cardiovascular system


Summary: The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.

Top Publications

  1. Erickson J, He B, Grumbach I, Anderson M. CaMKII in the cardiovascular system: sensing redox states. Physiol Rev. 2011;91:889-915 pubmed publisher
    ..protein kinase II (CaMKII) is now recognized to play a central role in pathological events in the cardiovascular system. CaMKII has diverse downstream targets that promote vascular disease, heart failure, and arrhythmias, so ..
  2. Donaldson K, Duffin R, Langrish J, Miller M, Mills N, Poland C, et al. Nanoparticles and the cardiovascular system: a critical review. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2013;8:403-23 pubmed publisher
  3. Taverne Y, Bogers A, Duncker D, Merkus D. Reactive oxygen species and the cardiovascular system. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013;2013:862423 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, we review the function of ROS in cardiovascular pathology and the effects of AOs on cardiovascular outcomes with emphasis on the so-called oxidative paradox...
  4. Khurana S, Venkataraman K, Hollingsworth A, Piche M, Tai T. Polyphenols: benefits to the cardiovascular system in health and in aging. Nutrients. 2013;5:3779-827 pubmed publisher
    ..This review highlights the literature surrounding this topic on the prominently studied and documented polyphenols as pertaining to cardiovascular health and aging. ..
  5. Farina F, Sancini G, Longhin E, Mantecca P, Camatini M, Palestini P. Milan PM1 induces adverse effects on mice lungs and cardiovascular system. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:583513 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the response to PM1 has not yet been deeply investigated, its impact on mice lungs and cardiovascular system is here examined. A repeated exposure to Milan PM1 was performed on BALB/c mice...
  6. Lymperopoulos A, Bathgate A. Arrestins in the cardiovascular system. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2013;118:297-334 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the four mammalian arrestins, only the ?-arrestins (?arrs; Arrestin2 and -3) are expressed throughout the cardiovascular system, where they regulate, as either desensitizers/internalizers or signal transducers, several G-protein-..
  7. Ruige J, Ouwens D, Kaufman J. Beneficial and adverse effects of testosterone on the cardiovascular system in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:4300-10 pubmed publisher
    The widespread use of T therapy, particularly in aging males, necessitates knowledge of the relationship between T and the cardiovascular system.
  8. Lombardi G, Di Somma C, Grasso L, Savanelli M, Colao A, Pivonello R. The cardiovascular system in growth hormone excess and growth hormone deficiency. J Endocrinol Invest. 2012;35:1021-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and mortality, suggesting that either an excess or a deficiency in GH and/or IGF-I is deleterious for cardiovascular system. In patients with acromegaly, chronic GH and IGF-I excess commonly causes a specific cardiomyopathy ..
  9. Chirumbolo S. Role of quercetin in vascular physiology. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2012;90:1652-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The majority of these mechanisms have been identified with models using animals treated with quercetin, and relatively few have been corroborated in human studies, which indicates the need for further investigation. ..

More Information


  1. Kirkby N, Lundberg M, Harrington L, Leadbeater P, Milne G, Potter C, et al. Cyclooxygenase-1, not cyclooxygenase-2, is responsible for physiological production of prostacyclin in the cardiovascular system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:17597-602 pubmed publisher
    ..that under physiological conditions it is COX-1 and not COX-2 that drives prostacyclin production in the cardiovascular system, and that urinary metabolites do not reflect prostacyclin production in the systemic circulation...
  2. AshaRani P, Lianwu Y, Gong Z, Valiyaveettil S. Comparison of the toxicity of silver, gold and platinum nanoparticles in developing zebrafish embryos. Nanotoxicology. 2011;5:43-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The toxic effects exhibited by the zebrafish embryos as a consequence of nanoparticle exposure, accompanied by the accumulation of metals inside the body calls for urgent further investigations in this field. ..
  3. Poudyal H, Panchal S, Ward L, Waanders J, Brown L. Chronic high-carbohydrate, high-fat feeding in rats induces reversible metabolic, cardiovascular, and liver changes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;302:E1472-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that chronic H diet feeding for 32 wk mimics the diet-induced cardiovascular and metabolic changes in middle age and that chia seed may serve as an alternative dietary strategy in the management of these changes. ..
  4. Corrales Medina V, Musher D, Shachkina S, Chirinos J. Acute pneumonia and the cardiovascular system. Lancet. 2013;381:496-505 pubmed publisher
    ..traditionally regarded as a disease confined to the lungs, acute pneumonia has important effects on the cardiovascular system at all severities of infection...
