basilar artery

Summary

Summary: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.

Top Publications

  1. van der Hoeven E, Schonewille W, Vos J, Algra A, Audebert H, Berge E, et al. The Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials. 2013;14:200 pubmed publisher
    Despite recent advances in acute stroke treatment, basilar artery occlusion (BAO) is associated with a death or disability rate of close to 70%...
  2. Ishii M, Kobayashi S, Ohkura M, Yamamoto R, Shimizu S, Kiuchi Y. Inhibitory effect of lomerizine, a prophylactic drug for migraines, on serotonin-induced contraction of the basilar artery. J Pharmacol Sci. 2009;111:221-5 pubmed
    We examined the effects of lomerizine on serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)-induced contraction of the basilar artery and compared them with those of nifedipine...
  3. Poon C, Seto S, Au A, Zhang Q, Li R, Lee W, et al. Mitochondrial monoamine oxidase-A-mediated hydrogen peroxide generation enhances 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced contraction of rat basilar artery. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;161:1086-98 pubmed publisher
    ..the role(s) of monoamine oxidase (MAO)-mediated H?O? generation on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced tension development of isolated basilar artery of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats.
  4. Fellgiebel A, Keller I, Martus P, Ropele S, Yakushev I, Böttcher T, et al. Basilar artery diameter is a potential screening tool for Fabry disease in young stroke patients. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2011;31:294-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Enlarged basilar artery diameters (BADs) have been demonstrated in FD, and we hypothesize that they might be useful for the screening ..
  5. Kellner C, Haque R, Meyers P, Lavine S, Connolly E, Solomon R. Complex basilar artery aneurysms treated using surgical basilar occlusion: a modern case series. Clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2011;115:319-27 pubmed publisher
    Complex aneurysms of the basilar artery (BA) apex can be successfully treated using surgical occlusion of the proximal BA...
  6. Lee R, Liu Y, Chen P, Liu C, Chen M, Lin H, et al. Sympathetic ????-nAChRs mediate cerebral neurogenic nitrergic vasodilation in the swine. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;301:H344-54 pubmed publisher
  7. Mattle H, Arnold M, Lindsberg P, Schonewille W, Schroth G. Basilar artery occlusion. Lancet Neurol. 2011;10:1002-14 pubmed publisher
    The clinical presentation of basilar artery occlusion (BAO) ranges from mild transient symptoms to devastating strokes with high fatality and morbidity...
  8. Chen M, Huang Y, Long C, Yang H, Lee H, Chen P, et al. Bimodal effects of fluoxetine on cerebral nitrergic neurogenic vasodilation in porcine large cerebral arteries. Neuropharmacology. 2012;62:1651-8 pubmed publisher
  9. Lai L, Morgan M, Chin D, Snidvongs K, Huang J, Malek J, et al. A cadaveric study of the endoscopic endonasal transclival approach to the basilar artery. J Clin Neurosci. 2013;20:587-92 pubmed publisher
    The anterior transclival route to basilar artery aneurysms is not widely performed...

More Information

Publications77

  1. Chen J, Jiang M, Chu L, Hsieh S, Chen I, Wu B. KMUP-1 inhibits L-type Ca²? channels involved the protein kinase C in rat basilar artery myocytes. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2011;27:538-43 pubmed publisher
    ..investigated whether KMUP-1, a xanthine-based derivative, inhibits L-type Ca(2+) currents (I(Ca,L)) in rat basilar artery smooth muscle cells (RBASMCs)...
  2. Matsumoto F, Watanabe Y, Obi T, Islam M, Yamazaki Himeno E, Shiraishi M, et al. Characterization of 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced contraction and acetylcholine-induced relaxation in isolated chicken basilar artery. Poult Sci. 2012;91:1158-64 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the present study was to clarify the responsiveness of the chicken basilar artery to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and acetylcholine (ACh) and to characterize the related receptor subtypes in vitro...
  3. Qian Y, Du Y, Tang Y, Lv X, Liu J, Zhou J, et al. ClC-3 chloride channel prevents apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide in basilar artery smooth muscle cells through mitochondria dependent pathway. Apoptosis. 2011;16:468-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that ClC-3 Cl(-) channel can modulate H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis in BASMCs via the intrinsic, mitochondrial pathway...
