cytidine triphosphate


Summary: Cytidine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.

Top Publications

  1. Kang G, Cooney D, Moyer J, Kelley J, Kim H, Marquez V, et al. Cyclopentenylcytosine triphosphate. Formation and inhibition of CTP synthetase. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:713-8 pubmed
    ..The Hill coefficient was calculated to be 3.2. ..
  2. Wylie J, Berry J, McClarty G. Chlamydia trachomatis CTP synthetase: molecular characterization and developmental regulation of expression. Mol Microbiol. 1996;22:631-42 pubmed
    ..However, the K(m) of the enzyme for UTP was lower than that of E. coli CTP synthetase, presumably in response to the low intracellular concentration of this nucleotide in C. trachomatis...
  3. Endrizzi J, Kim H, Anderson P, Baldwin E. Crystal structure of Escherichia coli cytidine triphosphate synthetase, a nucleotide-regulated glutamine amidotransferase/ATP-dependent amidoligase fusion protein and homologue of anticancer and antiparasitic drug targets. Biochemistry. 2004;43:6447-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Cytidine triphosphate synthetases (CTPSs) produce CTP from UTP and glutamine, and regulate intracellular CTP levels through interactions with the four ribonucleotide triphosphates. We solved the 2...
  4. Stagno J, Aphasizheva I, Aphasizhev R, Luecke H. Dual role of the RNA substrate in selectivity and catalysis by terminal uridylyl transferases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14634-9 pubmed
    ..We propose a dual role for RNA substrates in TUTase-catalyzed reactions: contribution to selective incorporation of the cognate nucleoside and shaping of the catalytic metal binding site. ..
  5. Walia G, Kumar P, Surolia A. The role of UPF0157 in the folding of M. tuberculosis dephosphocoenzyme A kinase and the regulation of the latter by CTP. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7645 pubmed publisher
    ..In view of the evidence presented, it is imperative to assign a greater role to the last enzyme of Coenzyme A biosynthesis in metabolite flow regulation through this critical biosynthetic pathway...
  6. Ferraro P, Franzolin E, Pontarin G, Reichard P, Bianchi V. Quantitation of cellular deoxynucleoside triphosphates. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:e85 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that in some earlier reports ribonucleotide incorporation may have caused too high values for dGTP and dCTP. ..
  7. Blackstock A, Lightfoot H, Case L, Tepper J, Mukherji S, Mitchell B, et al. Tumor uptake and elimination of 2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine (gemcitabine) after deoxycytidine kinase gene transfer: correlation with in vivo tumor response. Clin Cancer Res. 2001;7:3263-8 pubmed
    ..These data are relevant to future preclinical and clinical studies evaluating dCK gene transfer and dFdCyd therapy. ..
  8. Verschuur A, van Gennip A, Leen R, Voute P, Brinkman J, van Kuilenburg A. Cyclopentenyl cytosine increases the phosphorylation and incorporation into DNA of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl cytosine in a human T-lymphoblastic cell line. Int J Cancer. 2002;98:616-23 pubmed
    ..The modulation by CPEC of araC metabolism was accompanied by a synergistic increase of araC-induced apoptosis and by an additive effect on the araC-induced growth inhibition. ..
  9. Endrizzi J, Kim H, Anderson P, Baldwin E. Mechanisms of product feedback regulation and drug resistance in cytidine triphosphate synthetases from the structure of a CTP-inhibited complex. Biochemistry. 2005;44:13491-9 pubmed
    b>Cytidine triphosphate synthetases (CTPSs) synthesize CTP and regulate its intracellular concentration through direct interactions with the four ribonucleotide triphosphates...

More Information

Publications102 found, 100 shown here

  1. Liu J. Intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase in Drosophila. J Genet Genomics. 2010;37:281-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The observation of compartmentation of CTP synthase now permits a broad range of questions to be addressed concerning not only the structure and function of cytoophidia but also the organization and regulation of CTP synthesis. ..
