gastroepiploic artery

Summary

Summary: Abdominal artery that follows the curvature of the stomach. The right gastroepiploic artery is frequently used in CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING; MYOCARDIAL REVASCULARIZATION, and other vascular reconstruction.

Top Publications

  1. Shimizu J, Hirano Y, Kinoshita S, Tatsuzawa Y, Kawaura Y, Takahashi S. Gastric cancer occurred after coronary artery bypass grafting using the right gastroepiploic artery. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004;10:255-8 pubmed
    ..in the long-term postoperative stage after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using the right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA) and distal partial gastrectomy was performed to treat the cancer. The patient was a 64-year-old man...
  2. Kamiya H, Watanabe G, Takemura H, Tomita S, Nagamine H, Kanamori T. Skeletonization of gastroepiploic artery graft in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: early clinical and angiographic assessment. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;77:2046-50 pubmed
    ..with pedicled internal thoracic artery grafts; however, this is not yet popular for harvesting the gastroepiploic artery (GEA)...
  3. Li R, Amano A, Miyagawa H, Dohi S, Hayashi I, Kajimoto K, et al. Skeletonized gastroepiploic artery for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Heart Surg Forum. 2004;7:E164-9 pubmed
    ..Previously we reported a pilot study of skeletonized gastroepiploic artery (GEA) grafting with favorable results...
  4. Glineur D, Hanet C, Poncelet A, D Hoore W, Funken J, Rubay J, et al. Comparison of saphenous vein graft versus right gastroepiploic artery to revascularize the right coronary artery: a prospective randomized clinical, functional, and angiographic midterm evaluation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2008;136:482-8 pubmed publisher
    Despite its theoretic advantage over saphenous vein grafts, the right gastroepiploic artery graft has not been accepted as the ideal conduit to revascularize the right coronary artery...
  5. Ryu S, Ahn B, Choo S, Na K, Ahn Y, Jeong M, et al. Skeletonized gastroepiploic artery as a composite graft for total arterial revascularization. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;80:118-23 pubmed
    Despite the purported advantages of using a gastroepiploic artery graft during coronary artery bypass, insufficient potential flow capacity and vasospasm remain major concerns...
  6. Cho K, Hwang H, Kim J, Jeong D, Kim K. Comparison of right internal thoracic artery and right gastroepiploic artery Y grafts anastomosed to the left internal thoracic artery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2010;90:744-50; discussion 751-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Early and 1-year results of arterial Y composite grafts anastomosed to the in situ left internal thoracic artery were studied...
  7. Shimamura Y, Maisawa K, Okamoto N, Yamafuji K. Diaphragmatic hernia following coronary artery bypass surgery with the right gastroepiploic artery: case report and literature review. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012;60:431-4 pubmed publisher
    ..case of intrapericardial diaphragmatic hernia 2 years after coronary artery bypass surgery with the right gastroepiploic artery. Herniation through the orifice created for the right gastroepiploic artery caused small bowel ..
  8. Moriyama T, Tsuneyoshi I, Kanmura Y. Effects of a novel benzodiazepine derivative, JM-1232(-), on human gastroepiploic artery in vitro. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2011;25:72-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, to investigate whether the benzodiazepine-receptor antagonist, flumazenil, or ?-opioid-receptor antagonist, naloxone, influenced the vascular effects of JM-1232(-)...
  9. Kamiya H, Watanabe G, Tomita S, Takemura H, Nagamine H, Nishida S. The technical aspect of the gastroepiploic artery graft skeletonization with the harmonic scalpel: the samurai technique. Heart Surg Forum. 2005;8:E121-3 pubmed
    ..technique," which uses the harmonic scalpel by frequently turning over the scissors, facilitates the handling of the gastroepiploic artery, enlarges the caliber size, and allows easy skeletonization without any vessel injury.

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications62

  1. Hashimoto M, Watanabe O, Takahashi S, Watarai J, Sato T, Yamamoto Y. Efficacy and safety of hepatic artery infusion catheter placement without fixation in the right gastroepiploic artery. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2005;16:465-70 pubmed
    To evaluate the feasibility of placing the tip of an infusion catheter in the right gastroepiploic artery via the femoral route and whether coil placement in the gastroduodenal artery and around the infusion catheter tip should be ..
  2. Glineur D, D Hoore W, de Kerchove L, Noirhomme P, Price J, Hanet C, et al. Angiographic predictors of 3-year patency of bypass grafts implanted on the right coronary artery system: a prospective randomized comparison of gastroepiploic artery, saphenous vein, and right internal thoracic artery grafts. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2011;142:980-8 pubmed publisher
    Saphenous vein, in situ right gastroepiploic artery, and right internal thoracic artery grafts are routinely used to revascularize the right coronary artery...
