uridine diphosphate


Summary: A uracil nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.

Top Publications

  1. Filippov A, Webb T, Barnard E, Brown D. Dual coupling of heterologously-expressed rat P2Y6 nucleotide receptors to N-type Ca2+ and M-type K+ currents in rat sympathetic neurones. Br J Pharmacol. 1999;126:1009-17 pubmed
    ..The very high sensitivity to both UDP and UTP suggests that it might be preferentially activated by any locally released uridine nucleotides. ..
  2. Parravicini C, Ranghino G, Abbracchio M, Fantucci P. GPR17: molecular modeling and dynamics studies of the 3-D structure and purinergic ligand binding features in comparison with P2Y receptors. BMC Bioinformatics. 2008;9:263 pubmed publisher
    ..The nucleotide binding pocket appears to be unable to allocate the leukotrienic type ligands in the same effective way. ..
  3. Poulin M, Lowary T. Methods to study the biosynthesis of bacterial furanosides. Methods Enzymol. 2010;478:389-411 pubmed publisher
  4. Zhang Q, Liu H. Mechanistic investigation of UDP-galactopyranose mutase from Escherichia coli using 2- and 3-fluorinated UDP-galactofuranose as probes. J Am Chem Soc. 2001;123:6756-66 pubmed
    ..Clearly, this study has led to the identification of a potent inactivator (10) for this enzyme, and study of its inactivation has also shed light on the possible mechanism of this mutase. ..
  5. Wong C, Ko W. Stimulation of Cl- secretion via membrane-restricted Ca2+ signaling mediated by P2Y receptors in polarized epithelia. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:9016-21 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that there may be two distinct ATP-releasable Ca(2+) pools, each coupled to apical and basolateral membrane receptor but linked to the same calcium influx pathway located at the basolateral membrane. ..
  6. Ivanov A, Fricks I, Kendall Harden T, Jacobson K. Molecular dynamics simulation of the P2Y14 receptor. Ligand docking and identification of a putative binding site of the distal hexose moiety. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007;17:761-6 pubmed
    ..55) and Lys277 (7.35) of the P2Y14 receptor together with two anionic residues (Glu166 and Glu174, located in EL2), are likely involved in interactions with the distal hexose moiety. ..
  7. Moss A, Hamarneh S, Mohamed M, Ramasamy S, Yammine H, Patel P, et al. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase inhibits the proinflammatory nucleotide uridine diphosphate. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2013;304:G597-604 pubmed publisher
    b>Uridine diphosphate (UDP) is a proinflammatory nucleotide implicated in inflammatory bowel disease. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) is a gut mucosal defense factor capable of inhibiting intestinal inflammation...
  8. Grbic D, Degagné E, Langlois C, Dupuis A, Gendron F. Intestinal inflammation increases the expression of the P2Y6 receptor on epithelial cells and the release of CXC chemokine ligand 8 by UDP. J Immunol. 2008;180:2659-68 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the emergence of extracellular nucleotide signaling in the orchestration of intestinal inflammation. ..
  9. Lazarowski E, Boucher R, Harden T. Constitutive release of ATP and evidence for major contribution of ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase and nucleoside diphosphokinase to extracellular nucleotide concentrations. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:31061-8 pubmed
    ..In addition to the existence of an ecto-ATPase activity, our results suggest a major scavenger role of ecto-ATP pyrophosphatase and a transphosphorylating activity of nucleoside diphosphokinase. ..

More Information


  1. Kato N, Mueller C, Wessely V, Lan Q, Christensen B. Aedes aegypti phosphohexomutases and uridine diphosphate-hexose pyrophosphorylases: comparison of primary sequences, substrate specificities and temporal transcription. Insect Mol Biol. 2005;14:615-24 pubmed
    ..catalyse the transfer of the phosphate group of a glycosyl phosphate between the C6 and C1 positions, and uridine diphosphate (UDP)-hexose pyrophosphorylases catalyse the synthesis of UDP-hexose from uridine triphosphate (UTP) and ..
  2. Jiang Y, Borrelli L, Bacskai B, Kanaoka Y, Boyce J. P2Y6 receptors require an intact cysteinyl leukotriene synthetic and signaling system to induce survival and activation of mast cells. J Immunol. 2009;182:1129-37 pubmed
    ..cys-LTs cross-desensitized IL-4-primed primary human mast cells (hMCs) to stimulation with the nucleotide uridine diphosphate (UDP)...