  2. Liu J. The enigmatic cytoophidium: compartmentation of CTP synthase via filament formation. Bioessays. 2011;33:159-64 pubmed publisher
  3. Lewis D, Villafranca J. Investigation of the mechanism of CTP synthetase using rapid quench and isotope partitioning methods. Biochemistry. 1989;28:8454-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, the presence of glutamine shifts the internal equilibrium constant to favor formation of the phosphorylated UTP intermediate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  4. Szkopinska A, Nowak L, Swiezewska E, Palamarczyk G. CTP-dependent lipid kinases of yeast. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1988;266:124-31 pubmed
    ..This result points to the specific role of CTP as a gamma-phosphate donor for the synthesis of phosphatidate and dolichyl phosphates in the yeast system. ..
  5. Han G, O Hara L, Siniossoglou S, Carman G. Characterization of the yeast DGK1-encoded CTP-dependent diacylglycerol kinase. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:20443-53 pubmed publisher
    ..4 mm) and competitive inhibitor (apparent K(i) = 0.4 mm) of the enzyme. Diacylglycerol kinase activity was stimulated by major membrane phospholipids and was inhibited by CDP-diacylglycerol and sphingoid bases. ..
  6. Heyes D, Levy C, Lafite P, Roberts I, Goldrick M, Stachulski A, et al. Structure-based mechanism of CMP-2-keto-3-deoxymanno-octulonic acid synthetase: convergent evolution of a sugar-activating enzyme with DNA/RNA polymerases. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:35514-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Although each metal ion assists in correct positioning of the substrates and activation of the alpha-phosphate, Mg-A is responsible for activation of the sugar-hydroxyl group. ..
  7. Ostrander D, O Brien D, Gorman J, Carman G. Effect of CTP synthetase regulation by CTP on phospholipid synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:18992-9001 pubmed
    ..8-fold), and a decrease in diacylglycerol (1. 3-fold) when compared with control cells. These data indicated that the regulation of CTP synthetase activity by CTP plays an important role in the regulation of phospholipid synthesis. ..
  8. Hofer A, Steverding D, Chabes A, Brun R, Thelander L. Trypanosoma brucei CTP synthetase: a target for the treatment of African sleeping sickness. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:6412-6 pubmed
    ..For treatment of sleeping sickness, we propose the use of CTP synthetase inhibitors alone or in combination with appropriate nucleosides or bases...
  9. Jelakovic S, Schulz G. The structure of CMP:2-keto-3-deoxy-manno-octonic acid synthetase and of its complexes with substrates and substrate analogs. J Mol Biol. 2001;312:143-55 pubmed
    ..The N-terminal domain shows sequence homology with the CMP-NeuAc synthetases. Moreover, the chain fold and the substrate-binding position of CKS resemble those of other enzymes processing nucleotide-sugars. ..
  10. Jelakovic S, Schulz G. Catalytic mechanism of CMP:2-keto-3-deoxy-manno-octonic acid synthetase as derived from complexes with reaction educt and product. Biochemistry. 2002;41:1174-81 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the chainfold and the substrate-binding positions resemble those of other enzymes processing nucleotide sugars. ..
  11. Carcamo W, Satoh M, Kasahara H, Terada N, Hamazaki T, Chan J, et al. Induction of cytoplasmic rods and rings structures by inhibition of the CTP and GTP synthetic pathway in mammalian cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e29690 pubmed publisher
    ..Further independent studies revealed that two key enzymes in the nucleotide synthetic pathway cytidine triphosphate synthase 1 (CTPS1) and inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase 2 (IMPDH2) were highly enriched in RR...
  12. McLean M, Tirosh I. Opposite GC skews at the 5' and 3' ends of genes in unicellular fungi. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:638 pubmed publisher
    ..The adaptive hypothesis is that cytidine triphosphate deficiency may lead to C-avoidance at the 3' ends of transcripts to control the flow of RNA pol II ..