  3. Shimizu T, Suesada H, Cho M, Ito S, Ikeda K, Ishimaru S. Flow capacity of gastroepiploic artery versus vein grafts for intermediate coronary artery stenosis. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;80:124-30 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to compare the effect of competitive flow on conduit flow dynamics in the gastroepiploic artery (GEA) and the saphenous vein graft (SVG).
  4. Kotoh K, Fukahara K, Ueyama K, Misaki T. [The method of skeletonized right gastroepiploic artery is useful for following upper abdominal cancer operations]. Kyobu Geka. 2003;56:545-7 pubmed
    ..tumors in patients with previously underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using in situ gastroepiploic artery (GEA) graft...
  5. Eda T, Matsuura A, Miyahara K, Takemura H, Sawaki S, Yoshioka T, et al. Transplantation of the free gastroepiploic artery graft for myocardial revascularization: long-term clinical and angiographic results. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;85:880-4 pubmed publisher
    Use of the free gastroepiploic artery (GEA) graft for coronary revascularization is not very popular because of its tendency to vasospasm...
  6. Aldasoro M, Mauricio M, Serna E, Cortina B, Segarra G, Medina P, et al. Effects of aspirin, nimesulide, and SC-560 on vasopressin-induced contraction of human gastroepiploic artery and saphenous vein. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:193-7 pubmed
    The present experiments were designed to evaluate differences in the effects of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 inhibition on contractile responses of human gastroepiploic artery and saphenous vein elicited by vasopressin.
  7. Motoyama S, Saito R, Okuyama M, Maruyama K, Ogawa J. Treating gastric tube cancer with distal gastrectomy preserving the gastroepiploic artery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;81:751-3 pubmed
    ..The distal gastric tube was mobilized and resected with preservation of the right gastroepiploic artery, and the Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy was used for reconstruction...
  8. Matsumoto K, Tsuneyoshi I, Iguro Y, Kinjo T, Yotsumoto G, Ueno M, et al. Effects of ultrasonic skeletonization on internal thoracic and gastroepiploic arteries for coronary artery bypass grafting. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2006;30:592-6 pubmed
    There are few data available on the effect of ultrasonic skeletonization with the harmonic scalpel on internal thoracic artery (ITA) and gastroepiploic artery (GEA) vessel function.
  9. Aldasoro M, Mauricio M, Serna E, Cortina B, Medina P, Segarra G, et al. Aspirin and COX-2 inhibitor nimesulide potentiate adrenergic contractions of human gastroepiploic artery. Am J Hypertens. 2007;20:514-9 pubmed
    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intervention of COX-1- and COX-2-derived prostaglandins in the responses of human gastroepiploic artery to sympathetic stimulation and norepinephrine.
  10. Suma H, Tanabe H, Takahashi A, Horii T, Isomura T, Hirose H, et al. Twenty years experience with the gastroepiploic artery graft for CABG. Circulation. 2007;116:I188-91 pubmed
    To improve the longterm outcome after CABG, several strategies have been used using arterial conduits. Our 20 years experience with the right gastroepiploic artery (GEA) graft was evaluated.
  11. Hashiguchi N, Kubota T, Otani Y, Yoshida M, Maeda S, Tokuyama J, et al. Surgery for advanced gastric cancer after coronary artery bypass grafting using the right gastroepiploic artery: report of a case. Surg Today. 2004;34:456-8 pubmed
    Ischemic heart disorders are often treated by coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using the right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA)...
  12. Kamiya H, Watanabe G, Takemura H, Tomita S, Nagamine H, Kanamori T. Total arterial revascularization with composite skeletonized gastroepiploic artery graft in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004;127:1151-7 pubmed
    ..our recent series of off-pump coronary bypass grafting performed with a grafting technique we developed by using the skeletonized gastroepiploic artery and the radial artery composite graft to achieve total arterial revascularization.
  13. Sharma G, Louvard Y, Tavolaro O, Lefevre T, Loubeyre C, Dumas P, et al. Less invasive PTCA of a gastroepiploic artery combining the transradial approach and 5 Fr guiding catheter: a case report. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2002;56:494-7 pubmed
    The gastroepiploic artery has been successfully used as an arterial conduit in selected patients undergoing CABG with acceptable immediate and long-term results...
  14. Asai T, Tabata S. Skeletonization of the right gastroepiploic artery using an ultrasonic scalpel. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002;74:1715-7 pubmed
    A new method to skeletonize and harvest the right gastroepiploic artery using an ultrasonic scalpel is presented. The technique is simple and safe, and it causes less bleeding...