  3. Idzko M, Panther E, Sorichter S, Herouy Y, Berod L, Geissler M, et al. Characterization of the biological activities of uridine diphosphate in human dendritic cells: Influence on chemotaxis and CXCL8 release. J Cell Physiol. 2004;201:286-93 pubmed
    ..Moreover, our study indicates that UDP stimulates different signaling pathways in immature and mature DC in order to favor the accumulation of immature DC and to augment the capacity to secrete CXCL8 in mature DC. ..
  4. Nicholas R, Watt W, Lazarowski E, Li Q, Harden K. Uridine nucleotide selectivity of three phospholipase C-activating P2 receptors: identification of a UDP-selective, a UTP-selective, and an ATP- and UTP-specific receptor. Mol Pharmacol. 1996;50:224-9 pubmed
  5. Eppe G, Peltier P, Daniellou R, Nugier Chauvin C, Ferrieres V, Vincent S. Probing UDP-galactopyranose mutase binding pocket: a dramatic effect on substitution of the 6-position of UDP-galactofuranose. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009;19:814-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This result demonstrated that key interactions occur at the vicinity of the 6-position of UDP-galactose in the Michaelis complex. ..
  6. Capra V, Ravasi S, Accomazzo M, Citro S, Grimoldi M, Abbracchio M, et al. CysLT1 receptor is a target for extracellular nucleotide-induced heterologous desensitization: a possible feedback mechanism in inflammation. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:5625-36 pubmed
    ..This crosstalk may have a profound physiological implication in the regulation of responses at sites of inflammation, and may represent just an example of a feedback mechanism used by cells to fine-tune their responses. ..
  7. Schreiber R, Kunzelmann K. Purinergic P2Y6 receptors induce Ca2+ and CFTR dependent Cl- secretion in mouse trachea. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2005;16:99-108 pubmed
    ..In summary, activation of luminal P2Y6 receptors in the airways shifts electrolyte transport towards secretion by increasing intracellular Ca+ and activation of PKA. ..
  8. Cox M, Gomes B, Palmer K, Du K, Wiekowski M, Wilburn B, et al. The pyrimidinergic P2Y6 receptor mediates a novel release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in monocytic cells stimulated with UDP. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;330:467-73 pubmed
    ..pyrimidinergic P2 receptor family that responds specifically to the extracellular nucleotide uridine diphosphate (UDP)...
  9. Partha S, Van Straaten K, Sanders D. Structural basis of substrate binding to UDP-galactopyranose mutase: crystal structures in the reduced and oxidized state complexed with UDP-galactopyranose and UDP. J Mol Biol. 2009;394:864-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These structures provide valuable insights into substrate recognition and a basis for understanding the mechanism. These complex structures may serve as a platform for structure-guided design of inhibitors of UGM. ..
  10. Dulong S, Bernard K, Ehrenfeld J. Enhancement of P2Y6-induced Cl- secretion by IL-13 and modulation of SK4 channels activity in human bronchial cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2007;20:483-94 pubmed
    ..The on/off effect of IL-13 on P2Y(6)-induced Cl-secretion may help to identify the molecular determinants responsible for the CaCC channel activity. ..
  11. Rubino A, Ziabary L, Burnstock G. Regulation of vascular tone by UTP and UDP in isolated rat intrapulmonary arteries. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999;370:139-43 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the pharmacological profile of the native UTP/UDP receptor differs from that of the known P2Y2, P2Y4 and P2Y6 recombinant receptors for pyrimidine nucleotides. ..
  12. Lu Y, He Y, Wang M, Zhang L, Yang L, Wang Z, et al. Characterization of nuciferine metabolism by P450 enzymes and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases in liver microsomes from humans and animals. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2010;31:1635-42 pubmed publisher
    to characterize the metabolism of nuciferine by P450 enzymes and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) in liver microsomes from humans and several other animals including rats, mice, dogs, rabbits and monkeys...
  13. Costanzi S, Joshi B, Maddileti S, Mamedova L, Gonzalez Moa M, Marquez V, et al. Human P2Y(6) receptor: molecular modeling leads to the rational design of a novel agonist based on a unique conformational preference. J Med Chem. 2005;48:8108-11 pubmed
    ..MD results also suggested a conformational change of the second extracellular loop consequent to agonist binding. ..
