blood retinal barrier

Summary

Summary: A specialized transport barrier, in the EYE, formed by the retinal pigment EPITHELIUM, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the RETINA. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.

Top Publications

  1. Xu H, Manivannan A, Goatman K, Jiang H, Liversidge J, Sharp P, et al. Reduction in shear stress, activation of the endothelium, and leukocyte priming are all required for leukocyte passage across the blood--retina barrier. J Leukoc Biol. 2004;75:224-32 pubmed
  2. Qaum T, Xu Q, Joussen A, Clemens M, Qin W, Miyamoto K, et al. VEGF-initiated blood-retinal barrier breakdown in early diabetes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:2408-13 pubmed
  3. Nakashima T, Tomi M, Katayama K, Tachikawa M, Watanabe M, Terasaki T, et al. Blood-to-retina transport of creatine via creatine transporter (CRT) at the rat inner blood-retinal barrier. J Neurochem. 2004;89:1454-61 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, CRT is expressed at the inner BRB and plays a role in blood-to-retina creatine transport across the inner BRB...
  4. Zhang J, Wu Y, Jin Y, Ji F, Sinclair S, Luo Y, et al. Intravitreal injection of erythropoietin protects both retinal vascular and neuronal cells in early diabetes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:732-42 pubmed publisher
    ..To explore and evaluate the protective effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on retinal cells of chemically induced diabetic rats after EPO was injected intravitreally at the onset of diabetes...
  5. Crane I, Wallace C, McKillop Smith S, Forrester J. Control of chemokine production at the blood-retina barrier. Immunology. 2000;101:426-33 pubmed
    ..Chemokine production by REC and RPE is probably significant in selective leucocyte recruitment during the development of inflammation in the retina...
  6. Xu H, Manivannan A, Liversidge J, Sharp P, Forrester J, Crane I. Involvement of CD44 in leukocyte trafficking at the blood-retinal barrier. J Leukoc Biol. 2002;72:1133-41 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that CD44 is directly involved in leukocyte-endothelial interaction in vivo and influence the trafficking of primed leukocytes to the retina and their overall survival...
  7. Hosoya K, Nakamura G, Akanuma S, Tomi M, Tachikawa M. Dehydroascorbic acid uptake and intracellular ascorbic acid accumulation in cultured Müller glial cells (TR-MUL). Neurochem Int. 2008;52:1351-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blot analysis supports the expression of GLUT1 protein with 45 kDa in TR-MUL5 cells. In conclusion, DHA is taken up by facilitative glucose transporters, most likely GLUT1, and converted to AA in TR-MUL5 cells...
  8. Navaratna D, McGuire P, Menicucci G, Das A. Proteolytic degradation of VE-cadherin alters the blood-retinal barrier in diabetes. Diabetes. 2007;56:2380-7 pubmed
  9. Joussen A, Smyth N, Niessen C. Pathophysiology of diabetic macular edema. Dev Ophthalmol. 2007;39:1-12 pubmed
    ..Cumulative endothelial cell death will become more relevant after prolonged diabetic conditions. This article reviews the current knowledge on the pathogenic mechanisms of diabetic macular edema...

More Information

Publications71

  1. Edelman J, Lutz D, Castro M. Corticosteroids inhibit VEGF-induced vascular leakage in a rabbit model of blood-retinal and blood-aqueous barrier breakdown. Exp Eye Res. 2005;80:249-58 pubmed
    ..To test this hypothesis directly, the current study evaluated the effects of TAA and dexamethasone (DEX) in a newly developed rabbit model of VEGF-induced blood-retinal barrier and blood-aqueous (iris) barrier breakdown...
  2. Crane I, Xu H, Wallace C, Manivannan A, Mack M, Liversidge J, et al. Involvement of CCR5 in the passage of Th1-type cells across the blood-retina barrier in experimental autoimmune uveitis. J Leukoc Biol. 2006;79:435-43 pubmed
    ..CCR5 is clearly important for Th1 cell recruitment, and this study demonstrates for the first time in vivo that CCR5 may act at the level of transendothelial migration rather than at the earlier stage of rolling on the endothelium...