  5. Viola A, Tobaldini E, Chellappa S, Casali K, Porta A, Montano N. Short-term complexity of cardiac autonomic control during sleep: REM as a potential risk factor for cardiovascular system in aging. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19002 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of our study was to evaluate the HRV complexity using two entropy-derived measures, Shannon Entropy (SE) and Corrected Conditional Entropy (CCE), during sleep in young and older subjects...
  6. Evans C, Gooch L, Flotta D, Lykins D, Powers R, Landsittel D, et al. Cardiovascular system during the postpartum state in women with a history of preeclampsia. Hypertension. 2011;58:57-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The differences in the previous preeclamptic group are in directions known to be associated with greater cardiovascular disease risk later in life...
  7. Zhao D, Wang J, Cui Y, Wu X. Pharmacological effects of Chinese herb aconite (fuzi) on cardiovascular system. J Tradit Chin Med. 2012;32:308-13 pubmed
    Fuzi (aconite, Radix Aconiti praeparata), a widely used Chinese herb, plays a significant role in the cardiovascular system. This is mainly reflected by Fuzi's cardiotonic effect, its protective effect on myocardial cells, and its effect ..
  8. Northcott J, Yeganeh A, Taylor C, Zahradka P, Wigle J. Adipokines and the cardiovascular system: mechanisms mediating health and disease. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2012;90:1029-59 pubmed publisher
    This review focuses on the role of adipokines in the maintenance of a healthy cardiovascular system, and the mechanisms by which these factors mediate the development of cardiovascular disease in obesity...
  9. Knowlton A, Lee A. Estrogen and the cardiovascular system. Pharmacol Ther. 2012;135:54-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Further basic research into the underlying molecular mechanisms of estrogen's actions is essential to provide a better comprehension of the many properties of this powerful hormone...
  10. Revie J, Stevenson D, Chase J, Hann C, Lambermont B, Ghuysen A, et al. Validation of subject-specific cardiovascular system models from porcine measurements. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2013;109:197-210 pubmed publisher
    A previously validated mathematical model of the cardiovascular system (CVS) is made subject-specific using an iterative, proportional gain-based identification method...
  11. Chen A, Chen D, Daiber A, Faraci F, Li H, Rembold C, et al. Free radical biology of the cardiovascular system. Clin Sci (Lond). 2012;123:73-91 pubmed publisher
    ..much enthusiasm for the continued use of antioxidants to mitigate free-radical-induced changes in the cardiovascular system. In the present paper, we review the clinical use of antioxidants by providing the rationale for their use ..
  12. Rodrigo R, Gonzalez J, Paoletto F. The role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Hypertens Res. 2011;34:431-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This review discusses the mechanisms involved in ROS generation, the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of vascular damage in hypertension, and the possible therapeutic strategies that could prevent or treat this disorder...
  13. Brito M, Nobre F, Vieira C. Hormonal contraception and cardiovascular system. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2011;96:e81-9 pubmed
  14. Shi Y, Lawford P, Hose R. Review of zero-D and 1-D models of blood flow in the cardiovascular system. Biomed Eng Online. 2011;10:33 pubmed publisher
    ..parameter) and one dimensional models, based on simplified representations of the components of the cardiovascular system, can contribute strongly to our understanding of circulatory physiology...
  15. Fadini G, Avogaro A. Cardiovascular effects of DPP-4 inhibition: beyond GLP-1. Vascul Pharmacol. 2011;55:10-6 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been shown that GLP-1 signaling is also active in the cardiovascular system, where it may exert beneficial effects...
  16. Kopincová J, Púzserová A, Bernátová I. L-NAME in the cardiovascular system - nitric oxide synthase activator?. Pharmacol Rep. 2012;64:511-20 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes the mechanisms of NOS regulation in order to better understand the apparent discrepancies found in the current literature. ..
  17. Li R, Wright C, Winkel K, Gershwin L, Angus J. The pharmacology of Malo maxima jellyfish venom extract in isolated cardiovascular tissues: A probable cause of the Irukandji syndrome in Western Australia. Toxicol Lett. 2011;201:221-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects are consistent with the catecholamine excess thought to cause Irukandji syndrome, with additional actions of CGRP release...
  18. Chung H, Wang S, Venkatraman V, Murray C, Van Eyk J. Cysteine oxidative posttranslational modifications: emerging regulation in the cardiovascular system. Circ Res. 2013;112:382-92 pubmed publisher
    In the cardiovascular system, changes in oxidative balance can affect many aspects of cellular physiology through redox-signaling...