  4. Jiang L, Liu Y, Ma M, Tang Y, Zhou J, Guan Y. Mitochondria dependent pathway is involved in the protective effect of bestrophin-3 on hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in basilar artery smooth muscle cells. Apoptosis. 2013;18:556-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, silencing of Best-3 produced the opposite effects. Our present data strongly suggest that Best-3 inhibits apoptosis induced by H2O2 in BASMCs through mitochondria dependent pathway...
  5. Ramírez Rosas M, Cobos Puc L, Muñoz Islas E, González Hernández A, Sánchez López A, Villalón C, et al. Pharmacological evidence that Ca²+ channels and, to a lesser extent, K+ channels mediate the relaxation of testosterone in the canine basilar artery. Steroids. 2011;76:409-15 pubmed publisher
    ..non-genomic mechanisms in several isolated blood vessels, but no study has reported its effects on the canine basilar artery, an important artery implicated in cerebral vasospasm...
  6. Tanaka M, Sakaguchi M, Miwa K, Okazaki S, Furukado S, Yagita Y, et al. Basilar artery diameter is an independent predictor of incident cardiovascular events. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:2240-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aims to clarify the factors related to BA diameter and to clarify whether the BA diameter is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events...
  7. Ruecker M, Furtner M, Knoflach M, Werner P, Gotwald T, Chemelli A, et al. Basilar artery dissection: series of 12 consecutive cases and review of the literature. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2010;30:267-76 pubmed publisher
    Current knowledge on primary or isolated basilar artery dissection (IBAD) is limited to case vignettes and small patient series.
  8. Pfefferkorn T, Holtmannspotter M, Schmidt C, Bender A, Pfister H, Straube A, et al. Drip, ship, and retrieve: cooperative recanalization therapy in acute basilar artery occlusion. Stroke. 2010;41:722-6 pubmed publisher
    In acute basilar artery occlusion, intra-arterial thrombolysis or endovascular mechanical recanalization may result in higher recanalization rates than intravenous thrombolysis...
  9. Amiridze N, Gullapalli R, Hoffman G, Darwish R. Experimental model of brainstem stroke in rabbits via endovascular occlusion of the basilar artery. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2009;18:281-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Basilar artery thrombosis remains a significant clinical problem, and no reproducible animal model has been established to study the stroke within the vertebrobasilar distribution...
  10. Ueno D, Yabuki A, Obi T, Shiraishi M, Nishio A, Miyamoto A. Characterization of bradykinin-induced endothelium-independent contraction in equine basilar artery. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2009;32:264-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Arachidonic acid metabolites and neurotransmitters like norepinephrine and NO might not play a role in BK-induced contraction in equine basilar artery.
  11. Schonewille W, Wijman C, Michel P, Rueckert C, Weimar C, Mattle H, et al. Treatment and outcomes of acute basilar artery occlusion in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS): a prospective registry study. Lancet Neurol. 2009;8:724-30 pubmed publisher
    Treatment strategies for acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO) are based on case series and data that have been extrapolated from stroke intervention trials in other cerebrovascular territories, and information on the efficacy of different ..
  12. Goel A, Shah A. Trigeminal neuralgia in the presence of ectatic basilar artery and basilar invagination: treatment by foramen magnum decompression. J Neurosurg. 2009;111:1220-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Examinations revealed an ectatic basilar artery that indented deeply into the region of the root entry zone of cranial nerve V...
  13. Jozwik K, Obidowski D. Numerical simulations of the blood flow through vertebral arteries. J Biomech. 2010;43:177-85 pubmed publisher
    ..experiment was to visualize the flow in the region of vertebral arteries junction in the origin of the basilar artery. It is extremely difficult to examine this part of human circulation system, thus numerical experiments may be ..
  14. Mani B, Brueggemann L, Cribbs L, Byron K. Activation of vascular KCNQ (Kv7) potassium channels reverses spasmogen-induced constrictor responses in rat basilar artery. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;164:237-49 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed the presence and function of KCNQ (K(v) 7) potassium channels in rat basilar artery myocytes, and determined the efficacy of K(v) 7 channel activators in relieving spasmogen-induced basilar ..
