uridine triphosphate


Summary: Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.

Top Publications

  1. Bagchi S, Liao Z, Gonzalez F, Chorna N, Seye C, Weisman G, et al. The P2Y2 nucleotide receptor interacts with alphav integrins to activate Go and induce cell migration. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:39050-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, the RGD-dependent interaction between the P2Y(2)R and alpha(v) integrins is necessary for the P2Y(2)R to activate G(o) and to initiate G(o)-mediated signaling events leading to chemotaxis. ..
  2. Deng J, Ernst N, Turley S, Stuart K, Hol W. Structural basis for UTP specificity of RNA editing TUTases from Trypanosoma brucei. EMBO J. 2005;24:4007-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This insertion is present in all trypanosomatid TUTases. We also show that TbRET2 is essential for survival of the bloodstream form of the parasite and therefore is a potential target for drug therapy...
  3. Wihlborg A, Balogh J, Wang L, Borna C, Dou Y, Joshi B, et al. Positive inotropic effects by uridine triphosphate (UTP) and uridine diphosphate (UDP) via P2Y2 and P2Y6 receptors on cardiomyocytes and release of UTP in man during myocardial infarction. Circ Res. 2006;98:970-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, the extracellular pyrimidines (UTP and UDP) could be important inotropic factors involved in the development of cardiac disease. ..
  4. Yitzhaki S, Shneyvays V, Jacobson K, Shainberg A. Involvement of uracil nucleotides in protection of cardiomyocytes from hypoxic stress. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005;69:1215-23 pubmed
  5. Hegg C, Irwin M, Lucero M. Calcium store-mediated signaling in sustentacular cells of the mouse olfactory epithelium. Glia. 2009;57:634-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that sustentacular cells are not static support cells, and, like glia in the central nervous system, have complex calcium signaling. ..
  6. Yu N, Erb L, Shivaji R, Weisman G, Seye C. Binding of the P2Y2 nucleotide receptor to filamin A regulates migration of vascular smooth muscle cells. Circ Res. 2008;102:581-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this study demonstrates that P2Y(2)R/FLNa interaction selectively regulates spreading and migration of vascular SMCs. ..
  7. Stagno J, Aphasizheva I, Aphasizhev R, Luecke H. Dual role of the RNA substrate in selectivity and catalysis by terminal uridylyl transferases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14634-9 pubmed
    ..We propose a dual role for RNA substrates in TUTase-catalyzed reactions: contribution to selective incorporation of the cognate nucleoside and shaping of the catalytic metal binding site. ..
  8. Tomé A, Castro E, Santos R, Rosário L. Functional distribution of Ca2+-coupled P2 purinergic receptors among adrenergic and noradrenergic bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. BMC Neurosci. 2007;8:39 pubmed
    ..A model for a short-loop feedback interaction is presented whereby locally released ATP acts upon P2Y receptors in adrenergic cells, inhibiting Ca2+ influx and contributing to terminate evoked epinephrine secretion. ..
  9. Arellano R, Garay E, Vázquez Cuevas F. Functional interaction between native G protein-coupled purinergic receptors in Xenopus follicles. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:16680-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that this property was due to direct interactions between receptors for Ado (A2 subtype) and ATP (P2Y subtype) in the Xenopus follicle. ..

More Information


  1. Erlinge D, Harnek J, van Heusden C, Olivecrona G, Jern S, Lazarowski E. Uridine triphosphate (UTP) is released during cardiac ischemia. Int J Cardiol. 2005;100:427-33 pubmed
    Extracellular uridine triphosphate (UTP) stimulates vasodilatation, automaticity in ventricular myocytes and release of tissue-plasminogen activator (t-PA), indicating that UTP may be important in cardiac regulation...