  19. Zhong J, Rao X, Rajagopalan S. An emerging role of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) beyond glucose control: potential implications in cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis. 2013;226:305-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Several prospective randomized controlled clinical trials in humans with established atherosclerosis are testing the effects of DPP4 inhibition on hard cardiovascular events...
  20. Chan S, Chan J, Hsu K, Li F, Sun E, Chen W, et al. Amelioration of central cardiovascular regulatory dysfunction by tropomyocin receptor kinase B in a mevinphos intoxication model of brain stem death. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;164:2015-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the role of tropomyocin receptor kinase B (TrkB) and its downstream signalling pathways in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) during experimental brain stem death...
  21. Su C, Wu Y, Wang H, Yeh H. Nonviral gene therapy targeting cardiovascular system. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2012;303:H629-38 pubmed publisher
    ..The aims of this review focus on understanding the cellular and in vivo barriers in gene transfer and provide an overview of currently used chemical vectors and physical tools that are applied in nonviral cardiovascular gene transfer...
  22. Schlossmann J, Desch M. IRAG and novel PKG targeting in the cardiovascular system. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;301:H672-82 pubmed publisher
    ..reticulum-anchored 125-kDa membrane protein, is a main signal transducer of PKG activity in the cardiovascular system. IRAG interacts specifically in a trimeric complex with the PKG1? isoform and the inositol 1,4,5-..
  23. Nelin T, Joseph A, Gorr M, Wold L. Direct and indirect effects of particulate matter on the cardiovascular system. Toxicol Lett. 2012;208:293-9 pubmed publisher
    Human exposure to particulate matter (PM) elicits a variety of responses on the cardiovascular system through both direct and indirect pathways...
  24. van Rooij E. Introduction to the series on microRNAs in the cardiovascular system. Circ Res. 2012;110:481-2 pubmed publisher
    ..under disease conditions and the disease modifying functions they have been shown to exert in the cardiovascular system. These reviews, in addition to discussing the recent advancements in using miRNAs as circulating ..
  25. Rindler T, Dostanic I, Lasko V, Nieman M, Neumann J, Lorenz J, et al. Knockout of the Na,K-ATPase ??-isoform in the cardiovascular system does not alter basal blood pressure but prevents ACTH-induced hypertension. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;301:H1396-404 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, it is important to study the role of the ?(2) in individual cell types in the cardiovascular system. The present study demonstrates the role of vascular smooth muscle ?(2) in the regulation of ..
  26. Maruyama Y. Aging and arterial-cardiac interactions in the elderly. Int J Cardiol. 2012;155:14-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Cardiovascular system changes with aging, and these changes are modified by arteriosclerosis-risk factors, i.e., hypertension and diabetes, as well as arterial-cardiac interactions...
  27. Akki A, Gupta A, Weiss R. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of the murine cardiovascular system. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2013;304:H633-48 pubmed publisher
    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a powerful and reliable tool to noninvasively study the cardiovascular system in clinical practice...
  28. Han M, Toli J, Abdellatif M. MicroRNAs in the cardiovascular system. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2011;26:181-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, they are potentially highly effective therapeutic tools. In this review, we will summarize the recent advancements in the field...
  29. Corbi G, Conti V, Russomanno G, Rengo G, Vitulli P, Ciccarelli A, et al. Is physical activity able to modify oxidative damage in cardiovascular aging?. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2012;2012:728547 pubmed publisher
  30. Arakawa H, Chitravanshi V, Sapru H. The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus: a new site of cardiovascular action of angiotensin-(1-12) and angiotensin II. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;300:H951-60 pubmed publisher
  31. Ahopelto I, Mikkilä Erdmann M, Olkinuora E, Kääpä P. A follow-up study of medical students' biomedical understanding and clinical reasoning concerning the cardiovascular system. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2011;16:655-68 pubmed publisher
    Novice medical students usually hold initial conceptions concerning medical domains, such as the cardiovascular system, which may contradict scientific explanations and thus hinder learning...
  32. Lima V, Spitler K, Choi H, Webb R, Tostes R. O-GlcNAcylation and oxidation of proteins: is signalling in the cardiovascular system becoming sweeter?. Clin Sci (Lond). 2012;123:473-86 pubmed publisher
    ..and provide an overview of what has been reported for this post-translational modification in the cardiovascular system. We will then specifically address whether signalling molecules involved in redox signalling can be ..