  14. Soltero Higgin M, Carlson E, Gruber T, Kiessling L. A unique catalytic mechanism for UDP-galactopyranose mutase. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2004;11:539-43 pubmed
    ..We anticipate that the clarification of the catalytic mechanism for UGM will facilitate the development of anti-mycobacterial agents. ..
  15. Parandeh F, Abaraviciene S, Amisten S, Erlinge D, Salehi A. Uridine diphosphate (UDP) stimulates insulin secretion by activation of P2Y6 receptors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;370:499-503 pubmed publisher
    ..and functional effects of receptors for the extracellular pyrimidines uridine triphosphate (UTP) and uridine diphosphate (UDP), on insulin and glucagon secretion in isolated mouse pancreatic islets and purified beta-cells...
  16. Relvas L, Bouffioux C, Marcet B, Communi D, Makhoul M, Horckmans M, et al. Extracellular nucleotides and interleukin-8 production by ARPE cells: potential role of danger signals in blood-retinal barrier activation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:1241-6 pubmed publisher
    ..ATPgammaS, UTP, and UDP stimulate both basal and TNFalpha-induced IL-8 secretion in RPE cells through an ERK 1/2-dependent pathway. The results suggest that those effects are mediated by P2Y(2) and P2Y(6) receptors. ..
  17. Wihlborg A, Balogh J, Wang L, Borna C, Dou Y, Joshi B, et al. Positive inotropic effects by uridine triphosphate (UTP) and uridine diphosphate (UDP) via P2Y2 and P2Y6 receptors on cardiomyocytes and release of UTP in man during myocardial infarction. Circ Res. 2006;98:970-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, the extracellular pyrimidines (UTP and UDP) could be important inotropic factors involved in the development of cardiac disease. ..
  18. Campbell R, Sala R, van de Rijn I, Tanner M. Properties and kinetic analysis of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase from group A streptococci. Irreversible inhibition by UDP-chloroacetol. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:3416-22 pubmed
    ..This supports the notion that uridine 5'-diphosphate-chloroacetol is bound in the place of UDP-glucose and is not simply acting as a nonspecific alkylating agent. ..
  19. Kuypers D, Verleden G, Naesens M, Vanrenterghem Y. Drug interaction between mycophenolate mofetil and rifampin: possible induction of uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005;78:81-8 pubmed
    ..P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance proteins 1 and 2), cytochromes (cytochrome P450 [CYP] 3A4), uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferases, monoamine oxidases, and glutathione S -transferases...
  20. Mellor E, Austen K, Boyce J. Cysteinyl leukotrienes and uridine diphosphate induce cytokine generation by human mast cells through an interleukin 4-regulated pathway that is inhibited by leukotriene receptor antagonists. J Exp Med. 2002;195:583-92 pubmed
    ..eicosanoids and cytokines, and induces a calcium flux in response to cysteinyl leukotrienes (cys-LTs) and uridine diphosphate (UDP) that is blocked by cys-LT receptor antagonists...
  21. Warny M, Aboudola S, Robson S, Sevigny J, Communi D, Soltoff S, et al. P2Y(6) nucleotide receptor mediates monocyte interleukin-8 production in response to UDP or lipopolysaccharide. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:26051-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, lipopolysaccharide mediates IL-8 production at least in part by autocrine P2Y(6) activation. These findings indicate a novel role for P2Y(6) in innate immune defenses. ..
  22. Devader C, Webb R, Thomas G, Dale L. Xenopus apyrase (xapy), a secreted nucleotidase that is expressed during early development. Gene. 2006;367:135-41 pubmed
    ..When expressed in HEK 293 cells, XAPY is largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, although some is also secreted. XAPY conditioned media hydrolyses UDP and UTP, confirming that it is a functional apyrase. ..
  23. Takeshima Futagami T, Sakaguchi M, Uehara E, Aoki K, Ishida N, Sanai Y, et al. Amino acid residues important for CMP-sialic acid recognition by the CMP-sialic acid transporter: analysis of the substrate specificity of UDP-galactose/CMP-sialic acid transporter chimeras. Glycobiology. 2012;22:1731-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of determinants critical for the discrimination between relevant and irrelevant substrates will advance our understanding of the mechanisms of substrate recognition by nucleotide sugar transporters. ..
