nicotinamide mononucleotide


Summary: 3-Carbamoyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl pyridinium hydroxide-5'phosphate, inner salt. A nucleotide in which the nitrogenous base, nicotinamide, is in beta-N-glycosidic linkage with the C-1 position of D-ribose. Synonyms: Nicotinamide Ribonucleotide; NMN.

Top Publications

  1. Yamamoto Katayama S, Ariyoshi M, Ishihara K, Hirano T, Jingami H, Morikawa K. Crystallographic studies on human BST-1/CD157 with ADP-ribosyl cyclase and NAD glycohydrolase activities. J Mol Biol. 2002;316:711-23 pubmed
    ..The three key residues are invariant among the sequences of BST-1, CD38, and Aplysia cyclase, and hence this substrate recognition mode and catalytic scheme appear to be common in the cyclase family. ..
  2. Caton P, Kieswich J, Yaqoob M, Holness M, Sugden M. Nicotinamide mononucleotide protects against pro-inflammatory cytokine-mediated impairment of mouse islet function. Diabetologia. 2011;54:3083-92 pubmed publisher
    ..eNAMPT, secreted from adipose tissue, promotes insulin secretion. Administration of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a product of the eNAMPT reaction, corrects impaired islet function in Nampt ( +/- ) mice...
  3. Hara N, Yamada K, Shibata T, Osago H, Tsuchiya M. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase/visfatin does not catalyze nicotinamide mononucleotide formation in blood plasma. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22781 pubmed publisher
    ..phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in mammalian NAD synthesis, catalyzing nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) formation from Nam and 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate (PRPP)...
  4. Li Y, Zhang Y, Dorweiler B, Cui D, Wang T, Woo C, et al. Extracellular Nampt promotes macrophage survival via a nonenzymatic interleukin-6/STAT3 signaling mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:34833-43 pubmed publisher
    ..enzymatic substrate nicotinamide in the medium, could not be mimicked by the Nampt enzymatic product nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), was not blocked by the Nampt enzyme inhibitor FK866, and showed no correlation with enzyme ..
  5. Kim M, Im Y, Lee J, Eom S. Crystal structure of quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase from Helicobacter pylori. Proteins. 2006;63:252-5 pubmed publisher
  6. Werner E, Ziegler M, Lerner F, Schweiger M, Heinemann U. Crystal structure of human nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase in complex with NMN. FEBS Lett. 2002;516:239-44 pubmed cellular redox reactions and involved in intracellular signaling, is catalyzed by the enzyme nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNAT)...
  7. Sharma V, Grubmeyer C, Sacchettini J. Crystal structure of quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase from Mmycobacterium tuberculosis: a potential TB drug target. Structure. 1998;6:1587-99 pubmed
    ..The active site of type II PRTase bears little resemblance to the better known type I enzymes. ..
  8. Fujita Y, Furuta H, Ikawa Y. Tailoring RNA modular units on a common scaffold: a modular ribozyme with a catalytic unit for beta-nicotinamide mononucleotide-activated RNA ligation. RNA. 2009;15:877-88 pubmed publisher
    A novel ribozyme that accelerates the ligation of beta-nicotinamide mononucleotide (beta-NMN)-activated RNA fragments was isolated and characterized...
  9. Bogan K, Evans C, Belenky P, Song P, Burant C, Kennedy R, et al. Identification of Isn1 and Sdt1 as glucose- and vitamin-regulated nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinic acid mononucleotide [corrected] 5'-nucleotidases responsible for production of nicotinamide riboside and nicotinic acid riboside. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:34861-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A biochemical genomic screen indicated that three yeast enzymes possess nicotinamide mononucleotide 5'-nucleotidase activity in vitro...

More Information


  1. Magni G, Amici A, Emanuelli M, Orsomando G, Raffaelli N, Ruggieri S. Structure and function of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase. Curr Med Chem. 2004;11:873-85 pubmed
    The enzyme nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNAT), a member of the nucleotidyltransferase alpha/beta phosphodiesterase superfamily, catalyzes the reaction NMN + ATP = NAD + PPi, representing the final step in the ..