  3. Abdouh M, Talbot S, Couture R, Hasséssian H. Retinal plasma extravasation in streptozotocin-diabetic rats mediated by kinin B(1) and B(2) receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;154:136-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether or not kinin receptors play a role in diabetic blood-retinal barrier breakdown, which is a leading cause of vision loss...
  4. Minamizono A, Tomi M, Hosoya K. Inhibition of dehydroascorbic acid transport across the rat blood-retinal and -brain barriers in experimental diabetes. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006;29:2148-50 pubmed
    ..5% and 84.1%, respectively, in diabetic rats compared with normal rats, whereas there was no major difference in the heart. Therefore, we propose that hyperglycemia reduces the supply of vitamin C to the retina and brain...
  5. Xu H, Dawson R, Forrester J, Liversidge J. Identification of novel dendritic cell populations in normal mouse retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:1701-10 pubmed
    ..In this histologic study, the authors examine the retinas of mice strains with different susceptibility to experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) for tissue resident APC...
  6. El Remessy A, Behzadian M, Abou Mohamed G, Franklin T, Caldwell R, Caldwell R. Experimental diabetes causes breakdown of the blood-retina barrier by a mechanism involving tyrosine nitration and increases in expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor. Am J Pathol. 2003;162:1995-2004 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that early diabetes causes breakdown of the BRB by a mechanism involving the action of reactive nitrogen species in promoting expression of VEGF and uPAR...
  7. Leal E, Manivannan A, Hosoya K, Terasaki T, Cunha Vaz J, Ambrósio A, et al. Inducible nitric oxide synthase isoform is a key mediator of leukostasis and blood-retinal barrier breakdown in diabetic retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:5257-65 pubmed
    ..In this study, the authors aimed to clarify the involvement of constitutive (eNOS, nNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) isoforms and the mechanisms underlying NO-mediated leukostasis and BRB breakdown...
  8. Kim J, Kim J, Park J, Lee S, Kim W, Yu Y, et al. Blood-neural barrier: intercellular communication at glio-vascular interface. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;39:339-45 pubmed
    ..Here, we focused astrocyte-endothelial cell interaction in the formation and function of the BNB...
  9. Phipps J, Clermont A, Sinha S, Chilcote T, Bursell S, Feener E. Plasma kallikrein mediates angiotensin II type 1 receptor-stimulated retinal vascular permeability. Hypertension. 2009;53:175-81 pubmed publisher
  10. Ojima T, Takagi H, Suzuma K, Oh H, Suzuma I, Ohashi H, et al. EphrinA1 inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor-induced intracellular signaling and suppresses retinal neovascularization and blood-retinal barrier breakdown. Am J Pathol. 2006;168:331-9 pubmed
    ..0 +/- 10.0% (P < 0.05). These findings suggest a novel therapeutic potential for EphA2/ephrinA1 in the treatment of neovascularization and vasopermeability abnormalities in diabetic retinopathy...
  11. Rota R, Chiavaroli C, Garay R, Hannaert P. Reduction of retinal albumin leakage by the antioxidant calcium dobesilate in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;495:217-24 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that calcium dobesilate stabilizes blood-retinal barrier in diabetic retinopathy via an in situ antioxidant action. Further studies in patients are required to confirm such view...
  12. Xu H, Dawson R, Crane I, Liversidge J. Leukocyte diapedesis in vivo induces transient loss of tight junction protein at the blood-retina barrier. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:2487-94 pubmed
  13. Constable P, Lawrenson J. Glial cell factors and the outer blood retinal barrier. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2009;29:557-64 pubmed publisher
    ..There is evidence that retinal secreted factors play a role in the induction and maintenance of the outer blood retinal barrier. One possible source of such factors are the retinal glial cells, astrocytes and Müller cells, which may ..
  14. Cunha Vaz J. The blood-retinal barriers system. Basic concepts and clinical evaluation. Exp Eye Res. 2004;78:715-21 pubmed
    ..A recent development, the Retinal Leakage Analyzer, maps BRB alterations and has opened new perspectives for multimodal macula mapping and improved evaluation of newly available drugs that show promise for stabilizing the BRB...
