melibiose

Summary

Summary: A disaccharide consisting of one galactose and one glucose moiety in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.

Top Publications

  1. Tsuchiya T, Wilson T. Cation-sugar cotransport in the melibiose transport system of Escherichia coli. Membr Biochem. 1978;2:63-79 pubmed
    The entry of Na+ or H+ into cells of Escherichia coli via the melibiose transport system was stimulated by the addition of certain galactosides...
  2. Mineo H, Hara H, Shigematsu N, Okuhara Y, Tomita F. Melibiose, difructose anhydride III and difructose anhydride IV enhance net calcium absorption in rat small and large intestinal epithelium by increasing the passage of tight junctions in vitro. J Nutr. 2002;132:3394-9 pubmed
    ..The addition of 1-100 mmol/L melibiose, difructose anhydride (DFA)III, or DFAIV to the mucosal medium increased the net Ca absorption and LY ..
  3. Dobroff A, Rodrigues E, Moraes J, Travassos L. Protective, anti-tumor monoclonal antibody recognizes a conformational epitope similar to melibiose at the surface of invasive murine melanoma cells. Hybrid Hybridomics. 2002;21:321-31 pubmed
    ..Most of the reactivity of antitumor polyclonal IgG (92%) was inhibitable by a carbohydrate pool consisting of melibiose, mannose, lactose, and sialic acid...
  4. Meyer Lipp K, Séry N, Ganea C, Basquin C, Fendler K, Leblanc G. The inner interhelix loop 4-5 of the melibiose permease from Escherichia coli takes part in conformational changes after sugar binding. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:25882-92 pubmed
    Cytoplasmic loop 4-5 of the melibiose permease from Escherichia coli is essential for the process of Na+-sugar translocation (Abdel-Dayem, M., Basquin, C., Pourcher, T., Cordat, E., and Leblanc, G. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 1518-1524)...
  5. Bassilana M, Pourcher T, Leblanc G. Facilitated diffusion properties of melibiose permease in Escherichia coli membrane vesicles. Release of co-substrates is rate limiting for permease cycling. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:16865-70 pubmed
    The mechanism of melibiose symport by the melibiose permease of Escherichia coli was studied by looking at the modifications of the facilitated diffusion properties of the permease which arise upon substitution of the coupled cations (H+,..
  6. Torchia T, Hopper J. Genetic and molecular analysis of the GAL3 gene in the expression of the galactose/melibiose regulon of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1986;113:229-46 pubmed
    ..Finally, Northern blot analysis reveals two major GAL3 transcripts that differ in size by approximately 500 nucleotides. ..
  7. Webster C, Gardner L, Busby S. The Escherichia coli melR gene encodes a DNA-binding protein with affinity for specific sequences located in the melibiose-operon regulatory region. Gene. 1989;83:207-13 pubmed
    ..Sequence homologies between MelR and other DNA-binding proteins are discussed. ..
  8. Tamura C, Matsushita O. Melibiose transport system in Lactobacillus plantarum. Microbiol Immunol. 1992;36:1119-28 pubmed
    Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 grew on melibiose at 30 C, but not at 37 C, although it grew on galactose or lactose at either temperature...
  9. Guan L, Nurva S, Ankeshwarapu S. Mechanism of melibiose/cation symport of the melibiose permease of Salmonella typhimurium. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:6367-74 pubmed publisher
    The MelB permease of Salmonella typhimurium (MelB-ST) catalyzes the coupled symport of melibiose and Na(+), Li(+), or H(+)...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Boucher I, Parrot M, Gaudreau H, Champagne C, Vadeboncoeur C, Moineau S. Novel food-grade plasmid vector based on melibiose fermentation for the genetic engineering of Lactococcus lactis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:6152-61 pubmed
    ..lactis and Pediococcus acidilactici strains, aga modified the sugar fermentation profile of the strains from melibiose negative (Mel(-)) to melibiose positive (Mel(+)). Analysis of galA mutants of L. lactis subsp...