  2. Sorci L, Martynowski D, Rodionov D, Eyobo Y, Zogaj X, Klose K, et al. Nicotinamide mononucleotide synthetase is the key enzyme for an alternative route of NAD biosynthesis in Francisella tularensis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:3083-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this route, the amidation of NaMN to nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) occurs before the adenylylation reaction, which converts this alternative intermediate to the NAD ..
  3. Eads J, Ozturk D, Wexler T, Grubmeyer C, Sacchettini J. A new function for a common fold: the crystal structure of quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase. Structure. 1997;5:47-58 pubmed
    ..The new fold observed here demonstrates that the PRTase enzymes have evolved their similar chemistry from at least two completely different protein architectures. ..
  4. Cheng W, Roth J. Isolation of NAD cycle mutants defective in nicotinamide mononucleotide deamidase in Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:6711-7 pubmed
    The NAD or pyridine nucleotide cycle is the sequence of reactions involved in the breakdown of NAD to nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and regeneration of NAD...
  5. Hashida S, Takahashi H, Kawai Yamada M, Uchimiya H. Arabidopsis thaliana nicotinate/nicotinamide mononucleotide adenyltransferase (AtNMNAT) is required for pollen tube growth. Plant J. 2007;49:694-703 pubmed
    While mammals and fungi possess nicotinate/nicotinamide mononucleotide adenyltransferase (NMNAT) isoforms, Arabidopsis thaliana only contains a single NMNAT gene, AtNMNAT (At5g55810)...
  6. Kemmer G, Reilly T, Schmidt Brauns J, Zlotnik G, Green B, Fiske M, et al. NadN and e (P4) are essential for utilization of NAD and nicotinamide mononucleotide but not nicotinamide riboside in Haemophilus influenzae. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:3974-81 pubmed
    ..Factor V can be provided as either nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide (NAD), nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), or nicotinamide riboside (NR) in vitro, but little is known about the source or the mechanism of ..
  7. Grose J, Bergthorsson U, Xu Y, Sterneckert J, Khodaverdian B, Roth J. Assimilation of nicotinamide mononucleotide requires periplasmic AphA phosphatase in Salmonella enterica. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:4521-30 pubmed
    Salmonella enterica can obtain pyridine from exogenous nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) by three routes. In route 1, nicotinamide is removed from NMN in the periplasm and enters the cell as the free base...
  8. Sestini S, Ricci C, Micheli V, Pompucci G. Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase activity in human erythrocytes. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1993;302:206-11 pubmed
    b>Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMN-AT) activity has not hitherto been demonstrated in human red blood cells, owing to its low activity...
  9. Yamada K, Hara N, Shibata T, Osago H, Tsuchiya M. The simultaneous measurement of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and related compounds by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem. 2006;352:282-5 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that our method sensitively, specifically, and simultaneously measures cellular NAD(+) and related compounds. ..
  10. Revollo J, Körner A, Mills K, Satoh A, Wang T, Garten A, et al. Nampt/PBEF/Visfatin regulates insulin secretion in beta cells as a systemic NAD biosynthetic enzyme. Cell Metab. 2007;6:363-75 pubmed
    ..These defects are corrected by administration of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a product of the Nampt reaction...
  11. Burgos E, Schramm V. Weak coupling of ATP hydrolysis to the chemical equilibrium of human nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase. Biochemistry. 2008;47:11086-96 pubmed publisher
    Human nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT, EC catalyzes the reversible synthesis of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and inorganic pyrophosphate (PP i) from nicotinamide (NAM) and alpha- d-5-phosphoribosyl-1-..
  12. Barile M, Passarella S, Danese G, Quagliariello E. Rat liver mitochondria can synthesize nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide from nicotinamide mononucleotide and ATP via a putative matrix nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase. Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1996;38:297-306 pubmed
    ..C., inhibited by PPi, AMP and ADP-ribose. Some features of this enzyme, including the substrate, pH and temperature dependence were also investigated. ..
  13. Wang P, Xu T, Guan Y, Su D, Fan G, Miao C. Perivascular adipose tissue-derived visfatin is a vascular smooth muscle cell growth factor: role of nicotinamide mononucleotide. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;81:370-80 pubmed publisher
    ..However, visfatin acted as a nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase to biosynthesize nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), which mediated proliferative signalling pathways and cell proliferation similar to the visfatin ..