  33. Aird W. Discovery of the cardiovascular system: from Galen to William Harvey. J Thromb Haemost. 2011;9 Suppl 1:118-29 pubmed publisher
    ..The Ancient Greeks, including Hippocrates and Galen viewed the cardiovascular system as comprising two distinct networks of arteries and veins...
  34. Burgoyne J, Oka S, Ale Agha N, Eaton P. Hydrogen peroxide sensing and signaling by protein kinases in the cardiovascular system. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2013;18:1042-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Hydrogen peroxide carries vital information about the redox state of the cell and is crucial for homeostatic regulation during health and adaptation to stress...
  35. Larrabide I, Blanco P, Urquiza S, Dari E, Vénere M, de Souza e Silva N, et al. HeMoLab--Hemodynamics Modelling Laboratory: an application for modelling the human cardiovascular system. Comput Biol Med. 2012;42:993-1004 pubmed publisher
    ..we present HeMoLab (Hemodynamics Modeling Laboratory), a computational environment for modeling the Human Cardiovascular System. Its integrates novel computational tools, running from medical image processing to numerical simulation ..
  36. Wang R. Physiological implications of hydrogen sulfide: a whiff exploration that blossomed. Physiol Rev. 2012;92:791-896 pubmed publisher
    ..While acknowledging the challenges ahead, research on H(2)S physiology and medicine is entering an exponential exploration era...
  37. Pierdominici M, Ortona E, Franconi F, Caprio M, Straface E, Malorni W. Gender specific aspects of cell death in the cardiovascular system. Curr Pharm Des. 2011;17:1046-55 pubmed
    ..apparent over the past few decades that several factors can determine lethal or sublethal alterations of cardiovascular system cell function such as inflammatory reaction products, peptides and hormones...
  38. Stangherlin A, Zaccolo M. Phosphodiesterases and subcellular compartmentalized cAMP signaling in the cardiovascular system. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2012;302:H379-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review we summarize key findings on phosphodiesterase compartmentalization in the cardiovascular system.
  39. McCollum C, Ducharme N, Bondesson M, Gustafsson J. Developmental toxicity screening in zebrafish. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today. 2011;93:67-114 pubmed publisher
    ..We also compare the available data in zebrafish toxicity assays with two databases containing mammalian toxicity data. Finally, we identify gaps in our collective knowledge that are ripe for future studies...
  40. Liu J, Stockton R, Gingras A, Ablooglu A, Han J, Bobkov A, et al. A mechanism of Rap1-induced stabilization of endothelial cell--cell junctions. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:2509-19 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies establish that the direct physical interaction of Rap1 with KRIT1 enables the translocation of microtubule-sequestered KRIT1 to junctions, thereby supporting junctional integrity and cardiovascular development...
  41. Rodriguez Pascual F, Busnadiego O, Lagares D, Lamas S. Role of endothelin in the cardiovascular system. Pharmacol Res. 2011;63:463-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In the cardiovascular system, ETs, particularly ET-1, are expressed in smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, and notably in ..
  42. Han G, Li F, Yu X, White R. GPER: a novel target for non-genomic estrogen action in the cardiovascular system. Pharmacol Res. 2013;71:53-60 pubmed publisher
  43. Kiso Y. Pharmacology in health foods: effects of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on the age-related decline in brain and cardiovascular system function. J Pharmacol Sci. 2011;115:471-5 pubmed
    ..findings concerning the effects of ARA and DHA on the age-related decline in the function of the brain and cardiovascular system. ARA supplementation decreased P300 latency and increased P300 amplitude of event-related potentials in ..
  44. Pimentel D, Haeussler D, Matsui R, Burgoyne J, Cohen R, Bachschmid M. Regulation of cell physiology and pathology by protein S-glutathionylation: lessons learned from the cardiovascular system. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2012;16:524-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Various reports illustrate the significance of reversible oxidative modifications on cysteine thiols and their importance in modulating cardiovascular function and physiology...
  45. Zhang Y, Tang Z, Ren Z, Qu S, Liu M, Liu L, et al. Hydrogen sulfide, the next potent preventive and therapeutic agent in aging and age-associated diseases. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:1104-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This article provides an overview of the physiological functions and effects of H(2)S in aging and age-associated diseases, and proposes the potential health and therapeutic benefits of H(2)S...
