion to glaucoma...
  2. Sun C, Wang J, Mackey D, Wong T. Retinal vascular caliber: systemic, environmental, and genetic associations. Surv Ophthalmol. 2009;54:74-95 pubmed publisher
  3. Bhuiyan A, Kawasaki R, Lamoureux E, Ramamohanarao K, Wong T. Retinal artery-vein caliber grading using color fundus imaging. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2013;111:104-14 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the most utilized measures is to quantify retinal arteriolar and venular caliber as the Central Retinal Artery Equivalent (CRAE) and Central Retinal Vein Equivalent (CRVE)...
  4. Rishi P, Rishi E, Sharma T, Mahajan S. Hemi-central retinal artery occlusion in young adults. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2010;58:425-32 pubmed publisher
    Amongst the clinical presentations of retinal artery occlusion, hemi-central retinal artery occlusion (Hemi-CRAO) is rarely described...
  5. Klein R, Myers C, Lee K, Gangnon R, Klein B. Changes in retinal vessel diameter and incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012;130:749-55 pubmed publisher
  6. Gesslein B, Gustafsson L, Wackenfors A, Ghosh F, Malmsjo M. Protein kinase C in porcine retinal arteries and neuroretina following retinal ischemia-reperfusion. Mol Vis. 2009;15:737-46 pubmed
    ..The retinal blood vessels are key organs in circulatory failure, and this study was therefore designed to examine the retinal vasculature separately from the neuroretina...
  7. Fantin A, Schwarz Q, Davidson K, Normando E, Denti L, Ruhrberg C. The cytoplasmic domain of neuropilin 1 is dispensable for angiogenesis, but promotes the spatial separation of retinal arteries and veins. Development. 2011;138:4185-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Nrp1(cyto)(?)(/)(?) mice may therefore provide a suitable genetic model to study the aetiology of BRVO...
  8. Hammer M, Vilser W, Riemer T, Mandecka A, Schweitzer D, Kühn U, et al. Diabetic patients with retinopathy show increased retinal venous oxygen saturation. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2009;247:1025-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Longstanding diabetes mellitus results in a disturbed microcirculation. A new imaging oximeter was used to investigate the effect of this disturbance on retinal vessel oxygen saturation...
  9. Lindley R, Wang J, Wong M, Mitchell P, Liew G, Hand P, et al. Retinal microvasculature in acute lacunar stroke: a cross-sectional study. Lancet Neurol. 2009;8:628-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was to establish whether there is an association between changes in the retinal microvasculature and lacunar stroke that might provide clues to the pathology of cerebral small vessel disease...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Zhong Y, Min Y, Jiang Y, Cheng Y, Qin J, Shen X. Color Doppler imaging and pattern visual evoked potential in normal tension glaucoma and hypertension glaucoma. Doc Ophthalmol. 2009;119:171-80 pubmed publisher
    ..No significant difference was found in the parameters of CDI and P-VEP between NTG and HTG patients. The certain parameters of CDI were correlated with P-VEP parameters in NTG and HTG patients...
  2. Mokbel T, Shahin M, El Said E, Abd El Ghaffar W. Potential diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography and color Doppler imaging in primary open angle glaucoma. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009;19:957-62 pubmed
    ..To evaluate absolute filling defects of the optic disc and color Doppler imaging (CDI) measurements in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) to assess their diagnostic potentialities...
  3. Prasad S, Kojic L, Wen Y, Chen Z, Xiong W, Jia W, et al. Retinal gene expression after central retinal artery ligation: effects of ischemia and reperfusion. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:6207-19 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the morphologic and molecular consequences of 30- and 90-minute central retinal artery ligation (CRAL)-induced retinal ischemia, followed by 3 and 12 hours of reperfusion, and to identify potential targets for therapy.
  4. Hammer M, Vilser W, Riemer T, Liemt F, Jentsch S, Dawczynski J, et al. Retinal venous oxygen saturation increases by flicker light stimulation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:274-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Oxygen supply may be the target of the regulation of retinal blood flow. Thus, the oxygen saturation (SO(2)) in retinal arterioles and venules was investigated along with their diameters...