  14. Formentini L, Moroni F, Chiarugi A. Detection and pharmacological modulation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) in vitro and in vivo. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009;77:1612-20 pubmed publisher
    ..NAD-rescue pathway is operated by nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NaPRT) forming nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN)...
  15. Zhu N, Olivera B, Roth J. Activity of the nicotinamide mononucleotide transport system is regulated in Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:1311-20 pubmed
    Transport of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) requires two functions, NadI(T) and PnuC...
  16. Yoshino J, Mills K, Yoon M, Imai S. Nicotinamide mononucleotide, a key NAD(+) intermediate, treats the pathophysiology of diet- and age-induced diabetes in mice. Cell Metab. 2011;14:528-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Strikingly, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a product of the NAMPT reaction and a key NAD(+) intermediate, ameliorates glucose intolerance ..
  17. Brumaghim J, Li Y, Henle E, Linn S. Effects of hydrogen peroxide upon nicotinamide nucleotide metabolism in Escherichia coli: changes in enzyme levels and nicotinamide nucleotide pools and studies of the oxidation of NAD(P)H by Fe(III). J Biol Chem. 2003;278:42495-504 pubmed
    ..NADPH complex than for the Fe3+.NADH complex. We therefore suggest that upon exposure to H2O2 the NADH pool is depleted, and NADPH, which is less reactive with Fe3+, functions as the major nicotinamide nucleotide reductant. ..
  18. Marinescu G, Popescu R, Dinischiotu A. Size Exclusion Chromatography Method for Purification of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN) from Bacterial Cells. Sci Rep. 2018;8:4433 pubmed publisher
    ..successful attempts at reversing type 2 diabetes by the administering of the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN)...
  19. Vinitsky A, Grubmeyer C. A new paradigm for biochemical energy coupling. Salmonella typhimurium nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:26004-10 pubmed
    ..A model is presented in which alternation of high and low affinity forms of NAPRTase provides a "steady-state" coupling between ATP hydrolysis and NAMN formation. ..
  20. Göckel A, Richert C. Synthesis of an oligonucleotide with a nicotinamide mononucleotide residue and its molecular recognition in DNA helices. Org Biomol Chem. 2015;13:10303-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Its redox reactivity is based on the nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) moiety...
  21. Unciuleac M, Goldgur Y, Shuman S. Two-metal versus one-metal mechanisms of lysine adenylylation by ATP-dependent and NAD+-dependent polynucleotide ligases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:2592-2597 pubmed publisher
    ..the NAD+ α phosphate, but the β phosphate and the nicotinamide nucleoside of the nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) leaving group are oriented solely via atomic interactions with protein elements that are unique ..
  22. Hagen T, Ziegler M. Detection and identification of NAD-catabolizing activities in rat tissue homogenates. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997;1340:7-12 pubmed
    ..The procedure is suitable to screen for NAD-converting activities in crude extracts. It is specific for proteins which function as monomers or homo-oligomers. ..
  23. Ali Y, Li Kroeger D, Bellen H, Zhai R, Lu H. NMNATs, evolutionarily conserved neuronal maintenance factors. Trends Neurosci. 2013;36:632-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have revealed a key neuronal maintenance and protective function for nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferases (NMNATs)...
  24. Chen Y, Liang Y, Hu T, Wei R, Cai C, Wang P, et al. Endogenous Nampt upregulation is associated with diabetic nephropathy inflammatory-fibrosis through the NF-?B p65 and Sirt1 pathway; NMN alleviates diabetic nephropathy inflammatory-fibrosis by inhibiting endogenous Nampt. Exp Ther Med. 2017;14:4181-4193 pubmed publisher
    ..01). Treatment with FK866 and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) led to downregulation of vimentin and fibronectin, respectively...
  25. Hasegawa K, Wakino S, Simic P, Sakamaki Y, Minakuchi H, Fujimura K, et al. Renal tubular Sirt1 attenuates diabetic albuminuria by epigenetically suppressing Claudin-1 overexpression in podocytes. Nat Med. 2013;19:1496-504 pubmed publisher
    ..We also demonstrated retrograde interplay from PTs to glomeruli using nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) from conditioned medium, measurement of the autofluorescence of photoactivatable NMN and ..