  2. Calvert J, Atterbury Thomas A, Leon C, Forsythe I, Gachet C, Evans R. Evidence for P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y6 and atypical UTP-sensitive receptors coupled to rises in intracellular calcium in mouse cultured superior cervical ganglion neurons and glia. Br J Pharmacol. 2004;143:525-32 pubmed
  3. Stagno J, Aphasizheva I, Rosengarth A, Luecke H, Aphasizhev R. UTP-bound and Apo structures of a minimal RNA uridylyltransferase. J Mol Biol. 2007;366:882-99 pubmed
    ..We also report a 2.4 Angstroms crystal structure of TbTUT4 with the bound 2' deoxyribonucleoside, which provides the structural basis of the enzyme's preference toward ribonucleotides. ..
  4. Hassenklöver T, Kurtanska S, Bartoszek I, Junek S, Schild D, Manzini I. Nucleotide-induced Ca2+ signaling in sustentacular supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium. Glia. 2008;56:1614-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that extracellular nucleotides in the OE activate SCs via P2Y2/P2Y4-like receptors and initiate a characteristic intraepithelial Ca2+ wave. ..
  5. Kanekar S, Jia C, Hegg C. Purinergic receptor activation evokes neurotrophic factor neuropeptide Y release from neonatal mouse olfactory epithelial slices. J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:1424-34 pubmed publisher
  6. Ross K, Whitaker M, Reynolds N. Agonist-induced calcium entry correlates with STIM1 translocation. J Cell Physiol. 2007;211:569-76 pubmed
    ..Thus by differentially regulating store-refilling after agonist-mediated depletion, LPA and UTP may exert distinct effects on the duration of STIM1 localization at the plasma membrane, and thus, on the magnitude and duration of ACE. ..
  7. Braun O, Lu D, Aroonsakool N, Insel P. Uridine triphosphate (UTP) induces profibrotic responses in cardiac fibroblasts by activation of P2Y2 receptors. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010;49:362-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that P2Y2 receptor activation is profibrotic in CFs; thus inhibition of P2Y2 receptors may provide a novel means to diminish fibrotic remodeling and turnover of extracellular matrix in the heart. ..
  8. Yitzhaki S, Shainberg A, Cheporko Y, Vidne B, Sagie A, Jacobson K, et al. Uridine-5'-triphosphate (UTP) reduces infarct size and improves rat heart function after myocardial infarct. Biochem Pharmacol. 2006;72:949-55 pubmed
    ..The resulting cardioprotection following UTP treatment post ischemia demonstrates a reduction in mitochondrial calcium overload, which can explain the beneficial effect of UTP. ..
  9. Chekeni F, Elliott M, Sandilos J, Walk S, Kinchen J, Lazarowski E, et al. Pannexin 1 channels mediate 'find-me' signal release and membrane permeability during apoptosis. Nature. 2010;467:863-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data identify PANX1 as a plasma membrane channel mediating the regulated release of find-me signals and selective plasma membrane permeability during apoptosis, and a new mechanism of PANX1 activation by caspases. ..
  10. Montiel M, de la Blanca E, Jimenez E. P2Y receptors activate MAPK/ERK through a pathway involving PI3K/PDK1/PKC-zeta in human vein endothelial cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2006;18:123-34 pubmed
  11. Hede S, Amstrup J, Klaerke D, Novak I. P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors regulate pancreatic Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels differently. Pflugers Arch. 2005;450:429-36 pubmed
    ..Taken together, this study shows that there are different interactions between the subtypes of P2Y purinergic receptors and different Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels. ..
  12. Elliott M, Chekeni F, Trampont P, Lazarowski E, Kadl A, Walk S, et al. Nucleotides released by apoptotic cells act as a find-me signal to promote phagocytic clearance. Nature. 2009;461:282-6 pubmed publisher
  13. Liao Z, Seye C, Weisman G, Erb L. The P2Y2 nucleotide receptor requires interaction with alpha v integrins to access and activate G12. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:1654-62 pubmed
  14. Stagno J, Aphasizheva I, Bruystens J, Luecke H, Aphasizhev R. Structure of the mitochondrial editosome-like complex associated TUTase 1 reveals divergent mechanisms of UTP selection and domain organization. J Mol Biol. 2010;399:464-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Because MEAT1 is essential for the viability of the bloodstream and insect forms of Trypanosoma brucei, the unique organization of its active site renders this protein an attractive target for trypanocide development. ..