  2. Wilson D, Wilson T. Asp-51 and Asp-120 are important for the transport function of the Escherichia coli melibiose carrier. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:3083-6 pubmed
    Asp-51 and Asp-120 of the Escherichia coli melibiose carrier on plasmid pKKMB were separately replaced by amber codons and transformed into eight amber suppressor strains, producing eight amino acid substitutions for each site...
  3. Meyer Lipp K, Ganea C, Pourcher T, Leblanc G, Fendler K. Sugar binding induced charge translocation in the melibiose permease from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2004;43:12606-13 pubmed
    Electrogenic events associated with the activity of the melibiose permease (MelB), a transporter from Escherichia coli, were investigated...
  4. Granell M, Leon X, Leblanc G, Padrós E, Lorenz Fonfria V. Structural insights into the activation mechanism of melibiose permease by sodium binding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:22078-83 pubmed publisher
    The melibiose carrier from Escherichia coli (MelB) couples the accumulation of the disaccharide melibiose to the downhill entry of H(+), Na(+), or Li(+)...
  5. Lin P, Ye X, Ng T. Purification of melibiose-binding lectins from two cultivars of Chinese black soybeans. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2008;40:1029-38 pubmed
    A dimeric 50 kDa melibiose-binding lectin was isolated from the seeds of the cultivar of soybean (Glycine max), called the small glossy black soybean...
  6. Gage D, Long S. alpha-Galactoside uptake in Rhizobium meliloti: isolation and characterization of agpA, a gene encoding a periplasmic binding protein required for melibiose and raffinose utilization. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:5739-48 pubmed
    ..meliloti and at low levels in the free-living bacteria, we propose that AgpA may belong to the class of gene products whose expression decreases when R. meliloti becomes an intracellular symbiont...
  7. Webster C, Kempsell K, Booth I, Busby S. Organisation of the regulatory region of the Escherichia coli melibiose operon. Gene. 1987;59:253-63 pubmed
    The regulatory region of the Escherichia coli melibiose operon contains two divergent promoters...
  8. Ganea C, Pourcher T, Leblanc G, Fendler K. Evidence for intraprotein charge transfer during the transport activity of the melibiose permease from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2001;40:13744-52 pubmed
    Electrogenic activity associated with the activity of the melibiose permease (MelB) of Escherichia coli was investigated by using proteoliposomes containing purified MelB adsorbed onto a solid-supported membrane...
  9. Spencer J, Spencer D, de Figueroa L, Nougues J, Heluane H. Transfer of genes for utilization of starch (sta2) and melibiose (mel) to industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by single-chromosome transfer, using a kar1 mutant as vector. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1992;37:230-4 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae (S. diastaticus) and the melibiose-metabolism (mel) gene(s), from S...
  10. Tamai E, Shimamoto T, Tsuda M, Mizushima T, Tsuchiya T. Conversion of temperature-sensitive to -resistant gene expression due to mutations in the promoter region of the melibiose operon in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:16860-4 pubmed
    The melibiose utilization system of Escherichia coli W3133, a derivative of K12, is nonfunctional between 37 and 42 degreesC...
  11. Torchia T, Hamilton R, Cano C, Hopper J. Disruption of regulatory gene GAL80 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: effects on carbon-controlled regulation of the galactose/melibiose pathway genes. Mol Cell Biol. 1984;4:1521-7 pubmed
    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcriptional expression of the galactose-melibiose catabolic pathway genes is under the control of at least three regulatory genes, GAL4, GAL80, and GAL3...
  12. Dave N, Lorenz Fonfria V, Leblanc G, Padrós E. FTIR spectroscopy of secondary-structure reorientation of melibiose permease modulated by substrate binding. Biophys J. 2008;94:3659-70 pubmed
    Analysis of infrared polarized absorbance spectra and linear dichroism spectra of reconstituted melibiose permease from Escherichia coli shows that the oriented structures correspond mainly to tilted transmembrane alpha-helices, forming ..