  46. Latouche C, El Moghrabi S, Messaoudi S, Nguyen Dinh Cat A, Hernández Díaz I, Alvarez de la Rosa D, et al. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is a novel mineralocorticoid target in the cardiovascular system. Hypertension. 2012;59:966-72 pubmed publisher
    Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation may be deleterious to the cardiovascular system, and MR antagonists improve morbidity and mortality of patients with heart failure...
  47. Kowalczyk M, Hughes J, Babbs C, Sanchez Pulido L, Szumska D, Sharpe J, et al. Nprl3 is required for normal development of the cardiovascular system. Mamm Genome. 2012;23:404-15 pubmed publisher
    ..NPRL3 is a candidate gene for harbouring mutations in individuals with developmental abnormalities of the cardiovascular system.
  48. Patten I, Arany Z. PGC-1 coactivators in the cardiovascular system. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2012;23:90-7 pubmed publisher
    ..An important role for PGC-1s in cardiac function has been revealed over the past few years, and more recently interest in their role in the vasculature has been burgeoning. We review this literature, focusing on recent developments...
  49. Kawabe T, Kawabe K, Sapru H. Cardiovascular responses to chemical stimulation of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in the rat: role of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45180 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a base for future studies to explore the role of ARCN in cardiovascular diseases...
  50. Ma Q, Zhang G, Peng J. Vascular peroxidase 1: a novel enzyme in promoting oxidative stress in cardiovascular system. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2013;23:179-83 pubmed publisher
    Vascular peroxidase 1 (VPO1) is a recently identified novel family member of peroxidases in cardiovascular system. As an enzyme that is downstream of NADPH oxidases (NOX), VPO1 functions to utilize NOX - derived hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) ..
  51. Peng L, Sun S, Xie L, Wicks S, Xie J. Ginsenoside Re: pharmacological effects on cardiovascular system. Cardiovasc Ther. 2012;30:e183-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Many reports demonstrated that G-Re possesses the multifaceted beneficial pharmacological effects on cardiovascular system. G-Re has negative effect on cardiac contractility and autorhythmicity...
  52. Martelli A, Testai L, Marino A, Breschi M, Da Settimo F, Calderone V. Hydrogen sulphide: biopharmacological roles in the cardiovascular system and pharmaceutical perspectives. Curr Med Chem. 2012;19:3325-36 pubmed now viewed as an important endogenous gasotransmitter, which exhibits many beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. H(2)S is biosynthesized in mammalian tissues by both non-enzymatic processes and several enzymatic ..
  53. Yousif M, Dhaunsi G, Makki B, Qabazard B, Akhtar S, Benter I. Characterization of Angiotensin-(1-7) effects on the cardiovascular system in an experimental model of type-1 diabetes. Pharmacol Res. 2012;66:269-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data shed new insights into the likely mechanism of action through which the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis prevents Type 1 diabetes-induced cardiovascular dysfunction...
  54. Liu Y, Lu M, Hu L, Wong P, Webb G, Bian J. Hydrogen sulfide in the mammalian cardiovascular system. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2012;17:141-85 pubmed publisher
    ..signaling molecule in mammals, with emphasis on its physiological and pathological pathways in the cardiovascular system. In biological fluids, H(2)S gas is a weak acid that exists as about 15% H(2)S, 85% HS(-), and a trace of ..
  55. Figtree G, Keyvan Karimi G, Liu C, Rasmussen H. Oxidative regulation of the Na(+)-K(+) pump in the cardiovascular system. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;53:2263-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment strategies that are able to reverse this oxidative inhibition of the Na(+)-K(+) pump have the potential for cardiovascular-protective effects. ..
  56. Ling L, Maguire J, Davenport A. Endothelin-2, the forgotten isoform: emerging role in the cardiovascular system, ovarian development, immunology and cancer. Br J Pharmacol. 2013;168:283-95 pubmed publisher
    ..LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Endothelin. To view the other articles in this section visit
  57. Abriel H, Syam N, Sottas V, Amarouch M, Rougier J. TRPM4 channels in the cardiovascular system: physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology. Biochem Pharmacol. 2012;84:873-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These channels are widely expressed in many different tissues, including those of the cardiovascular system. The transient receptor potential channel melastatin 4 (TRPM4) is a Ca(2+)-activated non-specific cationic ..
  58. Van der Heiden K, Egorova A, Poelmann R, Wentzel J, Hierck B. Role for primary cilia as flow detectors in the cardiovascular system. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2011;290:87-119 pubmed publisher
    The cardiovascular system is exposed to biochemical and biomechanical signals...