  24. Calvo N, Shabaka A, Rodriguez Cubillo B, Lopez de la Manzanara V, Perez Flores I, Moreno de la Higuera M, et al. Presence of T-275A and C-2152T Polymorphisms of the Promoter Region of Uridine Diphosphate-Glucuronosyltransferase 1A9 Increases Mortality From Digestive Tumors: Results After 10 Years of Follow-up in a Renal Transplant Population. Transplant Proc. 2016;48:2947-2949 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A9 (UGT1A9) promoter region T-275A and C-2152T single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in stable transplant patients and to ..
  25. Takeda Y, Seko A, Fujikawa K, Izumi M, Kajihara Y, Ito Y. Effects of domain composition on catalytic activity of human UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferases. Glycobiology. 2016;26:999-1006 pubmed
    b>Uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase (UGGT) 1 is a soluble protein residing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and partially in ER-Golgi intermediate compartment...
  26. Kaivosaari S, Finel M, Koskinen M. N-glucuronidation of drugs and other xenobiotics by human and animal UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. Xenobiotica. 2011;41:652-69 pubmed publisher
    ..disposition of drugs and other xenobiotics includes glucuronidation reactions that are catalyzed by the uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs)...
  27. Kyossev Z, Weigel P. An enzyme capture assay for analysis of active hyaluronan synthases. Anal Biochem. 2007;371:62-70 pubmed
    ..The HAS capture assay was also used to assess the fraction of HAS molecules that were active, which cannot be done using standard assays for synthase activity. Assay sensitivity for detection of purified SeHAS is <1 pmol. ..
  28. Tedaldi L, Pierce M, Wagner G. Optimised chemical synthesis of 5-substituted UDP-sugars and their evaluation as glycosyltransferase inhibitors. Carbohydr Res. 2012;364:22-7 pubmed publisher
  29. Musial D, de Magalhães Galvão K, Miranda Ferreira R, Dantas da Silva Júnior E, Caricati Neto A, Jurkiewicz N, et al. Alteration of purinergic neurotransmission in isolated atria of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2012;59:158-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of adenosine triphosphate, uridine diphosphate, and adenosine were evaluated on atrial inotropism and chronotropism...
  30. Kane T, White C, DeAngelis P. Functional characterization of PmHS1, a Pasteurella multocida heparosan synthase. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:33192-7 pubmed
  31. Zhang C, He Y, Shan K, Tan K, Zhang T, Wang C, et al. Correlations between polymorphisms in the uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A and C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 genes and infection with the hepatitis B virus in three ethnic groups in China. J Int Med Res. 2017;:300060517730174 pubmed publisher
    Objective To determine whether genetic polymorphisms in the uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A ( UGT1A) and the C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 ( CCR5) genes are associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Yi, Yao and ..
  32. Ochiai W, Kaneta M, Nagae M, Yuzuhara A, Li X, Suzuki H, et al. Mice with neuropathic pain exhibit morphine tolerance due to a decrease in the morphine concentration in the brain. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2016;92:298-304 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the expression levels of the conjugation enzyme, UGT2B (uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase), which has morphine as its substrate, and P-gp, which is a transporter involved in ..
  33. Bossuyt X, Blanckaert N. Uridine diphosphoxylose enhances hepatic microsomal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity by stimulating transport of UDP-glucuronic acid across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Biochem J. 1996;315 ( Pt 1):189-93 pubmed
  34. Kim S, Gao Z, Soltysiak K, Chang T, Brodie C, Jacobson K. P2Y6 nucleotide receptor activates PKC to protect 1321N1 astrocytoma cells against tumor necrosis factor-induced apoptosis. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2003;23:401-18 pubmed
    ..6. The addition of phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitors, D609 or U73122, partially antagonized both UDP-induced protection and PKC activation. ..
  35. Marcus D, Scofield M. Apical P2Y4 purinergic receptor controls K+ secretion by vestibular dark cell epithelium. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001;281:C282-9 pubmed
    ..The results support the conclusion that regulation of K+ secretion across vestibular dark cell epithelium occurs by P2Y4 receptors without desensitization of the response...
  36. Dixon C, Woods N, Webb T, Green A. Evidence that rat hepatocytes co-express functional P2Y1 and P2Y2 receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 2000;129:764-70 pubmed
    ..In conclusion the data presented here are consistent with the co-expression of P2Y(1) and P2Y(2) receptors by rat hepatocytes. ..