  13. Hanatani M, Yazyu H, Shiota Niiya S, Moriyama Y, Kanazawa H, Futai M, et al. Physical and genetic characterization of the melibiose operon and identification of the gene products in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:1807-12 pubmed
    We have identified hybrid plasmids carrying the melibiose operon of Escherichia coli in a colony bank of Clarke and Carbon (Tsuchiya, T., Ottina, K., Moriyama, Y., Newman, M., and Wilson, T. H. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 5125-5128)...
  14. Bassilana M, Pourcher T, Leblanc G. Melibiose permease of Escherichia coli. Characteristics of co-substrates release during facilitated diffusion reactions. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:9663-7 pubmed
    The mechanism of melibiose symport by the melibiose permease of Escherichia coli was investigated by further analyzing the Na+ (H+ or Li+)-coupled facilitated diffusion reactions catalyzed by the carrier in de-energized membrane vesicles,..
  15. Franco P, Jena A, Wilson T. Physiological evidence for an interaction between helices II and XI in the melibiose carrier of Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1510:231-42 pubmed
    The melibiose carrier from Escherichia coli is a cation-substrate cotransporter that catalyzes the accumulation of galactosides at the expense of H(+), Na(+), or Li(+) electrochemical gradients...
  16. Guan L, Jakkula S, Hodkoff A, Su Y. Role of Gly117 in the cation/melibiose symport of MelB of Salmonella typhimurium. Biochemistry. 2012;51:2950-7 pubmed publisher
    The melibiose permease of Salmonella typhimurium (MelB(St)) catalyzes symport of melibiose with Na(+), Li(+), or H(+), and bioinformatics analysis indicates that a conserved Gly117 (helix IV) is part of the Na(+)-binding site...
  17. Kahramanoglou C, Webster C, El Robh M, Belyaeva T, Busby S. Mutational analysis of the Escherichia coli melR gene suggests a two-state concerted model to explain transcriptional activation and repression in the melibiose operon. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:3199-207 pubmed
    ..operon is regulated by the MelR protein, an AraC family member whose activity is modulated by the binding of melibiose. In the absence of melibiose, MelR is unable to activate the melAB promoter but autoregulates its own expression ..
  18. Cordat E, Leblanc G, Mus Veteau I. Evidence for a role of helix IV in connecting cation- and sugar-binding sites of Escherichia coli melibiose permease. Biochemistry. 2000;39:4493-9 pubmed
    To improve the structural organization model of melibiose permease, we assessed the individual contributions of the N-terminal tryptophans to the transporter fluorescence variations induced by the binding of cations and beta-configured ..
  19. Dumas F, Tocanne J, Leblanc G, Lebrun M. Consequences of hydrophobic mismatch between lipids and melibiose permease on melibiose transport. Biochemistry. 2000;39:4846-54 pubmed
    ..thickness d(P) of a transmembrane protein and that d(L) of the supporting lipid bilayer were investigated using melibiose permease (MelB) from Escherichia coli reconstituted in a set of bis saturated and monounsaturated ..
  20. Pourcher T, Deckert M, Bassilana M, Leblanc G. Melibiose permease of Escherichia coli: mutation of aspartic acid 55 in putative helix II abolishes activation of sugar binding by Na+ ions. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991;178:1176-81 pubmed
    An aspartic residue (Asp55) located in the putative transmembrane alpha-helix II of the melibiose(mel) permease of Escherichia coli was replaced by Cys using oligonucleotide-directed, site-specific mutagenesis...
  21. Kondoh K, Morisaki K, Kim W, Park G, Kaneko S, Kobayashi H. Cloning and expression of the gene encoding Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) alpha-galactosidase belonging to family 36. Biotechnol Lett. 2005;27:641-7 pubmed
    ..The enzyme hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D -galactopyroside, raffinose, stachyose but not melibiose and galactomanno-oligosaccharides, indicating that this enzyme recognizes not only the galactose moiety but also ..
  22. Vetchinkina E, Sokolov O, Nikitina V. [Intracellular lectins of Lentinus edodes at various developmental stages of the fungus]. Mikrobiologiia. 2008;77:496-501 pubmed
    ..The fruiting body was shown to contain two lectins of 43 and 55 kDa. All of the isolated lectins expressed the highest affinity towards L,D-melibiose, D-lactose, and D-galactose.