  15. Moore T, Moore J, Kaji Y, Frizzell N, Usui T, Poulaki V, et al. The role of advanced glycation end products in retinal microvascular leukostasis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:4457-64 pubmed
  16. Al Shabrawey M, Rojas M, Sanders T, Behzadian A, El Remessy A, Bartoli M, et al. Role of NADPH oxidase in retinal vascular inflammation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:3239-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential role of NOX2 and NADPH oxidase activity in the development of retinal vascular inflammation...
  17. Behzadian M, Wang X, Windsor L, Ghaly N, Caldwell R. TGF-beta increases retinal endothelial cell permeability by increasing MMP-9: possible role of glial cells in endothelial barrier function. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:853-9 pubmed
    ..Here, the authors demonstrate that retinal endothelial cells express MMP-9 when treated with TGF-beta or cocultured with glial cells and that both TGF-beta and MMP-9 increase endothelial cell permeability...
  18. Sander B, Larsen M, Moldow B, Lund Andersen H. Diabetic macular edema: passive and active transport of fluorescein through the blood-retina barrier. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:433-8 pubmed
    ..To investigate the passive bidirectional and active outward transport of fluorescein through the blood-retina barrier (BRB) in diabetic patients with clinically significant macular edema and in healthy controls...
  19. Li J, Wang J, Chen D, Mott R, Yu Q, Ma J, et al. Systemic administration of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor protects the blood-retinal barrier and ameliorates retinal inflammation in type 2 diabetes. Exp Eye Res. 2009;89:71-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings indicate that lovastatin protects blood-retinal barrier in diabetic retinopathy, which is likely via its anti-inflammatory effects...
  20. Villarroel M, García Ramírez M, Corraliza L, Hernandez C, Simo R. Effects of high glucose concentration on the barrier function and the expression of tight junction proteins in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Exp Eye Res. 2009;89:913-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies addressed to unravel the complexity of permeability regulation in RPE are needed...
  21. Felinski E, Antonetti D. Glucocorticoid regulation of endothelial cell tight junction gene expression: novel treatments for diabetic retinopathy. Curr Eye Res. 2005;30:949-57 pubmed
  22. Tomi M, Mori M, Tachikawa M, Katayama K, Terasaki T, Hosoya K. L-type amino acid transporter 1-mediated L-leucine transport at the inner blood-retinal barrier. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:2522-30 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to clarify the expression and function of LAT at the inner blood-retinal barrier (BRB)...
  23. Holtkamp G, Kijlstra A, Peek R, de Vos A. Retinal pigment epithelium-immune system interactions: cytokine production and cytokine-induced changes. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2001;20:29-48 pubmed
    ..This article provides a comprehensive review of the literature concerning RPE cells and cytokines...
  24. Brankin B, Campbell M, Canning P, Gardiner T, Stitt A. Endostatin modulates VEGF-mediated barrier dysfunction in the retinal microvascular endothelium. Exp Eye Res. 2005;81:22-31 pubmed
    ..vasomodulatory effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the retina, including reduction of blood retinal barrier function although it remains uncertain how endostatin promotes endothelial barrier properties...
  25. Tamura H, Miyamoto K, Kiryu J, Miyahara S, Katsuta H, Hirose F, et al. Intravitreal injection of corticosteroid attenuates leukostasis and vascular leakage in experimental diabetic retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:1440-4 pubmed
    ..The hypothesis for the current study was that intravitreal corticosteroids may improve diabetic retinal edema by amelioration of blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown, by inhibiting leukocyte stasis (leukostasis)...
  26. Joussen A, Poulaki V, Mitsiades N, Kirchhof B, Koizumi K, Döhmen S, et al. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs prevent early diabetic retinopathy via TNF-alpha suppression. FASEB J. 2002;16:438-40 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data identify COX-2 and TNF-alpha as operative in the early signature pathologies of diabetic retinopathy, a newly recognized inflammatory disease...
  27. Bringmann A, Reichenbach A, Wiedemann P. Pathomechanisms of cystoid macular edema. Ophthalmic Res. 2004;36:241-9 pubmed
    ..While the underlying mechanisms await further research, it is expected that their improved knowledge will stimulate the development of novel therapeutic approaches to resolve edema in retinal tissue...