  13. Hatch G, McClarty G. Regulation of cardiolipin biosynthesis in H9c2 cardiac myoblasts by cytidine 5'-triphosphate. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:25810-6 pubmed
  14. Huang Q, Lau S, Monks T. Induction of gadd153 mRNA by nutrient deprivation is overcome by glutamine. Biochem J. 1999;341 ( Pt 1):225-31 pubmed
    ..Finally, glutamine does not completely suppress DNA damage-induced gadd153 expression, suggesting that multiple signalling pathways lead to the expression of gadd153 mRNA under conditions of nutrient deprivation and DNA damage...
  15. Benkestock K, Edlund P, Roeraade J. On-line microdialysis for enhanced resolution and sensitivity during electrospray mass spectrometry of non-covalent complexes and competitive binding studies. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2002;16:2054-9 pubmed
    ..The second ligand competitively displaced the first ligand through transport via the wall of the dialysis fiber, and the intact complexes were detected by ESI-MS. ..
  16. Hoar P, Mahoney C, Kerrick W. MgADP- increases maximum tension and Ca2+ sensitivity in skinned rabbit soleus fibers. Pflugers Arch. 1987;410:30-6 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with the hypothesis that cooperative interactions between actin and myosin can affect the affinity of troponin for Ca2+. ..
  17. Patzlaff A, Newman L, Dubos C, Whetten R, Smith C, McInnis S, et al. Characterisation of Pt MYB1, an R2R3-MYB from pine xylem. Plant Mol Biol. 2003;53:597-608 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these finding are consistent with the hypothesis that Pt MYB1 may regulate transcription from cis -acting AC elements in pine xylem. ..
  18. Maláč K, Barvik I. Substrate recognition by norovirus polymerase: microsecond molecular dynamics study. J Comput Aided Mol Des. 2013;27:373-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, extremely rare events-as repetitive pervasion of Arg182 into a potentially reaction promoting arrangement-were captured. ..
  19. Uzawa T, Yamagishi A, Oshima T. Polypeptide synthesis directed by DNA as a messenger in cell-free polypeptide synthesis by extreme thermophiles, Thermus thermophilus HB27 and Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7. J Biochem. 2002;131:849-53 pubmed
    ..The cell-free systems can be used for direct production of proteins from genes in high throughput studies on the structural genomics of thermophilus. ..
  20. van Bree C, Barten van Rijbroek A, Leen R, Rodermond H, van Kuilenburg A, Kal H. Cyclopentenyl cytosine has biological and anti-tumour activity, but does not enhance the efficacy of gemcitabine and radiation in two animal tumour models. Int J Oncol. 2009;34:813-9 pubmed
    Cyclopentenyl cytosine (CPEC), targetting the de novo biosynthesis of cytidine triphosphate (CTP), increases the cytotoxicity of gemcitabine (2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine, dFdC) alone and in combination with irradiation in several ..
  21. Rederstorff M. Generation of cDNA libraries from RNP-derived regulatory noncoding RNAs. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;925:211-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Preliminary selection of ncRNAs from ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs) enables a strong enrichment of the generated libraries with functional regulatory ncRNAs compared to classical approaches. ..
  22. Ghavami M, Merino E, Yao Z, Elahi R, Simpson M, Fernández Murga M, et al. Biological Studies and Target Engagement of the 2-C-Methyl-d-Erythritol 4-Phosphate Cytidylyltransferase (IspD)-Targeting Antimalarial Agent (1R,3S)-MMV008138 and Analogs. ACS Infect Dis. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate cytidylyltransferase (IspD) in the MEP pathway, which converts MEP and cytidine triphosphate (CTP) to cytidinediphosphate methylerythritol (CDP-ME) and pyrophosphate...
  23. Geleziunas R, Gallagher K, Zhang H, Bacheler L, Garber S, Wu J, et al. HIV-1 resistance profile of the novel nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor beta-D-2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-didehydro-5-fluorocytidine (Reverset). Antivir Chem Chemother. 2003;14:49-59 pubmed
    ..3- to 8.7-fold resistance to D-d4FC in vitro. These findings suggest that D-d4FC may represent an alternative NRTI for the treatment of individuals infected with lamivudine- and zidovudine-resistant strains of HIV-1. ..