  15. Rohatgi A, Cherian T. Spontaneous rupture of a left gastroepiploic artery aneurysm. J Postgrad Med. 2002;48:288-9 pubmed
    ..He had undergone a prior aorto-bifemoral graft. The patient refused an operation and died the following day...
  16. Jadav M, Ducheine Y, Brief D, Carter L, McWhite T, Hardy J. Abdominal apoplexy: a case study of the spontaneous rupture of the gastroepiploic artery. Curr Surg. 2004;61:370-2 pubmed
    ..Spontaneous rupture of the left gastroepiploic artery (LGEA) resulting in a hemoperitoneum is discussed...
  17. Shi J, Iesaki T, Kubota N, Sumiyoshi K, Kajimoto K, Kikuchi K, et al. Skeletonization with an ultrasonic scalpel is as safe as a non-skeletonized dissection in preserving the endothelial function of the human gastroepiploic artery. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2009;8:216-20 pubmed publisher
    The right gastroepiploic artery (GEA) is frequently used as another in situ artery, other than the internal thoracic artery (ITA) in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)...
  18. Song M, Tokuda Y, Ito T. Revival of the side-to-side approach for distal coronary anastomosis. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2007;2:2 pubmed
    ..This technique is simple and quick. Here this simple technique is described in detail and the postoperative status of grafted conduits is reported...
  19. Matsuyama K, Koizumi N, Chiba K, Sato K, Iwahashi T, Nishibe T, et al. A potential risk of myocardial ischemia during thoracoabdominal aortic repair after coronary artery bypass grafting using the right gastroepiploic artery. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2013;19:310-2 pubmed
    In-situ right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA) has been used as one of the reliable conduits for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)...
  20. Phung D, Kinoshita T, Asai T, Suzuki T. Histological and morphometric properties of skeletonized gastroepiploic artery and risk factors for intimal hyperplasia. Innovations (Phila). 2012;7:191-4 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the present study was to examine the histological and morphometric properties of skeletonized gastroepiploic artery (GEA) and the risk factors for intimal hyperplasia.
  21. Ro A, Kageyama N, Takatsu A, Fukunaga T. Segmental arterial mediolysis of varying phases affecting both the intra-abdominal and intracranial vertebral arteries: an autopsy case report. Cardiovasc Pathol. 2010;19:248-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The cause of death was massive intra-abdominal hemorrhage owing to a ruptured right gastroepiploic artery. Histopathological examination revealed that there was a broad arterial dissection as long as 20 cm in the ..
  22. Murata H, Inoue H, Sumikawa K. Anesthetic management of a patient undergoing liver transplantation who had previous coronary artery bypass grafting using an in situ right gastroepiploic artery. J Anesth. 2010;24:264-7 pubmed publisher
    ..in a 63-year-old man with previous coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) that employed an in situ right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA). Anesthesia was maintained with 1.5% isoflurane in air/oxygen and fentanyl...
  23. Jeong D, Kim Y, Lee Y, Chung S, Sung K, Kim W, et al. Revascularization for the right coronary artery territory in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2013;96:778-85; discussion 785 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to analyze outcomes from revascularization of the right coronary artery territory using the right internal thoracic artery (RITA), the right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA), or a saphenous vein graft (SVG).
  24. Sasaki H. The right gastroepiploic artery in coronary artery bypass grafting. J Card Surg. 2008;23:398-407 pubmed publisher
    The right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA) has been used as a conduit in coronary artery bypass grafting...
  25. Ndoye J, Savadogo J, Diop M, Mané L, Ndiaye A, Dia A, et al. [Anastomotic method of the gastro-omental arterial circle: interest in the transillumination method at the gastric esophagoplasty]. Mali Med. 2007;22:29-33 pubmed
    ..The transillumination which facilitate evaluation of this arterial axis is a simple and accessible process which we advocate...
  26. Mukherjee D, Cheriyan J, Kourliouros A, Athanasiou T. How does the right gastroepiploic artery compare with the saphenous vein for revascularization of the right coronary artery?. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2012;15:888-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The question addressed was 'is the saphenous vein graft or right gastroepiploic artery a better conduit for revascularization of the right coronary artery?' One hundred and five articles were ..
  27. Kadohama T, Ohtani N, Sasajima T. Hepatic artery aneurysm involving the proper hepatic and gastroduodenal artery treated using a gastroepiploic artery in situ bypass. J Vasc Surg. 2007;45:1069-71 pubmed
    ..hepatic artery aneurysm involving the proper hepatic artery treated with in situ bypass by using right gastroepiploic artery. A 55-year-old man was hospitalized after the incidental discovery of a low-echogenic mass with blood flow ..