  28. Koto T, Takubo K, Ishida S, Shinoda H, Inoue M, Tsubota K, et al. Hypoxia disrupts the barrier function of neural blood vessels through changes in the expression of claudin-5 in endothelial cells. Am J Pathol. 2007;170:1389-97 pubmed
    ..These in vitro and in vivo data indicate that claudin-5 is a target molecule of hypoxia leading to the disruption of the barrier function of neural vasculature...
  29. Sander B, Thornit D, Colmorn L, Strøm C, Girach A, Hubbard L, et al. Progression of diabetic macular edema: correlation with blood retinal barrier permeability, retinal thickness, and retinal vessel diameter. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:3983-7 pubmed
    ..To study the progression of diabetic macular edema (DME) in relation to baseline retinal thickness, retinal vascular leakage, and retinal trunk vessel diameters...
  30. Campbell M, Collery R, McEvoy A, Gardiner T, Stitt A, Brankin B. Involvement of MAPKs in endostatin-mediated regulation of blood-retinal barrier function. Curr Eye Res. 2006;31:1033-45 pubmed
    ..In order to determine the mechanism of endostatin action on BRB integrity, we have examined the effects of endostatin on a number of intracellular pathways implicated in endothelial cell physiology...
  31. Tretiach M, Madigan M, Gillies M. Conditioned medium from mixed retinal pigmented epithelium and Müller cell cultures reduces in vitro permeability of retinal vascular endothelial cells. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004;88:957-61 pubmed
    ..To investigate the in vitro effect of laser photocoagulation on blood-retinal barrier permeability...
  32. Berkowitz B, Roberts R, Luan H, Peysakhov J, Mao X, Thomas K. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI measurements of passive permeability through blood retinal barrier in diabetic rats. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45:2391-8 pubmed
    To test the hypothesis that dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) provides a useful in vivo measure of passive blood retinal barrier permeability surface area product (BRB PS) in experimental diabetic retinopathy.
  33. Hosoya K, Tomi M. Advances in the cell biology of transport via the inner blood-retinal barrier: establishment of cell lines and transport functions. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005;28:1-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these cell lines permit the investigation of cell-to-cell interactions and the expression of inner BRB-specific genes between TR-iBRB and other cell lines...
  34. Giebel S, Menicucci G, McGuire P, Das A. Matrix metalloproteinases in early diabetic retinopathy and their role in alteration of the blood-retinal barrier. Lab Invest. 2005;85:597-607 pubmed
  35. Xu H, Forrester J, Liversidge J, Crane I. Leukocyte trafficking in experimental autoimmune uveitis: breakdown of blood-retinal barrier and upregulation of cellular adhesion molecules. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:226-34 pubmed
  36. Veckeneer M, van Overdam K, Bouwens D, Feron E, Mertens D, Peperkamp E, et al. Randomized clinical trial of cryotherapy versus laser photocoagulation for retinopexy in conventional retinal detachment surgery. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;132:343-7 pubmed
    ..To investigate whether the method of retinopexy influences the visual recovery rate and the breakdown of the blood-ocular barrier after conventional retinal detachment surgery...
  37. Xu Q, Qaum T, Adamis A. Sensitive blood-retinal barrier breakdown quantitation using Evans blue. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:789-94 pubmed
    ..This study investigated whether a nonradioactive dye, Evans blue, can be adapted as a safe alternative to the isotope-dilution method for quantitating blood-retinal barrier breakdown...
  38. Gardner T, Antonetti D, Barber A, LaNoue K, Levison S. Diabetic retinopathy: more than meets the eye. Surv Ophthalmol. 2002;47 Suppl 2:S253-62 pubmed
    ..Together, these new observations provide a broader clinical and research perspective on diabetic retinal vascular dysfunction than previously considered, and provide new avenues for improved treatments to prevent loss of vision...
  39. Crane I, Xu H, Manivannan A, McKillop Smith S, Lamont G, Wallace C, et al. Effect of anti-macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha on leukocyte trafficking and disease progression in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis. Eur J Immunol. 2003;33:402-10 pubmed
    ..Long-term anti-MIP-1alpha treatment also prevented decreased leukocyte velocity and reduced disease severity as measured clinically, histologically and in terms of blood-retina barrier breakdown...