  23. Zhao H, Lu L, Xiao M, Wang Q, Lu Y, Liu C, et al. Cloning and characterization of a novel alpha-galactosidase from Bifidobacterium breve 203 capable of synthesizing Gal-alpha-1,4 linkage. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;285:278-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The Km value for pNPG was estimated to be 0.27 mM and for melibiose it was estimated to be 4.3 mM. Aga2 was capable of catalyzing transglycosylation as well as hydrolysis...
  24. Robinson W, Old L, Shah D, Russell R. Chromosomal insertions and deletions in Streptococcus mutans. Caries Res. 2003;37:148-56 pubmed
    Many isolates of Streptococcus mutans lack the ability to ferment melibiose and other sugars. We previously reported that this was commonly due to a chromosomal deletion and, in the present study, sequence information from the S...
  25. Dion M, Nisole A, Spangenberg P, Andre C, Glottin Fleury A, Mattes R, et al. Modulation of the regioselectivity of a Bacillus alpha-galactosidase by directed evolution. Glycoconj J. 2001;18:215-23 pubmed
    ..However the transglycosylation level reached by this mutant is quite low versus that of the native enzyme. This work constitutes the first example of modification of glycosylhydrolase regioselectivity by directed evolution. ..
  26. Kelly W, Davey G, Ward L. Characterization of lactococci isolated from minimally processed fresh fruit and vegetables. Int J Food Microbiol. 1998;45:85-92 pubmed
    ..Most strains fermented sucrose and xylose, and some also fermented raffinose and melibiose. Most of the bacteriocin-producing strains produced nisin, and nisin genes could also be detected in strains ..
  27. Russell R, Aduse Opoku J, Sutcliffe I, Tao L, Ferretti J. A binding protein-dependent transport system in Streptococcus mutans responsible for multiple sugar metabolism. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:4631-7 pubmed
    ..Insertional inactivation of each of these genes along with uptake data indicate that this system is responsible for the uptake of melibiose, raffinose, and isomaltotriose and the metabolism of melibiose, sucrose, and isomaltosaccharides.
  28. McLaughlin R, Ferretti J. The multiple-sugar metabolism (msm) gene cluster of Streptococcus mutans is transcribed as a single operon. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1996;140:261-4 pubmed
    ..mutans constitutes a non-PTS sugar uptake system responsible for the transport and utilization of raffinose, melibiose and isomaltotrioses...
  29. Wang Y, Dutzler R, Rizkallah P, Rosenbusch J, Schirmer T. Channel specificity: structural basis for sugar discrimination and differential flux rates in maltoporin. J Mol Biol. 1997;272:56-63 pubmed
    ..investigated by X-ray structure analysis of maltoporin in complex with the disaccharides sucrose, trehalose, and melibiose. The sucrose complex, determined to 2...
  30. Anggraeni A, Sakka M, Kimura T, Ratanakhaokchai K, Kitaoka M, Sakka K. Characterization of Bacillus halodurans alpha-galactosidase Mel4A encoded by the mel4A gene (BH2228). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2008;72:2459-62 pubmed
    ..rMel4A was active on small saccharides such as raffinose but not on highly polymerized galactomannan. Immunological analysis indicated that raffinose induced the production of Mel4A in B. halodurans. ..
  31. Zhan J, Xia Z, Xu L, Yan Z, Wang K. A peptide mimetic of Gal-alpha 1,3-Gal is able to block human natural antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;308:19-22 pubmed
    ..A phage bearing the peptide NCVSPYWCEPLAPSARA has been identified to bind the lectin strongly. Melibiose was able to inhibit the binding of the human natural anti-alpha Gal antibody to the peptide competitively...
  32. Post D, Luebke V. Purification, cloning, and properties of alpha-galactosidase from Saccharopolyspora erythraea and its use as a reporter system. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2005;67:91-6 pubmed
    ..The pH optimum, K(m) for p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D: -glucopyranoside (pNPalphaG), K(m) for melibiose and the V(max) are similar to those of other studied alpha-galactosidase enzymes...