  24. Rodrigues M, Borges N, Henriques M, Lamosa P, Ventura R, Fernandes C, et al. Bifunctional CTP:inositol-1-phosphate cytidylyltransferase/CDP-inositol:inositol-1-phosphate transferase, the key enzyme for di-myo-inositol-phosphate synthesis in several (hyper)thermophiles. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:5405-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of the designation di-myo-inositol-1,3'-phosphate is recommended to facilitate tracing individual carbon atoms through metabolic pathways...
  25. Mendes K, Martinez J, Kantrowitz E. Asymmetric allosteric signaling in aspartate transcarbamoylase. ACS Chem Biol. 2010;5:499-506 pubmed publisher
    ..Correlation of binding and activity measurements explain how ATCase uses asymmetric allosteric sites to achieve regulatory sensitivity over a broad range of heterotropic effector concentrations. ..
  26. Yang W, Bruno M, Carman G. Regulation of yeast CTP synthetase activity by protein kinase C. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:11113-9 pubmed
    ..Phosphorylation of CTP synthetase resulted in a decrease in the enzyme's sensitivity to product inhibition by CTP. Phosphorylation did not affect the mechanism by which CTP inhibits CTP synthetase activity. ..
  27. Pal M, Luse D. Strong natural pausing by RNA polymerase II within 10 bases of transcription start may result in repeated slippage and reextension of the nascent RNA. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:30-40 pubmed
  28. Jeffrey J, Feng J, Qi C, Anderson K, Furman P. Dioxolane guanosine 5'-triphosphate, an alternative substrate inhibitor of wild-type and mutant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Steady state and pre-steady state kinetic analyses. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:18971-9 pubmed
    ..Overall, the enzymatic data correlated well with the antiviral data obtained from cell culture experiments and further supported the use of amdoxovir for the treatment of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-experienced patients. ..
  29. Matsuno H, Furusawa H, Okahata Y. Kinetic studies of DNA cleavage reactions catalyzed by an ATP-dependent deoxyribonuclease on a 27-MHz quartz-crystal microbalance. Biochemistry. 2005;44:2262-70 pubmed
    ..The DNA hydrolysis reaction could be driven by dATP and GTP (purine base) as well as ATP, whereas the cleavage efficiency was very low driven with UTP, CTP (pyrimidine base), ADP, and AMP. ..
  30. Takenaka M, Verbitskiy D, van der Merwe J, Zehrmann A, Plessmann U, Urlaub H, et al. In vitro RNA editing in plant mitochondria does not require added energy. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:2743-7 pubmed
    ..RNA editing in plant mitochondria is thus intrinsically independent of added energy in the form of NTP. ..
  31. Wild J, Johnson J, Loughrey S. ATP-liganded form of aspartate transcarbamoylase, the logical regulatory target for allosteric control in divergent bacterial systems. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:446-8 pubmed
    ..A common regulatory logic observed was that the ATP-activated enzymes were rendered less active as the result of competition with CTP, regardless of the independent effects. ..
  32. Yao J, Dotson G. Kinetic characterization of human phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1794:1743-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition studies with GTP and UTP as well as product inhibition studies with CMP and AMP suggest that human PPCS lacks strong nucleotide selectivity. ..
  33. Lee S, Zhu B, Hamdan S, Richardson C. Mechanism of sequence-specific template binding by the DNA primase of bacteriophage T7. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:4372-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a model in which conformational changes induced during primer synthesis facilitate contact between the zinc-binding domain and the polymerase domain...
  34. Cockrell G, Zheng Y, Guo W, Peterson A, Truong J, Kantrowitz E. New paradigm for allosteric regulation of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase. Biochemistry. 2013;52:8036-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Most significant is that the N-terminal region of the regulatory chains exists in different conformations in the allosterically activated and inhibited forms of the enzyme. Here, a new model of allosteric regulation is proposed. ..