  15. Kobayashi N, Karino T. Flow patterns and velocity distributions in the human vertebrobasilar arterial system. Laboratory investigation. J Neurosurg. 2010;113:810-9 pubmed publisher
    The authors conducted a study to elucidate the relationship between the flow patterns and the formation of aneurysms at the bifurcation of the basilar artery (BA).
  16. Lam F, Deng S, Ng E, Yeung J, Kwan Y, Lau C, et al. Mechanisms of the relaxant effect of a danshen and gegen formulation on rat isolated cerebral basilar artery. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;132:186-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the actions of a danshen and gegen formulation (DG; ratio 7:3) were investigated on rat-isolated cerebral basilar artery.
  17. Kang C, Park C, Kim K, Hong S, Park C, Kim Y, et al. Non-invasive visualization of basilar artery perforators with 7T MR angiography. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2010;32:544-50 pubmed publisher
    To visualize the perforating arteries originating from basilar artery (BA) by using ultra-high resolution 7T MR angiography (MRA) and optimizing MR parameters as well as radio frequency (RF) coils, which may provide important information ..
  18. Klein I, Lavallee P, Mazighi M, Schouman Claeys E, Labreuche J, Amarenco P. Basilar artery atherosclerotic plaques in paramedian and lacunar pontine infarctions: a high-resolution MRI study. Stroke. 2010;41:1405-9 pubmed publisher
    Pontine infarction is most often related to basilar artery atherosclerosis when the lesion abuts on the basal surface (paramedian pontine infarction), whereas small medial pontine lesion is usually attributed to small vessel ..
  19. Li J, Cao Y, Liu Y, Xu C. Minimally modified LDL upregulates endothelin type B receptors in rat basilar artery. Microvasc Res. 2012;83:178-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was designed to examine if mmLDL upregulated endothelin ET(B) receptors in basilar artery and its possible intracellular signaling molecular mechanisms...
  20. Zhao X, Zhou Y, Zhang X, Wang X, Qi W, Zhuang Z, et al. Expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in the basilar artery after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rabbits: a preliminary study. Brain Res. 2010;1358:221-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Cross-sectional area of basilar artery was measured and the Nrf2 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis...
  21. Bain M, Hussain M, Spiotta A, Gonugunta V, Moskowitz S, Gupta R. "Double-barrel" stent reconstruction of a symptomatic fusiform basilar artery aneurysm: case report. Neurosurgery. 2011;68:E1491-6; discussion E1496 pubmed publisher
    Giant fusiform aneurysms of the basilar artery are associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality...
  22. Nikitina E, Kawashima A, Takahashi M, Zhang Z, Shang X, Ai J, et al. Alteration in voltage-dependent calcium channels in dog basilar artery after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Laboratory investigation. J Neurosurg. 2010;113:870-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors tested the hypothesis that this is because SAH alters these channels, rendering them less responsible for contraction...
  23. Leemann B, Schnider A. [Unusually favorable recovery from locked-in syndrome after basilar artery occlusion]. Rev Med Suisse. 2010;6:633-5 pubmed
    Locked-in syndrome (LIS) after basilar artery occlusion is associated with poor prognosis. For a patient with LIS, rehabilitation aims to restore communication, avoid complications, and ensure a certain comfort...
  24. Hsu W, Pradilla G, Garonzik I, Conway J. Pretruncal nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage causing basilar artery vasospasm. Neurocrit Care. 2010;13:256-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Although vasospasm is a common occurrence after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality, vasospasm in the setting of PNSAH is rare...
  25. Huang L, He J, Yuan B, Cao Y. Lipid soluble smoke particles upregulate endothelin receptors in rat basilar artery. Toxicol Lett. 2010;197:243-55 pubmed publisher
    ..effect of dimethylsulphoxide-soluble particles (DSP) from cigarette smoke on endothelin (ET) receptors in the basilar artery. The contractile responses to ET-1 (ET(A) and ET(B) receptors agonist) and sarafotoxin 6c (ET(B) receptor ..