  5. Schmidt D. Comorbidities in combined retinal artery and vein occlusions. Eur J Med Res. 2013;18:27 pubmed publisher
    Several general diseases cause blindness in patients with simultaneous combined retinal artery and vein occlusion.
  6. McLeod D. Central retinal vein occlusion with cilioretinal infarction from branch flow exclusion and choroidal arterial steal. Retina. 2009;29:1381-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Many individual cases and further case series have been reported in the interim, but the nature of the interrelationship is still under debate...
  7. Liew G, Sharrett A, Wang J, Klein R, Klein B, Mitchell P, et al. Relative importance of systemic determinants of retinal arteriolar and venular caliber: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:1404-10 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the relative contributions of systemic cardiovascular factors to retinal arteriolar and venular caliber in men and women and in whites and African Americans...
  8. Cheung N, Donaghue K, Liew G, Rogers S, Wang J, Lim S, et al. Quantitative assessment of early diabetic retinopathy using fractal analysis. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:106-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined the relationship between retinal fractal dimension and retinopathy in young individuals with type 1 diabetes...
  9. Hardarson S, Stefansson E. Oxygen saturation in central retinal vein occlusion. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010;150:871-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To test whether oxygen saturation is affected in retinal blood vessels in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO)...
  10. Hardarson S, Stefansson E. Oxygen saturation in branch retinal vein occlusion. Acta Ophthalmol. 2012;90:466-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to test whether oxygen saturation in retinal blood vessels is affected by branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO)...
  11. Ozdemir H, Karacorlu M, Karacorlu S, Senturk F. Localized foveal detachment in a patient with central retinal artery occlusion with cilioretinal sparing. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2012;22:492-4 pubmed publisher
    To report the optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings of acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) with cilioretinal sparing.
  12. Cheung C, Hsu W, Lee M, Wang J, Mitchell P, Lau Q, et al. A new method to measure peripheral retinal vascular caliber over an extended area. Microcirculation. 2010;17:495-503 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe a new computer-assisted method to measure retinal vascular caliber over an extended area of the fundus...
  13. Mordant D, Al Abboud I, Muyo G, Gorman A, Sallam A, Rodmell P, et al. Validation of human whole blood oximetry, using a hyperspectral fundus camera with a model eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:2851-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the accuracy of human blood oximetry measurements in a model eye with a hyperspectral fundus camera...
  14. Stalmans I, Harris A, Fieuws S, Zeyen T, Vanbellinghen V, McCranor L, et al. Color Doppler imaging and ocular pulse amplitude in glaucomatous and healthy eyes. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009;19:580-7 pubmed
  15. Sasongko M, Wong T, Donaghue K, Cheung N, Jenkins A, Benitez Aguirre P, et al. Retinal arteriolar tortuosity is associated with retinopathy and early kidney dysfunction in type 1 diabetes. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012;153:176-83.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the association of retinal vessel tortuosity with diabetic retinopathy and early nephropathy in type 1 diabetes...
  16. Hammer M, Vilser W, Riemer T, Schweitzer D. Retinal vessel oximetry-calibration, compensation for vessel diameter and fundus pigmentation, and reproducibility. J Biomed Opt. 2008;13:054015 pubmed publisher
    ..It is able to measure the oxygen saturation in retinal branch vessels with reproducibility and sensitivity suitable for clinical investigations...
  17. Garhofer G, Fuchsjager Mayrl G, Vass C, Pemp B, Hommer A, Schmetterer L. Retrobulbar blood flow velocities in open angle glaucoma and their association with mean arterial blood pressure. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:6652-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, the authors hypothesized that patients with POAG show an abnormal association between retrobulbar blood flow velocities as assessed with CDI and blood pressure, indicative of vascular dysregulation...