  33. Zhou Y, Zhu Y, Dai L, Men Y, Wu J, Zhang J, et al. Efficiency Analysis and Mechanism Insight of that Whole-Cell Biocatalytic Production of Melibiose from Raffinose with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2017;181:407-423 pubmed publisher
    b>Melibiose is widely used as a functional carbohydrate. Whole-cell biocatalytic production of melibiose from raffinose could reduce its cost...
  34. Sakaki Y, Tashiro M, Katou M, Sakuma C, Hirano T, Hakamata W, et al. Enzymatic synthesis of novel oligosaccharides from N-acetylsucrosamine and melibiose using Aspergillus niger ?-galactosidase, and properties of the products. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2016;80:1836-42 pubmed publisher
    ..N-acetylraffinosamine (RafNAc) and N-acetylplanteosamine (PlaNAc), were synthesized from N-acetylsucrosamine and melibiose using the transgalactosylation activity of Aspergillus niger ?-galactosidase...
  35. Bhat P, Oh D, Hopper J. Analysis of the GAL3 signal transduction pathway activating GAL4 protein-dependent transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1990;125:281-91 pubmed
    ..We conclude that, in addition to the GAL3-like activity of GAL1, functions beyond the galactose-specific GAL1, GAL7 and GAL10 enzymes are required for the LTA induction pathway. ..
  36. Ye J, Saier M. Cooperative binding of lactose and the phosphorylated phosphocarrier protein HPr(Ser-P) to the lactose/H+ symport permease of Lactobacillus brevis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:417-21 pubmed
    ..brevis for the purpose of regulating sugar accumulation in response to the metabolic needs of the cell. ..
  37. Swint Kruse L, Zhan H, Fairbanks B, Maheshwari A, Matthews K. Perturbation from a distance: mutations that alter LacI function through long-range effects. Biochemistry. 2003;42:14004-16 pubmed
  38. Grainger D, Belyaeva T, Lee D, Hyde E, Busby S. Binding of the Escherichia coli MelR protein to the melAB promoter: orientation of MelR subunits and investigation of MelR-DNA contacts. Mol Microbiol. 2003;48:335-48 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli MelR protein is a melibiose-triggered transcription factor, belonging to the AraC family, that activates transcription initiation at the melAB promoter...
  39. Varela M, Wilson T, Rodon Rivera V, Shepherd S, Dehne T, Rector A. Mutants of the lactose carrier of Escherichia coli which show altered sugar recognition plus a severe defect in sugar accumulation. J Membr Biol. 2000;174:199-205 pubmed
    Lactose and melibiose are actively accumulated by the wild-type Escherichia coli lactose carrier, which is an integral membrane protein energized by the proton motive force. Mutants of the E...
  40. Huang A, Lee J, King S, Wilson T. Amino acid substitution in the lactose carrier protein with the use of amber suppressors. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:5436-41 pubmed
    ..obtained in this manner were tested for growth on lactose-minimal medium plates and for transport of lactose, melibiose, and thiomethylgalactoside...
  41. King S, Hansen C, Wilson T. The interaction between aspartic acid 237 and lysine 358 in the lactose carrier of Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1991;1062:177-86 pubmed
    ..The charge neutralizing effect of each mutation is associated with a functional defect in melibiose transport which we exploited in order to isolate second site revertants to the melibiose-positive phenotype...
  42. Eelkema J, O Donnell M, Brooker R. An analysis of lactose permease "sugar specificity" mutations which also affect the coupling between proton and lactose transport. II. Second site revertants of the thiodigalactoside-dependent proton leak by the Val177/Asn319 permease. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:4139-44 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed with regard to the effects of mutations on both the sugar and H+ transport pathways. ..