  26. Li S, Wang X, Ma M, Liu Y, Du Y, Lv X, et al. Ginsenoside-Rd potentiates apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide in basilar artery smooth muscle cells through the mitochondrial pathway. Apoptosis. 2012;17:113-20 pubmed publisher
    ..that ginsenoside-Rd, a purified component from Panax notoginseng, inhibited cell proliferation and reversed basilar artery remodeling...
  27. Sairanen T, Strbian D, Soinne L, Silvennoinen H, Salonen O, Artto V, et al. Intravenous thrombolysis of basilar artery occlusion: predictors of recanalization and outcome. Stroke. 2011;42:2175-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Basilar artery occlusion has a high mortality rate (85% to 95%) if untreated. We describe a large single-center cohort treated mostly with intravenous alteplase and heparin.
  28. Crowley R, Evans A, Kassell N, Jensen M, Dumont A. Endovascular treatment of a fusiform basilar artery aneurysm using multiple "in-stent stents". Technical note. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2009;3:496-500 pubmed publisher
    Fusiform aneurysms of the basilar artery present difficult challenges for the treating physician. On one hand, these aneurysms are difficult and dangerous to treat...
  29. Lee S, Hur N, Jeong S. Geometric analysis and blood flow simulation of basilar artery. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2012;19:397-401 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to find a region of low wall shear stress (WSS) in a basilar artery using 3-dimensional (3D) geometric analysis and blood flow simulation.
  30. Jeong S, Kim D, Cho Y. Homocysteine and pulsatility index in lacunar infarction. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2011;113:459-63 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate an association between plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) and pulsatility indexes (PIs) of cerebral arteries in patients with lacunar infarction (LI), comparing control subjects...
  31. Andersson T, Kuntze Söderqvist A, Soderman M, Holmin S, Wahlgren N, Kaijser M. Mechanical thrombectomy as the primary treatment for acute basilar artery occlusion: experience from 5 years of practice. J Neurointerv Surg. 2013;5:221-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, data are presented on 28 patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy as the preferred treatment for basilar artery occlusion.
  32. Sharma N, Cho D, Kim S, Bhattarai J, Hwang P, Han S. Magnesium sulfate suppresses L-type calcium currents on the basilar artery smooth muscle cells in rabbits. Neurol Res. 2012;34:291-6 pubmed publisher
  33. Idbaih A, Pico F, Guichard J, Bousser M, Chabriat H. Clinical course and MRI changes of basilar artery dolichoectasia: three case reports. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2004;17:262-4 pubmed
  34. Kumral E, Kisabay A, Atac C, Kaya C, Calli C. The mechanism of ischemic stroke in patients with dolichoectatic basilar artery. Eur J Neurol. 2005;12:437-44 pubmed
    b>Basilar artery dolichoectesia (BD) may cause brainstem ischemia by multiple mechanisms, including thrombosis, embolism, occlusion of deep penetrating arteries...
  35. Lee K, Lee K, Lee S, Ahn C, Park J. Lacunar infarction in type 2 diabetes is associated with an elevated intracranial arterial pulsatility index. Yonsei Med J. 2007;48:802-6 pubmed
    ..04, 0.90, 0.73, respectively, for the left middle cerebral artery; 0.97, 0.89, 0.70, respectively, for the basilar artery)...
  36. Osuka K, Watanabe Y, Yamauchi K, Nakazawa A, Usuda N, Tokuda M, et al. Activation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway in the rat basilar artery after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Brain Res. 2006;1072:1-7 pubmed
    ..We investigated whether this signaling pathway is activated in the rat basilar artery after SAH by cytokines...
  37. Qureshi A, Boulos A, Hanel R, Suri M, Yahia A, Alberico R, et al. Randomized comparison of intra-arterial and intravenous thrombolysis in a canine model of acute basilar artery thrombosis. Neuroradiology. 2004;46:988-95 pubmed
    ..a.) reteplase and intravenous (i.v.) alteplase thrombolysis in a canine model of basilar artery thrombosis...