  26. Zhu N, Olivera B, Roth J. Genetic characterization of the pnuC gene, which encodes a component of the nicotinamide mononucleotide transport system in Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:4402-9 pubmed
    The pnuC gene, which encodes a component of the nicotinamide mononucleotide transport system, has been mapped and oriented. The gene order of the pnuC region, which is at min 17 of the Salmonella chromosome, is nadA-pnuC-aroG-gal...
  27. Galindo R, Banks Greenberg M, Araki T, Sasaki Y, Mehta N, Milbrandt J, et al. NMNAT3 is protective against the effects of neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia. Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2017;4:722-738 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether the NAD+ biosynthetic protein, nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase-3 (NMNAT3), is a neuroprotective inducible enzyme capable of decreasing cerebral injury after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (H-I) and ..
  28. Mao X, Kaufman D, Crowder C. Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase promotes hypoxic survival by activating the mitochondrial unfolded protein response. Cell Death Dis. 2016;7:e2113 pubmed publisher
    Gain-of-function mutations in the mouse nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase type 1 (Nmnat1) produce two remarkable phenotypes: protection against traumatic axonal degeneration and reduced hypoxic brain injury...
  29. Bi J, Wang H, Xie J. Comparative genomics of NAD(P) biosynthesis and novel antibiotic drug targets. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:331-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Three regulatory factors NadR, NiaR, and NrtR, which regulate NAD biosynthesis, have been identified. M. tuberculosis NAD(P) metabolism and regulation thereof, potential drug targets and drug development are summarized in this paper. ..
  30. Patel A, Pandya A. Effects of chronic manganese toxicity on tissue levels and urinary excretion of nicotinamide nucleotides in rats. Hum Exp Toxicol. 1994;13:307-9 pubmed
    ..There was a progressive increase in the excretion of TNN during the experimental period. TNN levels in blood and urine might serve as useful biological indicators of Mn toxicity. ..
  31. Yao Z, Yang W, Gao Z, Jia P. Nicotinamide mononucleotide inhibits JNK activation to reverse Alzheimer disease. Neurosci Lett. 2017;647:133-140 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), the important precursor of NAD+, is produced during the reaction of nicotinamide phosphoribosyl ..
  32. Oyarzún A, Westermeier F, Pennanen C, López Crisosto C, Parra V, Sotomayor Flores C, et al. FK866 compromises mitochondrial metabolism and adaptive stress responses in cultured cardiomyocytes. Biochem Pharmacol. 2015;98:92-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Restoring NAD(+) levels via nicotinamide mononucleotide administration reestablished mitochondrial metabolism and adaptive stress responses...
  33. Reidl J, Schlör S, Kraiss A, Schmidt Brauns J, Kemmer G, Soleva E. NADP and NAD utilization in Haemophilus influenzae. Mol Microbiol. 2000;35:1573-81 pubmed
    ..In addition, adenosine was identified as a potent growth inhibitor of wild-type H. influenzae strains, when NADP was used as the sole source of nicotinamide-ribosyl. ..
  34. D Ambrosio K, Pailot A, Talfournier F, Didierjean C, Benedetti E, Aubry A, et al. The first crystal structure of a thioacylenzyme intermediate in the ALDH family: new coenzyme conformation and relevance to catalysis. Biochemistry. 2006;45:2978-86 pubmed publisher
  35. Birrell J, Hirst J. Investigation of NADH binding, hydride transfer, and NAD(+) dissociation during NADH oxidation by mitochondrial complex I using modified nicotinamide nucleotides. Biochemistry. 2013;52:4048-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Using fast nucleotide reactions and a balance between the nucleotide binding constants and concentrations, complex I combines fast and energy-conserving NADH oxidation with minimal superoxide production from the nucleotide-free site. ..
  36. Emanuelli M, Amici A, Carnevali F, Pierella F, Raffaelli N, Magni G. Identification and characterization of a second NMN adenylyltransferase gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Protein Expr Purif. 2003;27:357-64 pubmed
    The enzyme nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) adenylyltransferase (NMNAT) (EC catalyzes the transfer of the adenylyl moiety of ATP to NMN to form NAD(+)...
  37. Buonvicino D, Mazzola F, Zamporlini F, Resta F, Ranieri G, Camaioni E, et al. Identification of the Nicotinamide Salvage Pathway as a New Toxification Route for Antimetabolites. Cell Chem Biol. 2018;25:471-482.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..patients because several metabolic routes circumvent the enzymatic block converging directly on nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferases (NMNATs) for NAD synthesis...