  37. Ujita M, Inoue R, Makino Y, Katsuno Y, Okumura H. Binding specificity of the recombinant cytoplasmic domain of Cordyceps militaris ?-1,3-glucan synthase catalytic subunit. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2011;75:171-4 pubmed
    ..The recombinant cytoplasmic domain bound specifically to UDP-agarose and lichenan (?-glucan), but not to ADP-agarose, GDP-agarose, or other carbohydrates. ..
  38. Boucsein C, Zacharias R, Färber K, Pavlovic S, Hanisch U, Kettenmann H. Purinergic receptors on microglial cells: functional expression in acute brain slices and modulation of microglial activation in vitro. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;17:2267-76 pubmed
    ..All these parameters were reduced in the presence of purinergic ligands, indicating that purinergic receptor activation attenuated indicators of microglial activation. ..
  39. Caravano A, Sinay P, Vincent S. 1,4-Anhydrogalactopyranose is not an intermediate of the mutase catalyzed UDP-galactopyranose/furanose interconversion. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006;16:1123-5 pubmed
    ..The expected formations of UDP-Galf and UDP-Galp were never observed, thus showing that 1 is not, in fact, a low energy intermediate of this enzymatic contraction. ..
  40. Morera S, Lariviere L, Kurzeck J, Aschke Sonnenborn U, Freemont P, Janin J, et al. High resolution crystal structures of T4 phage beta-glucosyltransferase: induced fit and effect of substrate and metal binding. J Mol Biol. 2001;311:569-77 pubmed
  41. Crosson C, Yates P, Bhat A, Mukhin Y, Husain S. Evidence for multiple P2Y receptors in trabecular meshwork cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004;309:484-9 pubmed
    ..However, a role for the P2Y(11) receptors in mobilization of Ca(2+), or activation of the ERK1/2 pathway, cannot be discounted. ..
  42. Miners J, Mackenzie P, Knights K. The prediction of drug-glucuronidation parameters in humans: UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzyme-selective substrate and inhibitor probes for reaction phenotyping and in vitro-in vivo extrapolation of drug clearance and drug-drug interaction potential. Drug Metab Rev. 2010;42:196-208 pubmed publisher
    Major advances in the characterization of uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzyme substrate and inhibitor selectivities and the development of experimental paradigms to investigate xenobiotic glucuronidation in ..
  43. Mehrad Majd H, Sadat Haerian M, Akhtari J, Ravanshad Y, Azarfar A, Mamouri G. Effects of Gly71Arg mutation in UGT1A1 gene on neonatal hyperbilirubinemia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2017;:1-261 pubmed publisher
    The associations between Gly71Arg polymorphism in the coding region of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) gene and the risk of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia remained controversial...
  44. Barreras M, Salinas S, Abdian P, Kampel M, Ielpi L. Structure and mechanism of GumK, a membrane-associated glucuronosyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:25027-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These results also provide a rationale to obtain new polysaccharides by varying residues in the conserved alpha/beta/alpha structural motif of GumK. ..
  45. Rebres R, Roach T, Fraser I, Philip F, Moon C, Lin K, et al. Synergistic Ca2+ responses by G{alpha}i- and G{alpha}q-coupled G-protein-coupled receptors require a single PLC{beta} isoform that is sensitive to both G{beta}{gamma} and G{alpha}q. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:942-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Ca(2+) synergy between Gα(i)-coupled and Gα(q)-coupled receptors requires the direct action of both Gβγ and Gα(q) on PLCβ and is mediated primarily by PLCβ3, although PLCβ2 is also competent. ..
  46. Guan H, Li P, Wang X, Yue J, He Y, Luo X, et al. Shengjiang Xiexin Decoction Alters Pharmacokinetics of Irinotecan by Regulating Metabolic Enzymes and Transporters: A Multi-Target Therapy for Alleviating the Gastrointestinal Toxicity. Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:769 pubmed publisher
    ..and carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) was significantly down-regulated by SXD, while the hepatic and jejunal uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) expression was elevated...