  15. Jia C, Doherty J, Crudgington S, Hegg C. Activation of purinergic receptors induces proliferation and neuronal differentiation in Swiss Webster mouse olfactory epithelium. Neuroscience. 2009;163:120-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that extracellular ATP released upon injury could induce proliferation and promote the neuroregeneration of the olfactory epithelium. ..
  16. Gao Y, Hanley P, Rinné S, Zuzarte M, Daut J. Calcium-activated K(+) channel (K(Ca)3.1) activity during Ca(2+) store depletion and store-operated Ca(2+) entry in human macrophages. Cell Calcium. 2010;48:19-27 pubmed publisher
    ..1 channel current and hyperpolarization, providing the necessary electrochemical driving force for prolonged Ca(2+) signaling and store repletion. ..
  17. Chiu Y, Macmillan J, Chen Z. RNA polymerase III detects cytosolic DNA and induces type I interferons through the RIG-I pathway. Cell. 2009;138:576-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that RNA Pol-III is a cytosolic DNA sensor involved in innate immune responses. ..
  18. Flores R, Hernández Pérez M, Aquino E, Garrad R, Weisman G, Gonzalez F. Agonist-induced phosphorylation and desensitization of the P2Y2 nucleotide receptor. Mol Cell Biochem. 2005;280:35-45 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate a role for receptor phosphorylation by phorbol-insensitive protein kinases in agonist-induced desensitization of the P2Y2 nucleotide receptor. ..
  19. Wang M, Kong Q, Gonzalez F, Sun G, Erb L, Seye C, et al. P2Y nucleotide receptor interaction with alpha integrin mediates astrocyte migration. J Neurochem. 2005;95:630-40 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that P2Y(2)Rs and their associated signaling pathways may be important factors regulating astrogliosis in brain disorders. ..
  20. Malin S, Davis B, Koerber H, Reynolds I, Albers K, Molliver D. Thermal nociception and TRPV1 function are attenuated in mice lacking the nucleotide receptor P2Y2. Pain. 2008;138:484-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that nucleotide signaling through P2Y(2) plays a key role in thermal nociception. ..
  21. Hoffmann C, Ziegler N, Reiner S, Krasel C, Lohse M. Agonist-selective, receptor-specific interaction of human P2Y receptors with beta-arrestin-1 and -2. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:30933-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that the two different agonists induce distinct active states of this receptor that show differential interactions with beta-arrestins. ..
  22. Ennion S, Powell A, Seward E. Identification of the P2Y(12) receptor in nucleotide inhibition of exocytosis from bovine chromaffin cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2004;66:601-11 pubmed
    ..These results identify the P2Y(12) purine receptor as a key component of the nucleotide inhibitory pathway and also demonstrate the involvement of a UTP-sensitive G(i/o) -coupled pyrimidine receptor. ..
  23. Liu G, Werry E, Bennett M. Secretion of ATP from Schwann cells in response to uridine triphosphate. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:151-60 pubmed
    The mechanisms by which uridine triphosphate (UTP) stimulates ATP release from Schwann cells cultured from the sciatic nerve were investigated using online bioluminescence techniques...
  24. Kaczmarek E, Erb L, Koziak K, Jarzyna R, Wink M, Guckelberger O, et al. Modulation of endothelial cell migration by extracellular nucleotides: involvement of focal adhesion kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-mediated pathways. Thromb Haemost. 2005;93:735-42 pubmed
    ..We propose that P2Y2 and possibly P2Y4 receptors mediate those responses that are important in vascular inflammation, atherosclerosis and angiogenesis. ..
  25. Yoshida H, Kobayashi D, Ohkubo S, Nakahata N. ATP stimulates interleukin-6 production via P2Y receptors in human HaCaT keratinocytes. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006;540:1-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that 1) ATP is released from HaCaT cells upon physical stimulation and may act as an autocrine molecule, and 2) the stimulation of P2Y receptors causes IL-6 production via mRNA expression through [Ca2+]i elevation. ..