  43. Sondej M, Weinglass A, Peterkofsky A, Kaback H. Binding of enzyme IIAGlc, a component of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system, to the Escherichia coli lactose permease. Biochemistry. 2002;41:5556-65 pubmed
    ..96, 3525-3530]. With inside-out membrane vesicles containing the permease, [(125)I]IIA(Glc) binding promoted by melibiose exhibits an affinity (K(D)(IIA)) of approximately 1 microM and a stoichiometry of one mole of IIA(Glc) per six ..
  44. Xu W, Yu S, Liu Q, Zhang T, Jiang B, Mu W. Enzymatic Production of Melibiose from Raffinose by the Levansucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-512 FMC. J Agric Food Chem. 2017;65:3910-3918 pubmed publisher
    b>Melibiose, which is an important reducing disaccharide formed by ?-1,6 linkage between galactose and glucose, has been proven to have beneficial applications in both medicine and agriculture...
  45. Kulkarni K, Katiyar S, Surolia A, Vijayan M, Suguna K. Structure and sugar-specificity of basic winged-bean lectin: structures of new disaccharide complexes and a comparative study with other known disaccharide complexes of the lectin. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2008;D64:730-7 pubmed publisher
    ..They have also provided a structural explanation of the blood-group specificity of the lectin. ..
  46. Tomita K, Nagura T, Okuhara Y, Nakajima Adachi H, Shigematsu N, Aritsuka T, et al. Dietary melibiose regulates th cell response and enhances the induction of oral tolerance. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007;71:2774-80 pubmed
    We examined how dietary melibiose affected the T-helper (Th) cell responses induced by an orally fed antigen in ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cell receptor transgenic mice (OVA 23-3)...
  47. Leon X, Lorenz Fonfria V, Lemonnier R, Leblanc G, Padrós E. Substrate-induced conformational changes of melibiose permease from Escherichia coli studied by infrared difference spectroscopy. Biochemistry. 2005;44:3506-14 pubmed
    ..difference spectroscopy has been used to obtain information about substrate-induced structural changes of the melibiose permease (MelB) from Escherichia coli reconstituted into liposomes...
  48. Hemmi H, Kuno A, Ito S, Suzuki R, Hasegawa T, Hirabayashi J. NMR studies on the interaction of sugars with the C-terminal domain of an R-type lectin from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. FEBS J. 2009;276:2095-105 pubmed publisher
    ..in EW29Ch were monitored using (1)H-(15)N HSQC spectra as a function of increasing concentrations of lactose, melibiose, D-galactose, methyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside and methyl beta-D-galactopyranoside...
  49. Botfield M, Wilson D, Wilson T. The melibiose carrier of Escherichia coli. Res Microbiol. 1990;141:328-31 pubmed
  50. Shimamoto T, Noguchi K, Kuroda M, Tsuda M, Tsuchiya T. Transcriptional attenuation and differential mRNA stability in the regulation of the Escherichia coli melibiose operon. J Biochem. 1994;115:1185-9 pubmed
    The organization of the melibiose operon of Escherichia coli is promoter-melA-melB...
  51. Elrobh M, Webster C, Samarasinghe S, Durose D, Busby S. Two DNA sites for MelR in the same orientation are sufficient for optimal MelR-dependent repression at the Escherichia coli melR promoter. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2013;338:62-7 pubmed publisher
    The Escherichia coli melR gene encodes the MelR transcription factor that controls melibiose utilization...
  52. Gwizdek C, Leblanc G, Bassilana M. Proteolytic mapping and substrate protection of the Escherichia coli melibiose permease. Biochemistry. 1997;36:8522-9 pubmed
    The topology and substrate-induced conformational change(s) of the Na+ (Li+ or H+)-melibiose cotransporter (MelB) of Escherichia coli were investigated by limited protease digestion...
  53. Ding P, Botfield M, Wilson T. Sugar recognition mutants of the melibiose carrier of Escherichia coli: possible structural information concerning the arrangement of membrane-bound helices and sugar/cation recognition site. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1509:123-30 pubmed
    b>Melibiose carrier mutants, isolated by growing cells on melibiose plus the non-metabolizable competitive inhibitor thiomethyl-beta-galactoside (TMG), were studied to determine sugar and cation recognition abnormalities...