type c phospholipases


Summary: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.

Top Publications

  1. Petrovic M, Viana da Silva S, Clement J, Vyklicky L, Mulle C, González González I, et al. Metabotropic action of postsynaptic kainate receptors triggers hippocampal long-term potentiation. Nat Neurosci. 2017;20:529-539 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal a new and, to our knowledge, previously unsuspected role for postsynaptic kainate receptors in the induction of functional and structural plasticity in the hippocampus. ..
  2. Wilkins P, Suchovsky D, Berti Mattera L. Immortalized schwann cells express endothelin receptors coupled to adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C. Neurochem Res. 1997;22:409-18 pubmed
    ..The actions of ETs on Schwann cells provide a novel example of the influence of vascular factors on nerve function. ..
  3. Berk B, Corson M, Peterson T, Tseng H. Protein kinases as mediators of fluid shear stress stimulated signal transduction in endothelial cells: a hypothesis for calcium-dependent and calcium-independent events activated by flow. J Biomech. 1995;28:1439-50 pubmed
  4. Guinamard R, Signoret N, Ishiai M, Marsh M, Kurosaki T, Ravetch J, et al. B cell antigen receptor engagement inhibits stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1alpha chemotaxis and promotes protein kinase C (PKC)-induced internalization of CXCR4. J Exp Med. 1999;189:1461-6 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that one pathway by which BCR stimulation results in inhibition of SDF-1alpha migration is through PKC-dependent downregulation of CXCR4. ..
  5. Sette C, Bevilacqua A, Geremia R, Rossi P. Involvement of phospholipase Cgamma1 in mouse egg activation induced by a truncated form of the C-kit tyrosine kinase present in spermatozoa. J Cell Biol. 1998;142:1063-74 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that tr-kit activates PLCgamma1, and that the SH3 domain of PLCgamma1 is essential for tr-kit-induced egg activation. ..
  6. Galas L, Lamacz M, Garnier M, Roubos E, Tonon M, Vaudry H. Involvement of extracellular and intracellular calcium sources in TRH-induced alpha-MSH secretion from frog melanotrope cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1998;138:25-39 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the Ca2+ influx through NCC does not contribute to TRH-induced alpha-MSH secretion...
  7. Singh I, McCartney D, Kanfer J. Amyloid beta protein (25-35) stimulation of phospholipases A, C and D activities of LA-N-2 cells. FEBS Lett. 1995;365:125-8 pubmed
    ..The phospholipase C inhibitor U 71322 prevented the activation of phospholipase C by A beta P. However, this activation was not effected by tocopherol, propylgallate, or vitamin C. ..
  8. Stratford S, DeWald D, Summers S. Ceramide dissociates 3'-phosphoinositide production from pleckstrin homology domain translocation. Biochem J. 2001;354:359-68 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these findings suggest a mechanism by which stimuli that induce ceramide synthesis could negate the fundamental signalling pathways initiated by PI-3K. ..
  9. Kalra R, Singh S, Savage S, Finch G, Sopori M. Effects of cigarette smoke on immune response: chronic exposure to cigarette smoke impairs antigen-mediated signaling in T cells and depletes IP3-sensitive Ca(2+) stores. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000;293:166-71 pubmed
    ..Moreover, nicotine may account for or contribute to the immunosuppressive properties of cigarette smoke. ..