  26. Yamamoto S, Ichishima K, Ehara T. Regulation of extracellular UTP-activated Cl- current by P2Y-PLC-PKC signaling and ATP hydrolysis in mouse ventricular myocytes. J Physiol Sci. 2007;57:85-94 pubmed
    ..Our results strongly suggest that I(Cl.UTP) is due to the activation of CFTR Cl- channels through Gq/11-coupled P2Y2 receptor-PLC-PKC signaling and ATP hydrolysis in mouse heart. ..
  27. Winter P, Dora K. Spreading dilatation to luminal perfusion of ATP and UTP in rat isolated small mesenteric arteries. J Physiol. 2007;582:335-47 pubmed
  28. Tomé A, Castro E, Santos R, Rosário L. Selective stimulation of catecholamine release from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells by an ionotropic purinergic receptor sensitive to 2-methylthio ATP. BMC Neurosci. 2007;8:41 pubmed
    ..Activation of 2-MeSATP-sensitive receptors stimulates Ca2+ influx mainly via voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels. For the most part, these are activated by the depolarization brought about by Na+ influx across P2X receptor pores. ..
  29. Schreiber R, Kunzelmann K. Purinergic P2Y6 receptors induce Ca2+ and CFTR dependent Cl- secretion in mouse trachea. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2005;16:99-108 pubmed
    ..In summary, activation of luminal P2Y6 receptors in the airways shifts electrolyte transport towards secretion by increasing intracellular Ca+ and activation of PKA. ..
  30. Grbic D, Degagné E, Langlois C, Dupuis A, Gendron F. Intestinal inflammation increases the expression of the P2Y6 receptor on epithelial cells and the release of CXC chemokine ligand 8 by UDP. J Immunol. 2008;180:2659-68 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the emergence of extracellular nucleotide signaling in the orchestration of intestinal inflammation. ..
  31. t Hoen P, de Kort F, van Ommen G, den Dunnen J. Fluorescent labelling of cRNA for microarray applications. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:e20 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the currently developed method is an efficient, robust and inexpensive technique for fluorescent labelling of cRNA and allows sensitive detection of gene expression profiles on oligonucleotide microarrays. ..
  32. Lehrmann H, Thomas J, Kim S, Jacobi C, Leipziger J. Luminal P2Y2 receptor-mediated inhibition of Na+ absorption in isolated perfused mouse CCD. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002;13:10-8 pubmed
    ..Herein the effects of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and uridine triphosphate (UTP) on electrogenic Na+ absorption in perfused CCD of mice kept on a low-NaCl diet were investigated...
  33. Pillois X, Chaulet H, Belloc I, Dupuch F, Desgranges C, Gadeau A. Nucleotide receptors involved in UTP-induced rat arterial smooth muscle cell migration. Circ Res. 2002;90:678-81 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest a prominent role for the UTP receptor, P2Y(2), and for the UDP receptor, P2Y(6), in UTP-induced rat ASMC migration. ..
  34. Woda C, Leite M, Rohatgi R, Satlin L. Effects of luminal flow and nucleotides on [Ca(2+)](i) in rabbit cortical collecting duct. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2002;283:F437-46 pubmed
    ..The flow-induced rise in [Ca(2+)](i) is apparently not mediated by apical P2 purinergic receptor signaling. ..
  35. Abdipranoto A, Liu G, Werry E, Bennett M. Mechanisms of secretion of ATP from cortical astrocytes triggered by uridine triphosphate. Neuroreport. 2003;14:2177-81 pubmed
    ..Astrocytes released ATP in response to application of 10 microM uridine triphosphate, which was blocked by the non-specific purinergic receptor antagonist suramin...