  38. Maeda Y, Hirano K, Kai Y, Hirano M, Suzuki S, Sasaki T, et al. Up-regulation of proteinase-activated receptor 1 and increased contractile responses to thrombin after subarachnoid haemorrhage. Br J Pharmacol. 2007;152:1131-9 pubmed
    ..We investigated the role of thrombin and its receptor PAR1 in the development of hyper-contractility of the basilar artery in a rabbit double haemorrhage model, which received two injections of autologous blood into the cisterna ..
  39. Ivanov A, Gerzanich V, Ivanova S, Denhaese R, Tsymbalyuk O, Simard J. Adenylate cyclase 5 and KCa1.1 channel are required for EGFR up-regulation of PCNA in native contractile rat basilar artery smooth muscle. J Physiol. 2006;570:73-84 pubmed
    ..1) channels, not int-K(Ca) channels. Using patch clamp of freshly isolated contractile VSMC from rat basilar artery, we found that EGF (100 ng ml(-1)) caused hyperpolarization (7.9 +/- 3...
  40. Laforet P, Petiot P, Nicolino M, Orlikowski D, Caillaud C, Pellegrini N, et al. Dilative arteriopathy and basilar artery dolichoectasia complicating late-onset Pompe disease. Neurology. 2008;70:2063-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The first patient died at age 35 years from complications of a giant fusiform aneurysm of the basilar artery, and her 34-year-old sister showed evidence of dolichoectatic basilar artery on magnetic resonance angiography...
  41. Zhou M, Wu W, Ding Y, Zhang F, Hang C, Wang H, et al. Expression of Toll-like receptor 4 in the basilar artery after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rabbits: a preliminary study. Brain Res. 2007;1173:110-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this study aimed to detect the expression of TLR4 in the basilar artery in a rabbit SAH model and to clarify the potential role of TLR4 in cerebral vasospasm...
  42. Hong E, Deng M, Cheng L, Zhou S, Wang B, Zhang A, et al. [Effect of vertebral manipulation therapy on vertebro-basilar artery blood flow in cervical spondylosis of vertebral artery type]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2005;25:742-4 pubmed
    To observe the effect of vertebral manipulation (VM) therapy on vertebro-basilar artery (VBA) blood flow in patients with cervical spondylosis of vertebral artery type (CS-VAT) by transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonic examination.
  43. Arnold M, Nedeltchev K, Schroth G, Baumgartner R, Remonda L, Loher T, et al. Clinical and radiological predictors of recanalisation and outcome of 40 patients with acute basilar artery occlusion treated with intra-arterial thrombolysis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75:857-62 pubmed
    To define predictors of recanalisation and clinical outcome of patients with acute basilar artery occlusions treated with local intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT).
  44. Kato T, Indo T, Yoshida E, Iwasaki Y, Sone M, Sobue G. Contrast-enhanced 2D cine phase MR angiography for measurement of basilar artery blood flow in posterior circulation ischemia. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2002;23:1346-51 pubmed
    ..2D cine phase MR angiography in the diagnosis of PCI, we examined quantitative blood flow of the basilar artery in patients with PCI who had primarily complained of dizziness...
  45. Lindsberg P, Mattle H. Therapy of basilar artery occlusion: a systematic analysis comparing intra-arterial and intravenous thrombolysis. Stroke. 2006;37:922-8 pubmed
    b>Basilar artery occlusion (BAO) is an infrequent form of acute stroke, which invariably leads to death or long-term disability if not recanalized...
  46. Sviri G, Newell D, Lewis D, Douville C, Ghodke B, Chowdhary M, et al. Impact of basilar artery vasospasm on outcome in patients with severe cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 2006;37:2738-43 pubmed
    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of basilar artery (BA) vasospasm on outcome in patients with severe vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH)...
  47. Sviri G, Ghodke B, Britz G, Douville C, Haynor D, Mesiwala A, et al. Transcranial Doppler grading criteria for basilar artery vasospasm. Neurosurgery. 2006;59:360-6; discussion 360-6 pubmed
    Transcranial Doppler (TCD) criteria for basilar artery (BA) vasospasm are poorly defined, and grading criteria for vertebrobasilar vasospasm are unavailable...