  18. Sekeroğlu M, Irkec M, Mocan M, Ileri E, Dikmenoglu N, Seringec N, et al. The association of ocular blood flow with haemorheological parameters in primary open-angle and exfoliative glaucoma. Acta Ophthalmol. 2011;89:429-34 pubmed publisher
  19. Goldenberg D, Soiberman U, Loewenstein A, Goldstein M. Heidelberg spectral-domain optical coherence tomographic findings in retinal artery macroaneurysm. Retina. 2012;32:990-5 pubmed publisher
  20. Bergua A, Kapsreiter M, Neuhuber W, Reitsamer H, Schrödl F. Innervation pattern of the preocular human central retinal artery. Exp Eye Res. 2013;110:142-7 pubmed publisher
    The central retinal artery (CRA) is the main vessel for inner retinal oxygen and nutrition supply...
  21. Yuksel N, Karabas V, Demirci A, Arslan A, Altintas O, Caglar Y. Comparison of blood flow velocities of the extraocular vessels in patients with pseudoexfoliation or primary open-angle glaucoma. Ophthalmologica. 2001;215:424-9 pubmed
    ..To evaluate orbital blood flow velocities in patients with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PXG) or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG)...
  22. Kotliar K, Mücke B, Vilser W, Schilling R, Lanzl I. Effect of aging on retinal artery blood column diameter measured along the vessel axis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:2094-102 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether retinal branch arteries of healthy persons in different age groups show different longitudinal vessel profiles at baseline and during dynamic reaction to flicker stimulation...
  23. Januleviciene I, Sliesoraityte I, Siesky B, Harris A. Diagnostic compatibility of structural and haemodynamic parameters in open-angle glaucoma patients. Acta Ophthalmol. 2008;86:552-7 pubmed
    ..We aimed to compare differences in retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness and retrobulbar haemodynamics between OAG patients and healthy age-matched control subjects...
  24. Fang I, Huang J. Central retinal artery occlusion caused by expansion of intraocular gas at high altitude. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;134:603-5 pubmed
    To report a case of central retinal artery occlusion caused by expansion of intraocular gas during mountain travel at high altitude.
  25. Sutter F, Helbig H. Familial retinal arteriolar tortuosity: a review. Surv Ophthalmol. 2003;48:245-55 pubmed
    ..The ophthalmologist should be aware of familial retinal arteriolar tortuosity as a possible cause for retinal hemorrhages...
  26. Jonas J. Central retinal artery and vein collapse pressure in eyes with chronic open angle glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003;87:949-51 pubmed
    ..To determine central retinal vessel collapse pressure in chronic open angle glaucoma...
  27. Ikram M, de Jong F, Vingerling J, Witteman J, Hofman A, Breteler M, et al. Are retinal arteriolar or venular diameters associated with markers for cardiovascular disorders? The Rotterdam Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45:2129-34 pubmed
    ..Thus, associations between retinal arteriolar and venular diameters, and the AVR on the one hand and blood pressure, atherosclerosis, inflammation markers, and cholesterol levels on the other were examined in the Rotterdam Study...
  28. Tamaki Y, Nagahara M, Araie M, Tomita K, Sandoh S, Tomidokoro A. Topical latanoprost and optic nerve head and retinal circulation in humans. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2001;17:403-11 pubmed
    ..peak systolic blood velocity (PSV), endo-diastolic velocity (EDV), and resistive index (RI) in the central retinal artery (CRA) and mean blood velocity (MV) in the central retinal vein (CRV). One drop of 0...
  29. Arashvand K. Images in clinical medicine. Central retinal artery occlusion. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:841 pubmed
  30. Kumagai K, Furukawa M, Ogino N, Uemura A, Larson E. Long-term outcomes of vitrectomy with or without arteriovenous sheathotomy in branch retinal vein occlusion. Retina. 2007;27:49-54 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the long-term effect of vitrectomy with or without arteriovenous sheathotomy for macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO)...