  36. Davis C. Regulation of mucin secretion from in vitro cellular models. Novartis Found Symp. 2002;248:113-25; discussion 125-31, 277-82 pubmed
  37. Molliver D, Cook S, Carlsten J, Wright D, McCleskey E. ATP and UTP excite sensory neurons and induce CREB phosphorylation through the metabotropic receptor, P2Y2. Eur J Neurosci. 2002;16:1850-60 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that P2Y2 contributes to the transduction of ATP-mediated sensory signalling, and may be involved in the activity-dependent regulation of nociceptor phenotype. ..
  38. Chen Y, Zhao Y, Wu R. Differential regulation of airway mucin gene expression and mucin secretion by extracellular nucleotide triphosphates. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2001;25:409-17 pubmed
    ..These findings are the first demonstration that UTP, a pyrimidine nucleotide triphosphate, can enhance both mucin secretion and mucin gene expression through different signaling pathways. ..
  39. Yang L, Cranson D, Trinkaus Randall V. Cellular injury induces activation of MAPK via P2Y receptors. J Cell Biochem. 2004;91:938-50 pubmed
    ..Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), uridine triphosphate (UTP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and uridine diphosphate (UDP) promoted activation by 2 min with similar ..
  40. Stucky C, Medler K, Molliver D. The P2Y agonist UTP activates cutaneous afferent fibers. Pain. 2004;109:36-44 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, P2Y signaling may contribute to mechanotransduction in low threshold Abeta fibers under normal or pathological conditions. ..
  41. Chaulet H, Desgranges C, Renault M, Dupuch F, Ezan G, Peiretti F, et al. Extracellular nucleotides induce arterial smooth muscle cell migration via osteopontin. Circ Res. 2001;89:772-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that extracellular nucleotides, and particularly UTP, can induce arterial SMC migration via the action of osteopontin. ..
  42. Burrell H, Bowler W, Gallagher J, Sharpe G. Human keratinocytes express multiple P2Y-receptors: evidence for functional P2Y1, P2Y2, and P2Y4 receptors. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;120:440-7 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that multiple P2Y receptors (P2Y1, P2Y2, and P2Y4 subtypes) are differentially involved in the regulation of proliferation in human keratinocytes and therefore may be important in wound healing. ..
  43. Fam S, Gallagher C, Kalia L, Salter M. Differential frequency dependence of P2Y1- and P2Y2- mediated Ca 2+ signaling in astrocytes. J Neurosci. 2003;23:4437-44 pubmed
    ..We propose that frequency-dependent changes in ATP-mediated Ca 2+ signaling pathways may modulate astrocyte function and astrocyte-neuron signaling in the CNS. ..
  44. Lazarowski E, Boucher R, Harden T. Mechanisms of release of nucleotides and integration of their action as P2X- and P2Y-receptor activating molecules. Mol Pharmacol. 2003;64:785-95 pubmed
  45. Kumari R, Goh G, Ng L, Boarder M. ATP and UTP responses of cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells revisited: dominance of P2Y2 receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 2003;140:1169-76 pubmed
    ..7. Taken together with the results of others, these findings indicate that the response of cultured rat VSMCs to UTP and to ATP is predominantly at the P2Y2 receptor, and that there is also a response to UDP at the P2Y6 receptor. ..
  46. Arellano R, Martinez Torres A, Garay E. Ionic currents activated via purinergic receptors in the cumulus cell-enclosed mouse oocyte. Biol Reprod. 2002;67:837-46 pubmed
    ..Both the ion channels and the receptors seemed to be located in the cumulus cells, which transmit their corresponding electrical signals to the oocyte via gap junction channels. ..
  47. Pochynyuk O, Rieg T, Bugaj V, Schroth J, Fridman A, Boss G, et al. Dietary Na+ inhibits the open probability of the epithelial sodium channel in the kidney by enhancing apical P2Y2-receptor tone. FASEB J. 2010;24:2056-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The studies indicate a key role of the apical ATP/UTP-P2Y(2)-receptor system in the inhibition of ENaC P(o) in the ASDN in response to an increase in Na(+) intake, thereby contributing to NaCl homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. ..