  28. Al Attar N. Coronary flow reserve in composite arterial Y grafts. Ann Thorac Surg. 2003;76:659-60; author reply 660 pubmed
  29. Sparrow P, Asquith J, Chalmers N. Ultrasonic-guided percutaneous injection of pancreatic pseudoaneurysm with thrombin. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2003;26:312-5 pubmed
    ..Follow-up at 8 weeks did not demonstrate recurrence. This case indicates that percutaneous thrombin injection offers effective treatment of visceral arterial pseudoaneurysms...
  30. Yamabuki T, Kojima T, Shimizu T, Kitashiro S, Konishi K, Katoh T, et al. Successful laparoscopic right gastroepiploic aneurysmectomy: report of a case. Surg Today. 2003;33:932-6 pubmed
    ..was performed under the tentative diagnosis of an aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery or the gastroepiploic artery. On laparoscopic exploration, a globe-shaped mass, about 5 cm in diameter, was found in the right side of ..
  31. Shneĭder I, Khramtsova G, Khramtsov A, Nemchenko E, Krasikov A. [Morphological characteristics of the right gastroepiploic artery and its use in myocardial revascularization]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek. 2003;162:31-5 pubmed
    ..The anatomo-topographic and morphometrical characteristics of the right gastroepiploic artery allow it to be used for gastro-coronary shunting...
  32. Onomoto M, Tsuneyoshi I, Yonetani A, Suehiro S, Matsumoto K, Sakata R, et al. Differential pharmacologic sensitivities of phosphodiesterase-3 inhibitors among human isolated gastroepiploic, internal mammary, and radial arteries. Anesth Analg. 2005;101:950-6, table of contents pubmed
  33. González Santos J, López Rodríguez J, Dalmau Sorlí M. [Arterial grafts in coronary surgery. Treatment for everyone?]. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2005;58:1207-23 pubmed
    ..Moreover, use of the right gastroepiploic artery or the inferior epigastric artery, although both are less popular, enables complete revascularization to ..
  34. Takahashi K, Daitoku K, Minakawa M, Kondo N. [Effectiveness and advisability of using a graft in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting]. Kyobu Geka. 2003;56:650-5 pubmed
    ..4: Among patients who have been screened before the procedure, satisfactory results are obtained for OPCAB in which the ascending aorta serves as an inflow conduit; this procedure should be considered as a viable option...
  35. Ahn C, Hwang S, Moon D, Song G, Ha T, Park G, et al. Right gastroepiploic artery is the first alternative inflow source for hepatic arterial reconstruction in living donor liver transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2012;44:451-3 pubmed publisher
    ..However, some unfavorable hepatic arterial conditions in recipients preclude reconstruction, requiring alternative stumps. We have used the right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA) as a first alternative for hepatic inflow.
  36. Hagiwara H, Yoshizumi T, Nakayama T, Abe T, Nakayama M, Ito T. [Curative gastrectomy with reconstruction of a right gastroepiploic artery graft]. Kyobu Geka. 2007;60:441-4 pubmed
    ..a 66-year-old man who developed gastric cancer 5 years after coronary artery bypass grafting using right gastroepiploic artery graft (RGEA)...
  37. Nguyen N, Longoria M, Sabio A, Chalifoux S, Lee J, Chang K, et al. Preoperative laparoscopic ligation of the left gastric vessels in preparation for esophagectomy. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;81:2318-20 pubmed
    ..Our initial experience demonstrates that laparoscopic ligation of the left gastric artery is a safe alternative to embolization and can be performed in conjunction with staging laparoscopy for patients with esophageal cancer...
  38. Konishi Y, Suzuki K, Wada H, Watanabe H, Ogura H, Sugamori Y, et al. How do we manage the gastrectomy for gastric cancer after coronary artery bypass grafting using the right gastroepiploic artery? Report of two cases and a review of the literature. World J Surg Oncol. 2007;5:54 pubmed
    Recently, the right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA) has been used in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) as an alternative arterial graft...
  39. Hwang H, Cho K, Kim K. Equivalency of right internal thoracic artery and right gastroepiploic artery composite grafts: five-year outcomes. Ann Thorac Surg. 2013;96:2061-8 pubmed publisher
    ..and long-term clinical outcomes after myocardial revascularization using the right internal thoracic artery (RITA) and right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA) as a Y-composite graft anastomosed to the in situ left internal thoracic artery.