  31. Cahill M, Fekrat S. Arteriovenous sheathotomy for branch retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmol Clin North Am. 2002;15:417-23 pubmed
    ..A prospective, controlled, clinical trial is being organized to determine the role of AV sheathotomy in the treatment of BVO...
  32. Harris A, Migliardi R, Rechtman E, Cole C, Yee A, Garzozi H. Comparative analysis of the effects of dorzolamide and latanoprost on ocular hemodynamics in normal tension glaucoma patients. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2003;13:24-31 pubmed
    ..To compare the effects of latanoprost (Xalatan) and dorzolamide (Trusopt) on ocular hemodynamics in normal-tension glaucoma patients...
  33. Nagaoka T, Hein T, Yoshida A, Kuo L. Resveratrol, a component of red wine, elicits dilation of isolated porcine retinal arterioles: role of nitric oxide and potassium channels. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:4232-9 pubmed
    ..In this study, the direct effect and the underlying mechanism of the vasomotor action of resveratrol were examined in retinal arterioles...
  34. Bergua A, Schrödl F, Neuhuber W. Vasoactive intestinal and calcitonin gene-related peptides, tyrosine hydroxylase and nitrergic markers in the innervation of the rat central retinal artery. Exp Eye Res. 2003;77:367-74 pubmed
    ..In man, primates and some other mammals, such as the rat, a distinct central retinal artery accompanies the optic nerve, and runs through the lamina cribosa to reach the optic nerve head...
  35. Wong T, Klein R, Klein B, Meuer S, Hubbard L. Retinal vessel diameters and their associations with age and blood pressure. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:4644-50 pubmed
    ..To describe the cross-sectional relationship between retinal arteriolar and venular diameters with age and blood pressure...
  36. Kattah J, Wang D, Reddy C. Intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator thrombolysis in treatment of central retinal artery occlusion. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120:1234-6 pubmed
  37. Akarsu C, Bilgili M. Color Doppler imaging in ocular hypertension and open-angle glaucoma. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2004;242:125-129 pubmed publisher
    ..To quantify the retrobulbar hemodynamics of patients with ocular hypertension and open-angle glaucoma and to compare it with that of normal subjects...
  38. Yamamoto S, Saito W, Yagi F, Takeuchi S, Sato E, Mizunoya S. Vitrectomy with or without arteriovenous adventitial sheathotomy for macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;138:907-14 pubmed
    ..compare the results of vitrectomy with or without arteriovenous (AV) crossing sheathotomy for macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO)...
  39. Larsen M, Colmorn L, Bønnelycke M, Kaaja R, Immonen I, Sander B, et al. Retinal artery and vein diameters during pregnancy in diabetic women. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:709-13 pubmed
    ..To study systemic and retinal circulatory variables and vasoactive hormones during pregnancy in women with and without diabetes...
  40. Wong T, Larsen E, Klein R, Mitchell P, Couper D, Klein B, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors for retinal vein occlusion and arteriolar emboli: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities & Cardiovascular Health studies. Ophthalmology. 2005;112:540-7 pubmed
    ..To examine the associations of retinal vein occlusion and arteriolar emboli with cardiovascular disease...
  41. Garhofer G, Zawinka C, Huemer K, Schmetterer L, Dorner G. Flicker light-induced vasodilatation in the human retina: effect of lactate and changes in mean arterial pressure. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:5309-14 pubmed
    ..In the current study, the effect of increased plasma lactate levels on flicker-induced vasodilatation in the retina was investigated in three independent studies in healthy humans...
  42. Klein R, Klein B, Moss S, Wong T. Retinal vessel caliber and microvascular and macrovascular disease in type 2 diabetes: XXI: the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:1884-92 pubmed
    ..To describe the relationship of retinal arteriolar and venular calibers to the long-term incidence of microvascular and macrovascular complications in people with type 2 diabetes...