  35. Tipples G, McClarty G. Cloning and expression of the Chlamydia trachomatis gene for CTP synthetase. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:7908-14 pubmed
    ..coli enzyme in that it is sensitive to inhibition by CTP, requires UTP, ATP, Mg2+, GTP, and glutamine for activity, and can also utilize ammonia as an amidogroup donor. ..
  36. Jordan A, Torrents E, Jeanthon C, Eliasson R, Hellman U, Wernstedt C, et al. B12-dependent ribonucleotide reductases from deeply rooted eubacteria are structurally related to the aerobic enzyme from Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:13487-92 pubmed
    ..From the conservation of substrate- and effector-binding residues we propose that the B12-dependent class II enzymes contain a similar barrel...
  37. Cheng Y, Visomirski Robic L, Gott J. Non-templated addition of nucleotides to the 3' end of nascent RNA during RNA editing in Physarum. EMBO J. 2001;20:1405-14 pubmed
  38. Grishin E, Savchenko G, Vassilevski A, Korolkova Y, Boychuk Y, Viatchenko Karpinski V, et al. Novel peptide from spider venom inhibits P2X3 receptors and inflammatory pain. Ann Neurol. 2010;67:680-3 pubmed publisher
    ..PT1 dramatically slows down the removal of desensitization of these receptors. The peptide demonstrates potent antinociceptive properties in animal models of inflammatory pain...
  39. Cheng P, Hatch G. Inhibition of cardiolipin biosynthesis in the hypoxic rat heart. Lipids. 1995;30:513-9 pubmed
    ..We postulate that the biosynthesis of the cardiac polyglycerophospholipid cardiolipin may be inhibited by a decreased adenosine-5'-triphosphate and cytidine-5'-triphosphate level in the heart. ..
  40. Ureta A, Nordlund S. Glutamine synthetase from Acetobacter diazotrophicus: properties and regulation. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001;202:177-80 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, there is no upregulation of the synthesis of the enzyme under diazotrophic conditions, which is in contrast to the situation in enterics, e.g. Klebsiella pneumoniae. ..
  41. Bierau J, Van Gennip A, Helleman J, Van Kuilenburg A. The cytostatic- and differentiation-inducing effects of cyclopentenyl cytosine on neuroblastoma cell lines. Biochem Pharmacol. 2001;62:1099-105 pubmed
    ..Both neuronal type and Schwannian type cells were observed. We conclude that at very low concentrations, CPEC has profound cytostatic- and differentiation-inducing effects on the neuroblastoma cells studied. ..
  42. Madlener S, Illmer C, Horvath Z, Saiko P, Losert A, Herbacek I, et al. Gallic acid inhibits ribonucleotide reductase and cyclooxygenases in human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells. Cancer Lett. 2007;245:156-62 pubmed
    ..Taken together, we identified novel biochemical effects of GA which could be the basis for further preclinical and in vivo studies. ..
  43. Rawson J, Daly M, Xie J, Clouser C, Landman S, Reilly C, et al. 5-Azacytidine Enhances the Mutagenesis of HIV-1 by Reduction to 5-Aza-2'-Deoxycytidine. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016;60:2318-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may have important implications for the design of new ribonucleoside analogs directed against retroviruses. ..
  44. Gouaux J, Stevens R, Lipscomb W. Crystal structures of aspartate carbamoyltransferase ligated with phosphonoacetamide, malonate, and CTP or ATP at 2.8-A resolution and neutral pH. Biochemistry. 1990;29:7702-15 pubmed
    ..In the CTP- and ATP-ligated R-state structures, the binding and occupancy of phosphonoacetamide and malonate are similar and the structures of the active sites are similar at the current resolution of 2.8 A. ..