  40. Kitayama J, Kaisaki S, Ishigami H, Hidemura A, Nagawa H. Angleplasty in gastric tube reconstruction after esophagectomy. Dis Esophagus. 2009;22:418-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This technique takes only several minutes, but provides highly favorable conditions for esophagogastric anastomosis and thus is clinically useful to reduce the risk of anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy...
  41. Clark F. Gastrocolic fistula secondary to right gastroepiploic-coronary artery bypass. Can J Surg. 2005;48:417-8 pubmed
  42. Carbone I, Ascarelli A, Francioni F, Passariello R. Noninvasive evaluation of gastric tube blood supply with multislice computed tomography. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2006;30:190 pubmed
  43. Fukui D, Yang X, Chiba S. Neurogenic double-peaked vasoconstriction of human gastroepiploic artery is mediated by both alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptors. Br J Pharmacol. 2005;144:737-42 pubmed
    ..5. The present results suggest that sympathetic vasoconstriction of the human gastroepiploic artery is mediated by both alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptors postjunctionally, but not by P2X receptors...
  44. Hagiwara H, Sunada M, Yoshizumi T, Nakayama T, Abe T, Nakayama M, et al. [Angiographic findings of right gastroepiploic artery grafts in early and late phases]. Kyobu Geka. 2008;61:827-33; discussion 833-5 pubmed
    ..hundred and eighty-nine patients underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using the right gastroepiploic artery (GEA) in our institute from 1993 to 2004. Early and late results were reviewed retrospectively...
  45. Lee D, Lee W, Kim K, Cho K, Park E, Chung J, et al. Availability of the right gastroepiploic artery for coronary artery bypass grafting: preoperative multidetector CT evaluation. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2010;26:303-10 pubmed publisher
    ..of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography for prediction of availability of the right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA) for coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG)...
  46. Shigoka H, Maetani I, Saito M. Pseudoaneurysm developed after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: a report of two cases. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;25:1484-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Pseudoaneurysm less than 10 mm in diameter was observed in the gastroepiploic artery by urgent percutaneous abdominal angiography...
  47. Milojevic P, Neskovic V, Stojanovic D, Jakovljevic M, Sagic D, Djukanovic B. [Combined use of internal mammary and right gastroepiploic arteries in myocardial revascularization with and without extracorporeal circulation]. Acta Chir Iugosl. 2002;49:77-80 pubmed
    ..experience in use of two or more arterial grafts in combination (internal mammary artery--IMA and right gastroepiploic artery--RGEA)...
  48. Fragulidis G, Athanasopoulos P, Melemeni A, Chondrogiannis K, Nastos K, Koutoulidis V, et al. Pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy after transhiatal esophagectomy sparing the right gastroepiploic vessels and gastric tube. J Gastrointest Surg. 2011;15:367-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Pancreaticoduodenectomy after transhiatal esophagectomy is a technically demanding procedure in sense of preserving the blood supply to the gastric tube...
  49. Schindel Y, Stein M. Right gastroepiploic artery stab wound presenting as massive hemothorax: a diagnostic dilemma. Isr Med Assoc J. 2003;5:210-1 pubmed
  50. Kamei Y, Toriyama K, Yagi S, Takanari K, Torii S. Analysis of 13 cases with gastroepiploic vessels used as grafts. J Reconstr Microsurg. 2008;24:515-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the number of gastroepiploic vessels used as grafts analyzed here is relatively small, this experience confirms their clinical usefulness...
  51. Matsuo S, Yamaguchi S, Miyamoto S, Ishii T, Tsuneoka N, Obata S, et al. Ruptured aneurysm of the visceral artery: report of two cases. Surg Today. 2001;31:660-4 pubmed
    ..At surgery, a hematoma along the right gastroepiploic artery was found and totally removed. Histological examination showed a pseudo-aneurysm of unknown etiology...
  52. Buunen M, Rooijens P, Smaal H, Kleinrensink G, van der Harst E, Tilanus H, et al. Vascular anatomy of the stomach related to gastric tube construction. Dis Esophagus. 2008;21:272-4 pubmed publisher
    ..7% increase of length of arterial arcade along the gastric tube. Leaving the left gastro-epiploic artery in situ increases the feeding arterial arcaded-length along the gastric tube with 5.0 cm (19%)...
  53. Glineur D, D Hoore W, El Khoury G, Sondji S, Kalscheuer G, Funken J, et al. Angiographic predictors of 6-month patency of bypass grafts implanted to the right coronary artery a prospective randomized comparison of gastroepiploic artery and saphenous vein grafts. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;51:120-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to define the pre-operative angiographic variables that could influence graft patency and flow pattern...