  38. Mills K, Yoshida S, Stein L, Grozio A, Kubota S, Sasaki Y, et al. Long-Term Administration of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Mitigates Age-Associated Physiological Decline in Mice. Cell Metab. 2016;24:795-806 pubmed publisher
    NAD+ availability decreases with age and in certain disease conditions. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a key NAD+ intermediate, has been shown to enhance NAD+ biosynthesis and ameliorate various ..
  39. Ali Y, Allen H, Yu L, Li Kroeger D, Bakhshizadehmahmoudi D, Hatcher A, et al. NMNAT2:HSP90 Complex Mediates Proteostasis in Proteinopathies. PLoS Biol. 2016;14:e1002472 pubmed publisher
    b>Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferase 2 (NMNAT2) is neuroprotective in numerous preclinical models of neurodegeneration...
  40. Slivicki R, Ali Y, Lu H, Hohmann A. Impact of Genetic Reduction of NMNAT2 on Chemotherapy-Induced Losses in Cell Viability In Vitro and Peripheral Neuropathy In Vivo. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0147620 pubmed publisher
    b>Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferases (NMNATs) are essential neuronal maintenance factors postulated to preserve neuronal function and protect against axonal degeneration in various neurodegenerative disease states...
  41. Ali Y, Bradley G, Lu H. Screening with an NMNAT2-MSD platform identifies small molecules that modulate NMNAT2 levels in cortical neurons. Sci Rep. 2017;7:43846 pubmed publisher
    b>Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferase 2 (NMNAT2) is a key neuronal maintenance factor and provides potent neuroprotection in numerous preclinical models of neurological disorders...
  42. Zhao Y, Guan Y, Zhou X, Li G, Li Z, Zhou C, et al. Regenerative Neurogenesis After Ischemic Stroke Promoted by Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase-Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Cascade. Stroke. 2015;46:1966-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides, nicotinamide mononucleotide and NAD, two chemical enzymatic product of Nampt, were administrated in vivo and in vitro...
  43. Singh H, Schuermann J, Reilly T, Calcutt M, Tanner J. Recognition of nucleoside monophosphate substrates by Haemophilus influenzae class C acid phosphatase. J Mol Biol. 2010;404:639-49 pubmed publisher
    ..from Haemophilus influenzae functions in a vestigial NAD(+) utilization pathway by dephosphorylating nicotinamide mononucleotide to nicotinamide riboside...
  44. Goncalves S, Miller S, Carrondo M, DEAN A, Matias P. Induced fit and the catalytic mechanism of isocitrate dehydrogenase. Biochemistry. 2012;51:7098-115 pubmed
    ..established between Thr105 and Ser113, which flank the "phosphorylation loop", and the nicotinamide mononucleotide moiety of NADP(+) establish productive coenzyme binding...
  45. Guan Y, Wang S, Huang X, Xie Q, Xu Y, Shang D, et al. Nicotinamide Mononucleotide, an NAD+ Precursor, Rescues Age-Associated Susceptibility to AKI in a Sirtuin 1-Dependent Manner. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017;28:2337-2352 pubmed publisher
    ..the renal protective molecule sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and its cofactor NAD+ Supplementation with nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), an NAD+ precursor, restored renal SIRT1 activity and NAD+ content in 20-..
  46. Stein L, Imai S. Specific ablation of Nampt in adult neural stem cells recapitulates their functional defects during aging. EMBO J. 2014;33:1321-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These phenotypes recapitulate defects in NSPCs during aging, giving rise to the possibility that Nampt-mediated NAD(+) biosynthesis is a mediator of age-associated functional declines in NSPCs. ..
  47. Gerdes S, Kurnasov O, Shatalin K, Polanuyer B, Sloutsky R, Vonstein V, et al. Comparative genomics of NAD biosynthesis in cyanobacteria. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:3012-23 pubmed
    ..This gene is essential for survival and cannot be compensated for by an alternative nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN)-preferring adenylyltransferase (slr0787 gene)...
  48. Xu R, Yuan Z, Yang L, Li L, Li D, Lv C. Inhibition of NAMPT decreases cell growth and enhances susceptibility to oxidative stress. Oncol Rep. 2017;38:1767-1773 pubmed publisher
    ..the scavenge pathway in which nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) catalyzes the formation of nicotinamide mononucleotide. Inhibition of NAMPT is a therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment...