  45. Iyengar A, Bearne S. An assay for cytidine 5(')-triphosphate synthetase glutaminase activity using high performance liquid chromatography. Anal Biochem. 2002;308:396-400 pubmed
  46. Van Boxstael S, Maes D, Cunin R. Aspartate transcarbamylase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi. Insights into cooperative and allosteric mechanisms. FEBS J. 2005;272:2670-83 pubmed
  47. Lohman G, Stubbe J. Inactivation of Lactobacillus leichmannii ribonucleotide reductase by 2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate: covalent modification. Biochemistry. 2010;49:1404-17 pubmed publisher
    ..1021/bi9021318 ) allow proposal of a mechanism of inactivation of RNR by F(2)CTP involving multiple reaction pathways. The proposed mechanisms share many common features with F(2)CDP inactivation of the class I RNRs. ..
  48. Adelman K, Brody E, Buckle M. Stimulation of bacteriophage T4 middle transcription by the T4 proteins MotA and AsiA occurs at two distinct steps in the transcription cycle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:15247-52 pubmed
    ..These data, combined with in vitro transcription assays, indicate that AsiA and MotA facilitate promoter escape, thereby stimulating the production of full-length transcripts. ..
  49. Bearne S, Hekmat O, MacDonnell J. Inhibition of Escherichia coli CTP synthase by glutamate gamma-semialdehyde and the role of the allosteric effector GTP in glutamine hydrolysis. Biochem J. 2001;356:223-32 pubmed
    ..10-fold, indicating that the allosteric effector, GTP, functions by stabilizing the protein conformation that binds the tetrahedral intermediate(s) formed during glutamine hydrolysis. ..
  50. Mikkelsen N, Munch Petersen B, Eklund H. Structural studies of nucleoside analog and feedback inhibitor binding to Drosophila melanogaster multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase. FEBS J. 2008;275:2151-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the base of dGTP adopted a syn-conformation to adapt to the available space of the active site. ..
  51. Bazzoli C, Benech H, Rey E, Retout S, Salmon D, Duval X, et al. Joint population pharmacokinetic analysis of zidovudine, lamivudine, and their active intracellular metabolites in HIV patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:3423-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Simulation with the model of plasma and intracellular concentrations for once- versus twice-daily regimens suggested that a daily dosing regimen with double doses could be appropriate. ..
  52. Lee B, Ley B, Kantrowitz E, O Leary M, Wedler F. Domain closure in the catalytic chains of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase influences the kinetic mechanism. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:15620-7 pubmed
    ..A third state, I, is proposed for the Glu-50-->Ala enzyme, in which random order substrate binding is exhibited, and the catalytic step contributes significantly to overall rate limitation. ..
  53. White H, Belknap B, Jiang W. Kinetics of binding and hydrolysis of a series of nucleoside triphosphates by actomyosin-S1. Relationship between solution rate constants and properties of muscle fibers. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:10039-45 pubmed
    ..1993) to determine the average distance over which cross-bridges remain attached during unloaded shortening to be 5-12 nm. ..
  54. Noordhuis P, Kazemier K, Kasperrs G, Peters G. Modulation of metabolism and cytotoxicity of cytosine arabinoside with N-(phosphon)-acetyl-L-aspartate in human leukemic blast cells and cell lines. Leuk Res. 1996;20:127-34 pubmed
    ..This suggests the possibility for selective modulation of other agents by PALA on non-hematological cells. ..
  55. Pruvost A, Théodoro F, Agrofoglio L, Negredo E, Benech H. Specificity enhancement with LC-positive ESI-MS/MS for the measurement of nucleotides: application to the quantitative determination of carbovir triphosphate, lamivudine triphosphate and tenofovir diphosphate in human peripheral blood mononuclear cel. J Mass Spectrom. 2008;43:224-33 pubmed
    ..The use of positive ESI, offering a better specificity and a slightly better sensitivity than the negative ESI mode for these compounds, resulted in specificity enhancement and more robust assay methods. ..
  56. Tham L, Wang L, Soo R, Lee H, Lee S, Goh B, et al. Does saturable formation of gemcitabine triphosphate occur in patients?. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2008;63:55-64 pubmed publisher
    ..2 microM) measured in this study. The results showed that first-order and nonsaturable clearance described intracellular dFdCTP formation at clinically applied doses of gemcitabine. ..