  40. Ishida S, Usui T, Yamashiro K, Kaji Y, Ahmed E, Carrasquillo K, et al. VEGF164 is proinflammatory in the diabetic retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:2155-62 pubmed
  41. Tretiach M, Madigan M, Wen L, Gillies M. Effect of Müller cell co-culture on in vitro permeability of bovine retinal vascular endothelium in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Neurosci Lett. 2005;378:160-5 pubmed
    ..These results shed more light on the trophic effect of Müller cells on the blood-retinal barrier, suggesting a critical role in the maintenance and regulation of the barrier in health and during disease...
  42. Cheung A, Fung M, Lo A, Lam T, So K, Chung S, et al. Aldose reductase deficiency prevents diabetes-induced blood-retinal barrier breakdown, apoptosis, and glial reactivation in the retina of db/db mice. Diabetes. 2005;54:3119-25 pubmed
  43. Xu H, Manivannan A, Jiang H, Liversidge J, Sharp P, Forrester J, et al. Recruitment of IFN-gamma-producing (Th1-like) cells into the inflamed retina in vivo is preferentially regulated by P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1:P/E-selectin interactions. J Immunol. 2004;172:3215-24 pubmed
    ..We suggest that random trafficking of activated T cells (both Th1 and Th2) across the blood-retina barrier is mediated by CD44:CD44R and LFA-1:ICAM-1, whereas preferential recruitment of Th1 cells is mediated by PSGL-1:P/E-selectin...
  44. Barber A, Antonetti D. Mapping the blood vessels with paracellular permeability in the retinas of diabetic rats. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:5410-6 pubmed
    ..This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that paracellular flux contributes to increased retinal vascular permeability after VEGF treatment or diabetes, and to map the types of vessels that became permeable...
  45. Baumann B, Sterling J, Song Y, Song D, Fruttiger M, Gillies M, et al. Conditional Müller Cell Ablation Leads to Retinal Iron Accumulation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4223-4234 pubmed publisher
    ..The retinal iron accumulation resulting from blood-retinal barrier dysfunction may contribute to retinal degeneration in this model and in diseases such as MacTel2 and diabetic retinopathy. ..
  46. Tretiach M, van Driel D, Gillies M. Transendothelial electrical resistance of bovine retinal capillary endothelial cells is influenced by cell growth patterns: an ultrastructural study. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2003;31:348-53 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that parallel light and electron microscopic studies are important for validation of in vitro models of vascular endothelial permeability. ..
  47. Vinores S, Xiao W, Aslam S, Shen J, Oshima Y, Nambu H, et al. Implication of the hypoxia response element of the Vegf promoter in mouse models of retinal and choroidal neovascularization, but not retinal vascular development. J Cell Physiol. 2006;206:749-58 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that induction of VEGF through the HRE in its promoter is critical for retinal and CNV, but not for retinal vascular development. ..
  48. Kim J, Hong K, Song W, Bae D, Hwang I, Kim J, et al. Perivascular Progenitor Cells Derived From Human Embryonic Stem Cells Exhibit Functional Characteristics of Pericytes and Improve the Retinal Vasculature in a Rodent Model of Diabetic Retinopathy. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2016;5:1268-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This provides promising and compelling evidence that perivascular progenitor cells can be used as a novel therapeutic agent to treat diabetic retinopathy patients. ..
  49. Sanchez Lopez E, Espina M, Doktorovova S, Souto E, Garcia M. Lipid nanoparticles (SLN, NLC): Overcoming the anatomical and physiological barriers of the eye - Part I - Barriers and determining factors in ocular delivery. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2017;110:70-75 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, the main barriers and strategies to increase drug transport in ocular delivery are comprehensively discussed, highlighting the factors involved in ocular transport of SLN and NLC. ..
  50. Pelkonen L, Sato K, Reinisalo M, Kidron H, Tachikawa M, Watanabe M, et al. LC-MS/MS Based Quantitation of ABC and SLC Transporter Proteins in Plasma Membranes of Cultured Primary Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells and Immortalized ARPE19 Cell Line. Mol Pharm. 2017;14:605-613 pubmed publisher
    ..The presented quantitative expression levels could be a useful basis for further studies on drug permeation in the outer blood-retinal barrier. ..