  48. Eguchi D, d Uscio L, Wambi C, Weiler D, Kovesdi I, O BRIEN T, et al. Inhibitory effect of recombinant iNOS gene expression on vasomotor function of canine basilar artery. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002;283:H2560-6 pubmed
    ..Attenuation of contractions is most likely due to functional antagonism between UTP and cGMP. Reduction of endothelium-dependent relaxation to bradykinin appears to be mediated in part by reduced reactivity of smooth muscle cells to NO...
  49. Zucker K, Kamberi P, Sobel R, Cloud G, Meli D, Clemons K, et al. Temporal expression of inflammatory mediators in brain basilar artery vasculitis and cerebrospinal fluid of rabbits with coccidioidal meningitis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2006;143:458-66 pubmed
    ..matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), that possibly contribute to vasculitis, temporal mRNA expression in brain basilar artery samples and MMP-9 protein in the CSF of male NZW rabbits infected intracisternally with 6...
  50. Yoon S, Zuccarello M, Rapoport R. Repeated constriction to respiration-induced hypocapnia is not mimicked by isocapnic alkaline solution in rabbit basilar artery in situ. Vascul Pharmacol. 2003;40:7-11 pubmed
    ..demonstration that repeated hypocapnic challenge elicited constrictions of similar magnitudes in rabbit basilar artery in situ, repeated challenge with isocapnic alkaline solution resulted in reduced constriction...
  51. Yu W, Kostanian V, Fisher M. Endovascular recanalization of basilar artery occlusion 80 days after symptom onset. Stroke. 2007;38:1387-9 pubmed
    Acute basilar artery occlusion portends high risk of stroke and death. Thrombolysis or endovascular therapy has been limited to patients who present within hours of symptom onset...
  52. Hashimoto T, Ohata H, Nobe K, Sakai Y, Honda K. A novel approach for the determination of contractile and calcium responses of the basilar artery employing real-time confocal laser microscopy. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2007;56:79-86 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the present study documented potential application of confocal laser microscopy in the determination of contractile and [Ca(2+)](i) responses in basilar artery.
  53. Cosar M, Yaman M, Eser O, Songur A, Ozen O. Basilar artery angulation and vertigo due to the hemodynamic effect of dominant vertebral artery. Med Hypotheses. 2008;70:941-3 pubmed
    Vertebral arteries form the basilar artery at the pontobulbar junction. The vertebral artery may have dominancy in one of them. The branches of basilar arteries supply blood for the vestibular nuclei and its connections...
  54. Patroclo C, Puglia P, Leite C, Yamamoto F, Ciríaco J, Scaff M, et al. Endovascular treatment of a basilar artery dissecting aneurysm. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2007;65:1012-4 pubmed
    b>Basilar artery (BA) dissecting aneurysms pose difficulties to treatment because both bleeding and thrombosis can happen in the same patient, clinical course is unpredictable and high morbidity is usual...
  55. Yamaguchi Okada M, Nishizawa S, Koide M, Nonaka Y. Biomechanical and phenotypic changes in the vasospastic canine basilar artery after subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005;99:2045-52 pubmed
    ..The above results indicate that biomechanical and phenotypic changes may play a pivotal role in sustaining cerebral vasospasm for >2 wk after SAH, with minimal changes in active myogenic arterial tone...
  56. Pico F, Labreuche J, Gourfinkel An I, Amarenco P. Basilar artery diameter and 5-year mortality in patients with stroke. Stroke. 2006;37:2342-7 pubmed
    Few and conflicting data exist on the case fatality rate in stroke patients with basilar artery dolichoectasia...
  57. Nagel S, Schellinger P, Hartmann M, Juettler E, Huttner H, Ringleb P, et al. Therapy of acute basilar artery occlusion: intraarterial thrombolysis alone vs bridging therapy. Stroke. 2009;40:140-6 pubmed publisher
    ..activator (rt-PA) has been approved for acute stroke therapy within 3 hours, the optimum management of basilar artery occlusion (BAO) is still a matter of debate...
  58. Passero S, Rossi S. Natural history of vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia. Neurology. 2008;70:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to explore the natural history of VBD, evaluate its progression, and examine factors that may influence the clinical course of this condition...