  49. Rozenberg A, Lee J. Theoretical studies of the quinolinic acid to nicotinic acid mononucleotide transformation. J Org Chem. 2008;73:9314-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss our results in the context of existing experimental data. ..
  50. Hove Jensen B. Phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthetase-independent NAD de novo synthesis in Escherichia coli: a new phenotype of phosphate regulon mutants. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:714-22 pubmed
  51. Kwong A, Chen Z, Zhang H, Leung F, Lam C, Ting K, et al. Catalysis-based inhibitors of the calcium signaling function of CD38. Biochemistry. 2012;51:555-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These compounds thus represent the first generally applicable and catalysis-based inhibitors of the Ca(2+) signaling function of CD38. ..
  52. Garavaglia S, Bruzzone S, Cassani C, Canella L, Allegrone G, Sturla L, et al. The high-resolution crystal structure of periplasmic Haemophilus influenzae NAD nucleotidase reveals a novel enzymatic function of human CD73 related to NAD metabolism. Biochem J. 2012;441:131-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data may prove to be useful for inhibitor design and disclosed unanticipated fascinating evolutionary relationships...
  53. Imai T. Kinetic analysis of the transglycosidation reaction catalyzed by rabbit spleen pyridine nucleotide glycohydrolase. J Biochem. 1989;106:938-48 pubmed
  54. Tan D, Manchester L, Sainz R, Mayo J, Leon J, Hardeland R, et al. Interactions between melatonin and nicotinamide nucleotide: NADH preservation in cells and in cell-free systems by melatonin. J Pineal Res. 2005;39:185-94 pubmed
    ..Recycling of NADH by melatonin might improve the efficiency of NADH as an energy carrier and as an antioxidant. Interactions between melatonin and NADH may be implicated in mitochondrial metabolism. ..
  55. Elzainy T, Ali T. NAD deamidation "a new reaction" by an enzyme from Aspergillus terreus DSM 826. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2005;87:119-29 pubmed
    ..cleavage of the amide linkages of different biomolecules such as nicotinamide, nicotinamide riboside, nicotinamide mononucleotide, L-glutamine, L-asparagine and acetamide. Polyacrylamide was also deamidated under the same conditions...
  56. Billen D, Hellermann G. Role of deoxyribonucleic acid polymerases and deoxyribonucleic acid ligase in x-ray-induced repair synthesis in toluene-treated Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1976;126:785-93 pubmed
    ..DNA polymerases II and III apparently cannot complete chain elongation and gap filling, and therefore repair carried out by these enzymes does not respond to ligase action. ..
  57. Shibata K, Fukuwatari T, Sugimoto E. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of nicotinic acid mononucleotide for measurement of quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 2000;749:281-5 pubmed
    ..The total HPLC analysis time was approximately 20 min. ..
  58. Imai T. Isolation and properties of a glycohydrolase specific for nicotinamide mononucleotide from Azotobacter vinelandii. J Biochem. 1979;85:887-99 pubmed
    ..The ability of this enzyme to cleave NMN is suggestive of a metabolic role of the enzyme in selective conversion of NMN to nicotinamide, which, in turn, would be re-utilized by the cell as a precursor of NAD via nicotinic acid. ..
  59. Panasenko S, Modrich P, Lehman I. Modification of Escherichia coli DNA ligase by cleavage with trypsin. J Biol Chem. 1976;251:3432-5 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that portions of the DNA ligase molecule that are required for phosphodiester bond formation are not required for at least one of the partial reactions catalyzed by this enzyme. ..
  60. Zhu N, Roth J. The nadI region of Salmonella typhimurium encodes a bifunctional regulatory protein. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:1302-10 pubmed
    ..isolated on the basis of defects in repression of NAD biosynthetic genes and defects in transport nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN)...
  61. Tsuge H, Nagahama M, Nishimura H, Hisatsune J, Sakaguchi Y, Itogawa Y, et al. Crystal structure and site-directed mutagenesis of enzymatic components from Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin. J Mol Biol. 2003;325:471-83 pubmed
    ..The high resolution structure analysis revealed specific NAD conformation (a ring-like conformation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN)) supported by Arg295, Arg296, Asn335, Arg352 and Glu380...