  47. Feng F, Okuyama K, Niikura K, Ohta T, Sadamoto R, Monde K, et al. Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of fluorinated 2-N-acetamidosugar nucleotides using UDP-GlcNAc pyrophosphorylase. Org Biomol Chem. 2004;2:1617-23 pubmed
  48. Cosyn L, Van Calenbergh S, Joshi B, Ko H, Carter R, Kendall Harden T, et al. Synthesis and P2Y receptor activity of nucleoside 5'-phosphonate derivatives. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009;19:3002-5 pubmed publisher
  49. Lee H, Choi B, Suh B, Lee S, Kim K. Attenuation of signal flow from P2Y6 receptor by protein kinase C-alpha in SK-N-BE(2)C human neuroblastoma cells. J Neurochem. 2003;85:1043-53 pubmed
  50. Brikun I, Suziedelis K, Stemmann O, Zhong R, Alikhanian L, Linkova E, et al. Analysis of CRP-CytR interactions at the Escherichia coli udp promoter. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:1614-22 pubmed
  51. Chootip K, Gurney A, Kennedy C. Multiple P2Y receptors couple to calcium-dependent, chloride channels in smooth muscle cells of the rat pulmonary artery. Respir Res. 2005;6:124 pubmed
    ..However, the suramin- and PPADS-insensitive receptor activated by UTP and UDP does not correspond to any of the known P2Y subtypes. These receptors likely play a significant role in nucleotide-induced vasoconstriction. ..
  52. Flentke G, Frey P. Reaction of uridine diphosphate galactose 4-epimerase with a suicide inactivator. Biochemistry. 1990;29:2430-6 pubmed
    ..The enzymic general base required to facilitate proton transfer in redox catalysis by this enzyme may be the general base that facilitates enolization of the chloroacetol moiety of UDC in the inactivation reaction. ..
  53. Tsirkone V, Dossi K, Drakou C, Zographos S, Kontou M, Leonidas D. Inhibitor design for ribonuclease A: the binding of two 5'-phosphate uridine analogues. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2009;65:671-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The unexpected binding of a pyrimidine at the purine-binding subsite has added new important elements to the rational design approach for the discovery of new potent inhibitors of the RNase A superfamily. ..
  54. Nishimura Y, Maeda S, Ikushiro S, Mackenzie P, Ishii Y, Yamada H. Inhibitory effects of adenine nucleotides and related substances on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase: structure-effect relationships and evidence for an allosteric mechanism. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1770:1557-66 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that (1) a number of cellular nucleotides present within the endoplasmic reticulum regulate UGT function; and (2) these substances bind to a common allosteric site on UGT to reduce catalytic function. ..
  55. Bichlmaier I, Kurkela M, Siiskonen A, Finel M, Yli Kauhaluoma J. Eudismic analysis of tricyclic sesquiterpenoid alcohols: lead structures for the design of potent inhibitors of the human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7. Bioorg Chem. 2007;35:386-400 pubmed
    ..Considering the high inhibition levels exerted by the tricyclic sesquiterpenoid alcohols, these compounds might serve as valuable lead structures for the design of potent inhibitors for UGT2B7. ..
  56. Luo Y, Dixon C, Hall J, White P, Boarder M. A role for Akt in epidermal growth factor-stimulated cell cycle progression in cultured hepatocytes: generation of a hyperproliferative window after adenoviral expression of constitutively active Akt. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007;321:884-91 pubmed
  57. Vlajkovic S, Wang C, Soeller C, Zimmermann H, Thorne P, Housley G. Activation-dependent trafficking of NTPDase2 in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;39:810-7 pubmed
    ..The increase in surface-located NTPDase2 may reflect a regulatory mechanism counteracting excessive stimulation and desensitisation of P2 receptors. ..
  58. Damerow M, Rodrigues J, Wu D, Guther M, Mehlert A, Ferguson M. Identification and functional characterization of a highly divergent N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (TbGnTI) in Trypanosoma brucei. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:9328-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequence alignment reveals that the T. brucei enzyme is far removed from the metazoan GnTI family and suggests that the parasite has adapted the ?3-glycosyltransferase family to catalyze ?1-2 linkages. ..
  59. Lazarowski E. Vesicular and conductive mechanisms of nucleotide release. Purinergic Signal. 2012;8:359-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, plasma membrane connexin hemichannels, pannexin channels, and less-well molecularly defined ATP conducting anion channels have been shown to contribute to the release of ATP (and UTP) under a variety of conditions. ..
  60. Osawa T, Sugiura N, Shimada H, Hirooka R, Tsuji A, Shirakawa T, et al. Crystal structure of chondroitin polymerase from Escherichia coli K4. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;378:10-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The present K4CP structures have provided the structural basis for further investigating the molecular mechanism of biosynthesis of chondroitin chain. ..