  48. Suzuki T, Namba K, Tsuga H, Nakata H. Regulation of pharmacology by hetero-oligomerization between A1 adenosine receptor and P2Y2 receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;351:559-65 pubmed
  49. Lee J, Heo J, Chang S, Kim C, Oh S. Reactive blue 2, an antagonist of rat P2Y4, increases K+ secretion in rat cochlea strial marginal cells. Hear Res. 2006;219:66-73 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, we speculate that direct and/or indirect inhibitory mechanisms between P2Y4 and KENQ1/KCNE1 K+ channels exist in strial marginal cell. ..
  50. Wen Z, Zhang Y, Wu Z, Zhou X, Han X, Zhang W, et al. [Preparation of RNA probe for cd99l2 gene of zebrafish labeled with digoxingenin-UTP]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2010;30:969-72 pubmed
    ..The antisense probe can be used for study of the spatial and temporal distribution of cd99l2 during zebrafish development using the sense probe as control. ..
  51. Ando K, Obara Y, Sugama J, Kotani A, Koike N, Ohkubo S, et al. P2Y2 receptor-Gq/11 signaling at lipid rafts is required for UTP-induced cell migration in NG 108-15 cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010;334:809-19 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that lipid rafts are critical for P2Y(2) receptor-mediated G(q/11)-PLC-Ca(2+) signaling and this cascade is important for cell migration in NG 108-15 cells. ..
  52. Orriss I, Guneri D, Hajjawi M, Shaw K, Patel J, Arnett T. Activation of the P2Y2 receptor regulates bone cell function by enhancing ATP release. J Endocrinol. 2017;233:341-356 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings are consistent with the notion that the primary action of P2Y2 receptor signalling in bone is to regulate extracellular ATP levels. ..
  53. Sekiguchi T, Ito R, Hayakawa H, Sekiguchi M. Elimination and utilization of oxidized guanine nucleotides in the synthesis of RNA and its precursors. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:8128-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Escherichia coli cells appear to possess mechanisms to prevent misincorporation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine into RNA. ..
  54. Hondoh A, Ishida Y, Ugawa S, Ueda T, Shibata Y, Yamada T, et al. Distinct expression of cold receptors (TRPM8 and TRPA1) in the rat nodose-petrosal ganglion complex. Brain Res. 2010;1319:60-9 pubmed publisher
  55. Lin Y, Bennett M. Varicosity-Schwann cell interactions mediated by ATP in the mouse vas deferens. J Neurophysiol. 2005;93:2787-96 pubmed
    ..This work suggests the possibility that Schwann cells are active participants in the process of junctional transmission in the autonomic nervous system. ..
  56. Scheler O, Glynn B, Parkel S, Palta P, Toome K, Kaplinski L, et al. Fluorescent labeling of NASBA amplified tmRNA molecules for microarray applications. BMC Biotechnol. 2009;9:45 pubmed publisher
    ..The method is applicative for many different areas of microbial diagnostics including environmental monitoring, bio threat detection, industrial process monitoring and clinical microbiology. ..
  57. Wang H, Wang D, Galligan J. P2Y2 receptors mediate ATP-induced resensitization of TRPV1 expressed by kidney projecting sensory neurons. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;298:R1634-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that P2Y(2) receptor activation can maintain TRPV1 function perhaps during sustained episodes of activity of kidney projecting sensory neurons. ..
  58. Jung S, Kim M, Hille B, Koh D. Control of granule mobility and exocytosis by Ca2+ -dependent formation of F-actin in pancreatic duct epithelial cells. Traffic. 2009;10:392-410 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the Ca(2+)-dependent freezing of granules filters out weak inputs but allows exocytosis under stronger inputs by controlling granule movements...
  59. Bourgeaux V, Cadene M, Piller F, Piller V. Efficient enzymatic glycosylation of peptides and oligosaccharides from GalNAc and UTP. Chembiochem. 2007;8:37-40 pubmed
  60. Baskin D, Widmayer M, Sharpe M. Quantification of DNase type I ends, DNase type II ends, and modified bases using fluorescently labeled ddUTP, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, and formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase. Biotechniques. 2010;49:505-12 pubmed publisher