More Information


  1. Yegutkin G, Bodin P, Burnstock G. Effect of shear stress on the release of soluble ecto-enzymes ATPase and 5'-nucleotidase along with endogenous ATP from vascular endothelial cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2000;129:921-6 pubmed
    ..These results show that soluble ATPase and 5'-nucleotidase which are released during shear stress are not released from an intracellular compartment together with ATP but have an extracellular origin. ..
  2. Liao F, Shin H, Rhee S. Tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma 1 induced by cross-linking of the high-affinity or low-affinity Fc receptor for IgG in U937 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:3659-63 pubmed
    ..Thus, Fc gamma RI and Fc gamma RII appear to be functionally coupled to a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that phosphorylates PLC-gamma 1 after receptor cross-linking, thereby causing activation of PLC-gamma 1. ..
  3. Lippestad M, Hodges R, Utheim T, Serhan C, Dartt D. Resolvin D1 Increases Mucin Secretion in Cultured Rat Conjunctival Goblet Cells via Multiple Signaling Pathways. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4530-4544 pubmed publisher
  4. Jackson W, Boerman E. Regional heterogeneity in the mechanisms of myogenic tone in hamster arterioles. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2017;313:H667-H675 pubmed publisher
    ..A better understanding of the spectrum of myogenic mechanisms could provide new targets to treat diseases that affect resistance artery and arteriolar function. ..
  5. Hornberger M, Dütting D, Ciossek T, Yamada T, Handwerker C, Lang S, et al. Modulation of EphA receptor function by coexpressed ephrinA ligands on retinal ganglion cell axons. Neuron. 1999;22:731-42 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that differential ligand expression on retinal axons is a major determinant of topographic targeting in the retinotectal projection. ..
  6. Premshekharan G, Nguyen K, Zhang H, Forman H, Leppert V. Low dose inflammatory potential of silica particles in human-derived THP-1 macrophage cell culture studies - Mechanism and effects of particle size and iron. Chem Biol Interact. 2017;272:160-171 pubmed publisher
  7. Homburg S, Visochek L, Moran N, Dantzer F, Priel E, Asculai E, et al. A fast signal-induced activation of Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase: a novel downstream target of phospholipase c. J Cell Biol. 2000;150:293-307 pubmed
    ..These findings identify PARP as a novel downstream target of phospholipase C, and unveil a novel fast signal-induced modification of DNA-binding proteins by polyADP-ribosylation. ..
  8. Sleno R, Devost D, Pétrin D, Zhang A, Bourque K, Shinjo Y, et al. Conformational biosensors reveal allosteric interactions between heterodimeric AT1 angiotensin and prostaglandin F2? receptors. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:12139-12152 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of partner-induced GPCR conformations may help identify novel allosteric effects when investigating multiprotein receptor signaling complexes. ..
  9. Tsui M, York J. Roles of inositol phosphates and inositol pyrophosphates in development, cell signaling and nuclear processes. Adv Enzyme Regul. 2010;50:324-37 pubmed publisher
  10. Mercurio L, Cecchetti S, Ricci A, Pacella A, Cigliana G, Bozzuto G, et al. Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C inhibition down- regulates CXCR4 expression and interferes with proliferation, invasion and glycolysis in glioma cells. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176108 pubmed publisher
  11. Turku A, Rinne M, Boije af Gennäs G, Xhaard H, Lindholm D, Kukkonen J. Orexin receptor agonist Yan 7874 is a weak agonist of orexin/hypocretin receptors and shows orexin receptor-independent cytotoxicity. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178526 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Yan 7874 is a weak partial agonist of orexin receptors. It also displays strong off-target effects in the same concentration range, culminating in necrotic cell demise. This makes Yan 7874 unsuitable as orexin receptor agonist. ..
  12. Chavis P, Fagni L, Lansman J, Bockaert J. Functional coupling between ryanodine receptors and L-type calcium channels in neurons. Nature. 1996;382:719-22 pubmed
    ..In these excised patches, ryanodine suppressed both the mGluR1- and caffeine-activated L-type Ca2+ channels. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism for Ca2+ -channel modulation in neurons. ..
  13. Conzelmann A, Riezman H, Desponds C, Bron C. A major 125-kd membrane glycoprotein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is attached to the lipid bilayer through an inositol-containing phospholipid. EMBO J. 1988;7:2233-40 pubmed
    ..We find that sec18 cells, when grown at 37 degrees C, do add phospholipid anchors to newly synthesized glycoproteins. This indicates that these anchors are added in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. ..
  14. Mohan K, Nosbisch J, Elston T, Bear J, Haugh J. A Reaction-Diffusion Model Explains Amplification of the PLC/PKC Pathway in Fibroblast Chemotaxis. Biophys J. 2017;113:185-194 pubmed publisher
    ..This model offers a framework for a mechanistic understanding of phospholipase C/PKC signaling in chemotactic gradient sensing and can guide the design of experiments to assess the roles of putative feedback loops. ..
  15. Grimwood K, To M, Rabin H, Woods D. Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme expression by subinhibitory antibiotic concentrations. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989;33:41-7 pubmed
    ..001) but an equivalent amount of elastase activity as isolates from controls. The suppression of P. aeruginosa exoenzymes may arrest progressive lung injury during chronic P. aeruginosa lung infections. ..
  16. Park Y, Kim H, Lee H, Hwang J, Bae Y. A novel antimicrobial peptide isolated from centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans stimulates neutrophil activity through formyl peptide receptor 2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;494:352-357 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that the novel AMP scolopendrasin X can be used as a material to regulate neutrophil activity through FPR2...