  62. Sheng F, Ren X, Dai X, Xu X, Dong M, Pei Q, et al. Effect of nicotinamide mononucleotide on insulin secretion and gene expressions of PDX-1 and FoxO1 in RIN-m5f cells. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2011;36:958-63 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effect of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) on insulin secretion and gene expressions of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1(PDX-1) and forkhead box-containing protein O-1 (FoxO1), which were important transcription ..
  63. Youn H, Kim M, Kang G, Kim T, Lee J, An J, et al. Crystal structure of Sus scrofa quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase in complex with nicotinate mononucleotide. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62027 pubmed publisher
    ..pylori and M. tuberculosis. ..
  64. Yoon J, Lee K, Oh G, Kim G, Kim S. Regulation of Nampt expression by transcriptional coactivator NCOA6 in pancreatic ?-cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;487:600-606 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, treatment with nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a product of the Nampt reaction and a key NAD+ intermediate, ameliorates glucose-..
  65. Gauduel Y, Berrod S, Migus A, Yamada N, Antonetti A. Femtosecond charge separation in organized assemblies: free-radical reactions with pyridine nucleotides in micelles. Biochemistry. 1988;27:2509-18 pubmed
    ..This suggests that an ultrafast free-radical reaction with an oxidized form of pyridine nucleotide can be triggered by a single electron transfer in less than 5 X 10(11) s-1. ..
  66. Liu R, Visscher J. A novel preparation of nicotinamide mononucleotide. Nucleosides Nucleotides. 1994;13:1215-6 pubmed
    b>Nicotinamide mononucleotide is conveniently prepared from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide by specific hydrolysis of the pyrophosphate bond using the Zr4+ ion as catalyst.
  67. Eklund H, Samama J, Jones T. Crystallographic investigations of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide binding to horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase. Biochemistry. 1984;23:5982-96 pubmed
    ..As a comparison, ADP-ribose binding has been studied in the open form of the enzyme. The adenosine moiety binds in a similar way as NAD, while the rest of the molecule has different interactions...
  68. Raffaelli N, Amici A, Emanuelli M, Ruggieri S, Magni G. Pyridine dinucleotide biosynthesis in archaebacteria: presence of NMN adenylyltransferase in Sulfolobus solfataricus. FEBS Lett. 1994;355:233-6 pubmed
    ..4. The Km values for ATP, NMN and nicotinic acid mononucleotide are 0.08 microM, 1.4 microM and 17 microM, respectively. The enzyme shows a remarkable degree of thermophilicity, with an activation energy of 95 kJ/mol. ..
  69. Khan J, Xiang S, Tong L. Crystal structure of human nicotinamide riboside kinase. Structure. 2007;15:1005-13 pubmed
    ..We report here the crystal structures of human NRK1 in a binary complex with the reaction product nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) at 1.5 A resolution and in a ternary complex with ADP and tiazofurin at 2.7 A resolution...
  70. Ramsey K, Mills K, Satoh A, Imai S. Age-associated loss of Sirt1-mediated enhancement of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in beta cell-specific Sirt1-overexpressing (BESTO) mice. Aging Cell. 2008;7:78-88 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, plasma levels of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), an important metabolite for the maintenance of normal NAD biosynthesis and GSIS in beta cells, ..
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    ..Since the Py/X species are stable and inert toward endogeneous reductants like ascorbate and GSH, they may generally be useful markers for assessing the contribution of hypohalous acids to inflammatory injury. ..
  72. Denicola Seoane A, Anderson B. Studies of NAD kinase and NMN:ATP adenylyltransferase in Haemophilus influenzae. J Gen Microbiol. 1990;136:425-30 pubmed
    ..influenzae periplasmic nucleotide pyrophosphatase. The presence of an additional important pyridine nucleotide-dependent enzyme, NMN glycohydrolase, is also reported. ..
  73. Auchère F, Bertho G, Artaud I, Girault J, Capeillere Blandin C. Purification and structure of the major product obtained by reaction of NADPH and NMNH with the myeloperoxidase/hydrogen peroxide/chloride system. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:2889-95 pubmed
    ..Further NOESY experiments allowed the characterization of the spatial structure of the chlorinated product and showed that trans HOCl addition occurred at the C5=C6 carbon double bond of the nicotinamide ring, leading to a chlorohydrin. ..