  59. Nedeltchev K, Remonda L, Do D, Brekenfeld C, Ozdoba C, Arnold M, et al. Acute stenting and thromboaspiration in basilar artery occlusions due to embolism from the dominating vertebral artery. Neuroradiology. 2004;46:686-91 pubmed
    Intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT) is the only treatment that has demonstrated benefit in patients with acute basilar artery occlusions (ABAO)...
  60. Mayer T, Hamann G, Brueckmann H. Treatment of basilar artery embolism with a mechanical extraction device: necessity of flow reversal. Stroke. 2002;33:2232-5 pubmed
    ..Since thrombolysis can also be time consuming and cause bleeding, we investigated the feasibility of a mechanical clot retraction device based on a nitinol basket advanced through a microcatheter...
  61. Pai B, Varma R, Kulkarni R, Nirmala S, Manjunath L, Rakshith S. Microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation. Neurol India. 2007;55:31-41 pubmed
    ..The microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation is very complex and variable. Surgical approaches to this area are considered risky due to the presence of the various important blood vessels and neural structures...
  62. Ali M, Bendok B, Tella M, Chandler J, Getch C, Batjer H. Arterial reconstruction by direct surgical clipping of a basilar artery dissecting aneurysm after failed vertebral artery occlusion: technical case report and literature review. Neurosurgery. 2003;52:1475-80; discussion 1480-1 pubmed
    Dissecting aneurysms of the basilar artery are rare lesions with significant morbidity and mortality. Their management is controversial and often difficult...
  63. Lefranc F, Decaestecker C, Brotchi J, Heizmann C, Dewitte O, Kiss R, et al. Co-expression/co-location of S100 proteins (S100B, S100A1 and S100A2) and protein kinase C (PKC-beta, -eta and -zeta) in a rat model of cerebral basilar artery vasospasm. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2005;31:649-60 pubmed
    ..A number of S100 proteins are known to interfere directly with PKC, or indirectly with PKC substrates. We therefore investigated whether specific S100 proteins and PKCs are co-expressed/co-located in a rat model of SAH-induced vasospasm...
  64. Olszewski J, Majak J, Pietkiewicz P, Luszcz C, Repetowski M. The association between positional vertebral and basilar artery flow lesion and prevalence of vertigo in patients with cervical spondylosis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;134:680-4 pubmed
    The aim of our investigations was to characterize the relationship between basilar artery (BA) flow velocity in patients with cervical spondylosis and age, grade of radiological changes, prevalence of vertigo, and decreased blood flow ..
  65. Sasahara A, Kasuya H, Krischek B, Tajima A, Onda H, Sasaki T, et al. Gene expression in a canine basilar artery vasospasm model: a genome-wide network-based analysis. Neurosurg Rev. 2008;31:283-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Ca(2+) regulation may play a key role in these gene expression changes and may be involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm...
  66. Goldmakher G, Camargo E, Furie K, Singhal A, Roccatagliata L, Halpern E, et al. Hyperdense basilar artery sign on unenhanced CT predicts thrombus and outcome in acute posterior circulation stroke. Stroke. 2009;40:134-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our purpose was to determine whether the hyperdense basilar artery (HDBA) sign has utility in detecting thrombosis and predicting outcome in patients presenting with signs and ..
  67. Park J, Kim Y, Sim J, Choi M, Choi W, Hwang K, et al. Regulation of membrane excitability by intracellular pH (pHi) changers through Ca2+-activated K+ current (BK channel) in single smooth muscle cells from rabbit basilar artery. Pflugers Arch. 2007;454:307-19 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that SA and NH(4)Cl might regulate vascular tone by altering membrane excitability through modulation of [Ca(2+)](i) and Ca(2+)-activated K channels in rabbit basilar artery.
  68. Valencia A, Guzmán A, Finol E, Amon C. Blood flow dynamics in saccular aneurysm models of the basilar artery. J Biomech Eng. 2006;128:516-26 pubmed
    ..This paper describes the flow dynamics in two representative models of a terminal aneurysm of the basilar artery under Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid assumptions, and compares their hemodynamics with that of a healthy ..