  17. Konig B, Reimer K, Fleischer W, Konig W. Effects of Betaisodona on parameters of host defense. Dermatology. 1997;195 Suppl 2:42-8 pubmed
    ..These data support the usefulness and efficacy of PVP-I as an effective therapeutic agent to combat infection. ..
  18. Encinar J, Ludeña M, Sánchez Yagüe J, Llanillo M. Enzymatic determination of phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and phosphatidylglycerol in lipid dispersions, blood cell membranes and rat pulmonary surfactant. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem. 1996;34:9-15 pubmed
    ..Hyperoxia produced changes in the phosphatidylglycerol content of surfactant from adult rats, but not from 2-day old rats. ..
  19. Schulz I, Schnefel S, Banfic H, Eckhardt L. Ca2+ signalling in exocrine glands in comparison to that in vascular smooth muscle cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1986;488:240-51 pubmed
  20. Liu X, Zhang Y, Hong L, Han C, Zhang B, Zhou S, et al. Gallic acid increases atrial natriuretic peptide secretion and mechanical dynamics through activation of PKC. Life Sci. 2017;181:45-52 pubmed publisher
    ..GA promotes ANP secretion and effects positive inotropy with regard to mechanical dynamics through the activation of PLC-PKC signaling in rat atria. ..
  21. Furukawa K, Fuse I, Iwakura Y, Sotoyama H, Hanyu O, Nawa H, et al. Advanced glycation end products induce brain-derived neurotrophic factor release from human platelets through the Src-family kinase activation. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2017;16:20 pubmed publisher
    ..Chronic elevation of AGEs may induce depletion or downregulation of BDNF in platelets during the progression of DM. ..
  22. Asteriti S, Liu C, Hardie R. Calcium signalling in Drosophila photoreceptors measured with GCaMP6f. Cell Calcium. 2017;65:40-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Any tiny Ca2+ free rise remaining without exchanger activity was equivalent to <10nM (?F/F0 ?0.1), and unlikely to play any role in phototransduction. ..
  23. Kawaguchi H, Sawa H, Yasuda H. Effect of endothelin on angiotensin converting enzyme activity in cultured pulmonary artery endothelial cells. J Hypertens. 1991;9:171-4 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that ACE was stimulated by endothelin-1 and that its activity may be closely related to phosphatidylinositol turnover stimulated by endothelin-1. ..
  24. Horn J, Ellena R, Tran J, Beck W, Narayanaswami V, Weers P. Transfer of C-terminal residues of human apolipoprotein A-I to insect apolipophorin III creates a two-domain chimeric protein with enhanced lipid binding activity. Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr. 2017;1859:1317-1325 pubmed publisher
    ..The apoA-I like behavior of the chimera indicate that these properties are independent from residues residing in the N-terminal domain of apoA-I, and that they can be transferred from apoA-I to apoLp-III. ..
  25. Hong Geller E, Cerione R. Cdc42 and Rac stimulate exocytosis of secretory granules by activating the IP(3)/calcium pathway in RBL-2H3 mast cells. J Cell Biol. 2000;148:481-94 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings implicate Cdc42 and Rac in regulating the exocytosis of secretory granules by stimulation of IP(3) formation and calcium mobilization upon antigen stimulation. ..
  26. Alonso B, Bartolomé Martín D, Ferrero J, Ramírez Franco J, Torres M, Sánchez Prieto J. CB1 receptors down-regulate a cAMP/Epac2/PLC pathway to silence the nerve terminals of cerebellar granule cells. J Neurochem. 2017;142:350-364 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support the hypothesis that a cAMP/Epac/PLC signaling pathway targeting the release machinery appears to mediate cannabinoid-induced presynaptic silencing. ..
  27. Mehlmann L, Carpenter G, Rhee S, Jaffe L. SH2 domain-mediated activation of phospholipase Cgamma is not required to initiate Ca2+ release at fertilization of mouse eggs. Dev Biol. 1998;203:221-32 pubmed
    ..However, activation of PLCgamma in the egg by an alternative pathway, or introduction of activated PLCgamma from the sperm, may be important. ..
  28. Simonson M, Wann S, Mene P, Dubyak G, Kester M, Nakazato Y, et al. Endothelin stimulates phospholipase C, Na+/H+ exchange, c-fos expression, and mitogenesis in rat mesangial cells. J Clin Invest. 1989;83:708-12 pubmed
    ..In addition to being a vasoconstrictor, endothelin thus also functions as a mitogen, presumably through activation of phospholipase C. ..
  29. Fisher G, Henderson P, Voorhees J, Baldassare J. Epidermal growth factor-induced hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine by phospholipase D and phospholipase C in human dermal fibroblasts. J Cell Physiol. 1991;146:309-17 pubmed
    ..Thus, the induction of 1,2-diacylglycerol by EGF may occur primarily via phospholipase C-catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine. ..
  30. Imami N, Ladyman H, Spanopoulou E, Ritter M. A novel adhesion molecule in the murine thymic microenvironment: functional and biochemical analysis. Dev Immunol. 1992;2:161-73 pubmed
    ..These molecular and functional characteristics suggest that the 4F1-Ag is a novel adhesion molecule that may be involved both in intrathymic T lymphocyte differentiation and in peripheral T-cell function. ..
  31. Putney J, Tomita T. Phospholipase C signaling and calcium influx. Adv Biol Regul. 2012;52:152-64 pubmed
  32. Bhalla U, Iyengar R. Emergent properties of networks of biological signaling pathways. Science. 1999;283:381-7 pubmed
    ..These properties of signaling networks raise the possibility that information for "learned behavior" of biological systems may be stored within intracellular biochemical reactions that comprise signaling pathways. ..
  33. Harper S, Webb T, Charlton S, Ng L, Boarder M. Evidence that P2Y4 nucleotide receptors are involved in the regulation of rat aortic smooth muscle cells by UTP and ATP. Br J Pharmacol. 1998;124:703-10 pubmed