  74. Ashihara H, Yin Y, Katahira R, Watanabe S, Mimura T, Sasamoto H. Comparison of the formation of nicotinic acid conjugates in leaves of different plant species. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2012;60:190-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In most cases the formation of both nicotinic acid conjugates is incompatible, but some exceptions have been found. ..
  75. Billen D, Hellermann G, Stallions D. Role for deoxyribonucleic acid ligase in deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase i-dependent repair synthesis in toluene-treated escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1975;124:585-8 pubmed
    ..At the permissive temperature, 30 C, nearly normal semiconservative synthesis and limited repair synthesis were observed when DNA ligase was activated by the addition of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. ..
  76. Rajavel M, Lalo D, Gross J, Grubmeyer C. Conversion of a cosubstrate to an inhibitor: phosphorylation mutants of nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase. Biochemistry. 1998;37:4181-8 pubmed
    ..We have cloned, overexpressed, and purified the yeast enzyme and report its kinetic properties, which are similar to those of the bacterial enzyme. ..
  77. Love M, Szebenyi D, Kriksunov I, Thiel D, Munshi C, Graeff R, et al. ADP-ribosyl cyclase; crystal structures reveal a covalent intermediate. Structure. 2004;12:477-86 pubmed
    ..Moreover, a ribosylation mechanism can be proposed in which the cyclization reaction proceeds through a covalently bound intermediate. ..
  78. Wang K, Conn K, Lazarovits G. Involvement of quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase in promotion of potato growth by a Burkholderia strain. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:760-8 pubmed
    ..Growth promotion by H41 was fully restored by addition of NaMN to the tissue culture medium. These data suggested that QAPRTase may play a role in the signal pathway for promotion of plant growth by PsJN. ..
  79. Wang G, Pichersky E. Nicotinamidase participates in the salvage pathway of NAD biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2007;49:1020-9 pubmed nicotinic acid, while mammals lack the enzyme nicotinamidase and instead convert nicotinamide to nicotinamide mononucleotide. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana gene At2g22570 encodes a nicotinamidase, which is expressed in ..
  80. Liu R, Orgel L. Enzymatic synthesis of polymers containing nicotinamide mononucleotide. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995;23:3742-9 pubmed
    ..T4 polynucleotide kinase accepts oligomers of nicotinamide mononucleotide as substrates...
  81. Venkateshaiah S, Khan S, Ling W, Bam R, Li X, van Rhee F, et al. NAMPT/PBEF1 enzymatic activity is indispensable for myeloma cell growth and osteoclast activity. Exp Hematol. 2013;41:547-557.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that MM cells and osteoclasts are highly sensitive to NAD(+) depletion and that PBEF1 inhibition represents a novel approach to target cellular metabolism and inhibit PARP-1 and bone disease in MM. ..
  82. Zhang R, Qin Y, Lv X, Wang P, Xu T, Zhang L, et al. A fluorometric assay for high-throughput screening targeting nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase. Anal Biochem. 2011;412:18-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we developed a fluorometric method for a Nampt activity assay by measuring the fluorescence of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) derivative resulting from the enzymatic product NMN through simple chemical reactions...
  83. Kim M, Lee J, Kim H, Park S, Kim S, Kang G, et al. Crystal structure of visfatin/pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor 1/nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, free and in complex with the anti-cancer agent FK-866. J Mol Biol. 2006;362:66-77 pubmed
    ..the first crystal structure of visfatin in three different forms: apo and in complex with either nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) or the NAmPRTase inhibitor FK-866 which was developed as an anti-cancer agent, interferes with ..
  84. Jansen E, van den Berg R, Boink A, Hegger C, Meulenbelt J. A new physiological biomarker for nitrate exposure in humans. Toxicol Lett. 1995;77:265-9 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that NMN can possibly be a good biomarker for the internal nitrite exposure of humans, but further studies are necessary to assess its value. ..
  85. Huang F, Bugg C, Yarus M. RNA-Catalyzed CoA, NAD, and FAD synthesis from phosphopantetheine, NMN, and FMN. Biochemistry. 2000;39:15548-55 pubmed
    ..Both ribozymes require divalent manganese for activities. The results support the availability of these coenzymes in an RNA world, and point to a chemical explanation for the complex bipartite structures of many coenzymes. ..