  43. Dorner G, Polska E, Garhofer G, Zawinka C, Frank B, Schmetterer L. Calculation of the diameter of the central retinal artery from noninvasive measurements in humans. Curr Eye Res. 2002;25:341-5 pubmed
    The aim of the present study was to calculate the diameter of the central retinal artery from results as obtained with non-invasive techniques in healthy young subjects.
  44. Nemeth J, Kovács R, Harkányi Z, Knézy K, Sényi K, Marsovszky I. Observer experience improves reproducibility of color Doppler sonography of orbital blood vessels. J Clin Ultrasound. 2002;30:332-5 pubmed
    ..The study investigated the reproducibility of orbital blood flow measurements with color Doppler imaging (CDI) at different stages of observer experience...
  45. Salyer D, Beaudry N, Basavanthappa S, Twietmeyer K, Eskandari M, Denninghoff K, et al. Retinal oximetry using intravitreal illumination. Curr Eye Res. 2006;31:617-27 pubmed
    ..To demonstrate spectroscopic retinal oximetry measurements on arteries and veins in swine using intravitreal illumination. Retinal arterial and venous saturations are measured for a range of inspired O2 levels after pars plana vitrectomy...
  46. Birinci H, Danaci M, Oge I, Erkan N. Ocular blood flow in healthy and primary open-angle glaucomatous eyes. Ophthalmologica. 2002;216:434-7 pubmed
    To evaluate blood flow parameters in the ophthalmic artery, in the posterior ciliary arteries and in the central retinal artery in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma.
  47. Rogers S, Tikellis G, Cheung N, Tapp R, Shaw J, Zimmet P, et al. Retinal arteriolar caliber predicts incident retinopathy: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:761-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Venular caliber did not predict incident retinopathy. Our findings suggest that retinal arteriolar dilatation is a specific sign of diabetic microvascular dysfunction and may be a preclinical marker of diabetic retinopathy...
  48. Polska E, Kircher K, Ehrlich P, Vecsei P, Schmetterer L. RI in central retinal artery as assessed by CDI does not correspond to retinal vascular resistance. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;280:H1442-7 pubmed
    ..to investigate the association between ultrasound Doppler measurements of resistive index (RI) in the central retinal artery and retinal vascular resistance (R) assessed with laser Doppler velocimetry, vessel size measurement, and ..
  49. Yoshida A, Feke G, Mori F, Nagaoka T, Fujio N, Ogasawara H, et al. Reproducibility and clinical application of a newly developed stabilized retinal laser Doppler instrument. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;135:356-61 pubmed
    ..To describe a newly developed stabilized retinal laser Doppler instrument, to report the reproducibility of retinal blood flow measurements, and to present examples of its clinical application...
  50. Galassi F, Sodi A, Ucci F, Renieri G, Pieri B, Baccini M. Ocular hemodynamics and glaucoma prognosis: a color Doppler imaging study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121:1711-5 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the effect of optic nerve circulation, using color Doppler imaging (CDI), on the progression of visual field damage in primary open-angle glaucoma...
  51. Zeitz O, Galambos P, Wagenfeld L, Wiermann A, Wlodarsch P, Praga R, et al. Glaucoma progression is associated with decreased blood flow velocities in the short posterior ciliary artery. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90:1245-8 pubmed
    ..An altered perfusion of the optic nerve head has been proposed as a pathogenic factor in glaucoma...
  52. Kawaguchi S, Sakaki T, Iwahashi H, Fujimoto K, Iida J, Mishima H, et al. Effect of carotid artery stenting on ocular circulation and chronic ocular ischemic syndrome. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2006;22:402-8 pubmed
    ..The authors evaluated the effect of carotid artery stenting (CAS) on ocular circulation and chronic ocular ischemic syndrome...
  53. Hardarson S, Harris A, Karlsson R, Halldorsson G, Kagemann L, Rechtman E, et al. Automatic retinal oximetry. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:5011-6 pubmed
    ..To measure hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO(2)) in retinal vessels and to test the reproducibility and sensitivity of an automatic spectrophotometric oximeter...