  51. Schneck M, Fortune B, Adams A. The fast oscillation of the electrooculogram reveals sensitivity of the human outer retina/retinal pigment epithelium to glucose level. Vision Res. 2000;40:3447-53 pubmed
    ..The sensitivity of RPE metabolism to glucose fluctuations may relate to changes in the blood-retinal barrier that are known to occur in diabetes (e.g. macular edema). ..
  52. Bali E, Feron E, Peperkamp E, Veckeneer M, Mulder P, van Meurs J. The effect of a preoperative subconjuntival injection of dexamethasone on blood-retinal barrier breakdown following scleral buckling retinal detachment surgery: a prospective randomized placebo-controlled double blind clinical trial. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2010;248:957-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This steroid priming could be useful as a part of a peri-operative regime that would aim at decreasing the incidence of PVR. ..
  53. Miloudi K, Binet F, Wilson A, Cerani A, Oubaha M, Ménard C, et al. Truncated netrin-1 contributes to pathological vascular permeability in diabetic retinopathy. J Clin Invest. 2016;126:3006-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals that netrin-1 degradation products are capable of modulating vascular permeability, suggesting that these fragments are of potential therapeutic interest for the treatment of DR. ..
  54. Schutt F, Kopitz J, Yu A, Welge Lussen U. [Pathomechanisms for aging of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and prophylactic therapy options in regard to AMD]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2008;225:548-54 pubmed publisher
    ..A better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology will help to develop new prophylactic options which is becoming more and more important with increasing life expectancy...
  55. Ehrlich R, Harris A, Ciulla T, Kheradiya N, Winston D, Wirostko B. Diabetic macular oedema: physical, physiological and molecular factors contribute to this pathological process. Acta Ophthalmol. 2010;88:279-91 pubmed publisher
    ..However, by attempting to understand the pathways involved in DMO, we can help guide new treatment options targeted towards specific factors or mediators...
  56. Kusari J, Zhou S, Padillo E, Clarke K, Gil D. Effect of memantine on neuroretinal function and retinal vascular changes of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:5152-9 pubmed
    ..To test whether chronic memantine (MEM) treatment improves retinal function and prevents neurodegeneration and vascular changes in the retinas of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats...
  57. Mann G, Yudilevich D, Sobrevia L. Regulation of amino acid and glucose transporters in endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Physiol Rev. 2003;83:183-252 pubmed
  58. Poulaki V, Joussen A, Mitsiades N, Mitsiades C, Iliaki E, Adamis A. Insulin-like growth factor-I plays a pathogenetic role in diabetic retinopathy. Am J Pathol. 2004;165:457-69 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these in vitro and in vivo signaling studies thus identify potential targets for pharmacological intervention to preserve vision in patients with diabetes...
  59. Qiu P, Zhang Z, Jiang Y, Gou Q, Wang B, Gou L, et al. [Effect of infrasound on ultrastructure and permeability of rat's blood-retinal barrier]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 2002;38:499-501 pubmed
    ..To investigate the possible effect of infrasound on the ultra-structure and permeability of rat's blood-retinal barrier (BRB)...
  60. Kansara V, Pal D, Jain R, Mitra A. Identification and functional characterization of riboflavin transporter in human-derived retinoblastoma cell line (Y-79): mechanisms of cellular uptake and translocation. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2005;21:275-87 pubmed
  61. Tachikawa M, Toki H, Tomi M, Hosoya K. Gene expression profiles of ATP-binding cassette transporter A and C subfamilies in mouse retinal vascular endothelial cells. Microvasc Res. 2008;75:68-72 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, ABCA3, ABCA9, ABCC3, ABCC4, and ABCC6 mRNAs are predominantly expressed at the inner blood-retina barrier (inner BRB) and appear to play a major role in the efflux transport of their substrates at the inner BRB...
  62. Kaji Y, Usui T, Ishida S, Yamashiro K, Moore T, Moore J, et al. Inhibition of diabetic leukostasis and blood-retinal barrier breakdown with a soluble form of a receptor for advanced glycation end products. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:858-65 pubmed
    ..In the present study, the role of an AGE receptor, RAGE, was investigated in the development of diabetic retinopathy in vivo...