  61. Steculorum S, Timper K, Engström Ruud L, Evers N, Paeger L, Bremser S, et al. Inhibition of P2Y6 Signaling in AgRP Neurons Reduces Food Intake and Improves Systemic Insulin Sensitivity in Obesity. Cell Rep. 2017;18:1587-1597 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these experiments define P2Y6 as a potential target to pharmacologically restrict both feeding and systemic insulin resistance in obesity. ..
  62. Wilkin F, Duhant X, Bruyns C, Suarez Huerta N, Boeynaems J, Robaye B. The P2Y11 receptor mediates the ATP-induced maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2001;166:7172-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results demonstrate that ATP activates DC through stimulation of the P2Y11 receptor and subsequent increase in intracellular cAMP. ..
  63. Kim S, Soltysiak K, Gao Z, Chang T, Chung E, Jacobson K. Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis in astrocytes is prevented by the activation of P2Y6, but not P2Y4 nucleotide receptors. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003;65:923-31 pubmed
    ..This is the first study to describe the cellular protective role of P2Y(6) nucleotide receptor activation. ..
  64. Lefebvre T, Drougat L, Olivier Van Stichelen S, Michalski J, Vercoutter Edouart A. Antibodies and activity measurements for the detection of O-GlcNAc transferase and assay of its substrate, UDP-GlcNAc. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;1022:147-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, a sensitive HPAEC-based technique to measure the cellular content of UDP-GlcNAc, the donor substrate of OGT, is described in detail. ..
  65. Zhang Y, Swaminathan G, Deshpande A, Boix E, Natesh R, Xie Z, et al. Roles of individual enzyme-substrate interactions by alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase in catalysis and specificity. Biochemistry. 2003;42:13512-21 pubmed
    ..These factors are manifested in increases in catalytic rate rather than substrate affinity. ..
  66. Suzuki O, Nozawa Y, Abe M. Regulatory roles of cell surface sialylation in susceptibility to sphingomyelinase in human diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Int J Oncol. 2005;27:209-14 pubmed
  67. Zhang Y, Ginsberg C, Yuan Y, Walker S. Acceptor substrate selectivity and kinetic mechanism of Bacillus subtilis TagA. Biochemistry. 2006;45:10895-904 pubmed
    ..TagA shares homology with a large family of bacterial glycosyltransferases, and the work described here should facilitate structural analysis of the enzyme in complex with its substrates. ..
  68. Magdalou J, Fournel Gigleux S, Ouzzine M. Insights on membrane topology and structure/function of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. Drug Metab Rev. 2010;42:159-66 pubmed publisher
    The main characteristic of uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferases is their potency to glucuronidate a large array of structurally unrelated substances with various nucleophilic groups...
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    ..The potency of these compounds stems from their ability to access both the substrate binding pocket and an adjacent site. ..
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    ..The lack of a sustained response to ATP is probably due to it acting at P2 receptor subtypes that desensitize rapidly. Thus multiple signalling mechanisms contribute to pulmonary artery vasoconstriction mediated by P2 receptors. ..
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    ..The structure also indicates how the subunits may communicate with each other through two reaction state sensors in this highly cooperative enzyme. ..
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    ..The topology imposed by docking a tetrameric assembly onto a membrane bilayer also provides novel insights into aspects of processivity and chain length regulation in this and possibly other polymerizing GTs...
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    ..Both methods revealed a greater abundance of O-linked glycoproteins in the nucleus compared to cytosol. ..
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    ..P2Y nucleotide receptors are involved in the regulation of vascular tone, smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and inflammatory responses. The present study investigated whether they are involved in atherosclerosis...
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    ..4 nM. In cardiac membranes, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and uridine diphosphate (UDP) (from 0.01-5 mM) concentration dependently inhibited [3H]Gli binding independent of Mg2+...
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    ..Altogether, UDP acting probably on P2Y(6) receptors present on the ciliary processes, can reduce intraocular pressure, indicating that this substance may be used for the treatment of ocular hypertension and glaucoma. ..
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    ..4 under optimal conditions. Therefore, the method described herein for the regeneration of UDP-galactose from UDP and sucrose can be widely used for the glycosylation of flavonoids and other bioactive substances. ..
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    ..e. K(ATP)) and can be activated by levcromakalim and that intracellular UDP causes a significant shift of the glibenclamide-sensitivity of these channels...
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    ..Both effects are likely to favour increased hydration of the airway surface, and may therefore be beneficial in CF. ..