  57. Finnoff J, Jelsing E, Smith J. Biomarkers, genetics, and risk factors for concussion. PM R. 2011;3:S452-9 pubmed publisher
  58. Yang H, Qian S, Li G. [Study on CTP production from CMP by beer yeast cell immobilized in PVA]. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2007;23:323-6 pubmed
    ..Moreever, the storage stability of immobilized cells were investigated, and the products was also isolated and identifided by HPLC. ..
  59. Holguin S, Martinez J, Chow C, Wurtman R. Dietary uridine enhances the improvement in learning and memory produced by administering DHA to gerbils. FASEB J. 2008;22:3938-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that a treatment that increases synaptic membrane content can enhance cognitive functions in normal animals. ..
  60. Monaco H, Crawford J, Lipscomb W. Three-dimensional structures of aspartate carbamoyltransferase from Escherichia coli and of its complex with cytidine triphosphate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978;75:5276-80 pubmed
    ..1.3.2)(R32 crystal symmetry) and of 2.8 A for the complex of aspartate carbamoyltransferase with cytidine triphosphate (P321 crystal symmetry) have yielded traces of the polypeptide chains of the catalytic (C) and regulatory (..
  61. Harder J, Eliasson R, Pontis E, Ballinger M, Reichard P. Activation of the anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase from Escherichia coli by S-adenosylmethionine. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:25548-52 pubmed
    ..The activation of the anaerobic reductase shows a considerable similarity to that of pyruvate formate-lyase (Knappe, J., Neugebauer, F. A., Blaschkowski, H. P., and Gänzler, M. (1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81, 1332-1335). ..
  62. Swart J, Griep M. Primer synthesis kinetics by Escherichia coli primase on single-stranded DNA templates. Biochemistry. 1995;34:16097-106 pubmed
    ..for efficient primer synthesis; and (3) a single guanine placed near the 5'-end to facilitate study of cytidine triphosphate analog incorporation at a unique site...
  63. Groschel B, Kaufmann A, Höver G, Cinatl J, Doerr H, Noordhuis P, et al. 3'-Azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine induced deficiency of thymidine kinases 1, 2 and deoxycytidine kinase in H9 T-lymphoid cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002;64:239-46 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that continuous treatment of H9 cells in the presence of AZT selected for a thymidine analog resistant cell variant with cross-resistance to deoxycytidine analogs, due to deficiency in TK1, TK2, and dCK. ..
  64. Xiao Z, Ray M, Jiang C, Clark A, Rogozin I, Diaz M. Known components of the immunoglobulin A:T mutational machinery are intact in Burkitt lymphoma cell lines with G:C bias. Mol Immunol. 2007;44:2659-66 pubmed
    ..Either scenario suggests that cytosine deamination by AID is not enough to trigger A:T mutation, and that additional unidentified factors are required for full spectrum hypermutation in vivo. ..
  65. Jensen MacAllister I, Meng Q, Switzer R. Regulation of pyrG expression in Bacillus subtilis: CTP-regulated antitermination and reiterative transcription with pyrG templates in vitro. Mol Microbiol. 2007;63:1440-52 pubmed
    ..These findings provide strong experimental support for the proposed reiterative transcription/antitermination mechanism and confirm that no trans-acting regulatory protein is required for pyrG regulation. ..
  66. Varol N, Konac E, Onen I, Gurocak S, Alp E, Yilmaz A, et al. The epigenetically regulated effects of Wnt antagonists on the expression of genes in the apoptosis pathway in human bladder cancer cell line (T24). DNA Cell Biol. 2014;33:408-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings may offer a new approach to consider in the treatment of bladder cancer. ..
  67. Nakashima K, Kanamaru K, Aiba H, Mizuno T. Signal transduction and osmoregulation in Escherichia coli. A novel type of mutation in the phosphorylation domain of the activator protein, OmpR, results in a defect in its phosphorylation-dependent DNA binding. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:10775-80 pubmed
    ..The mutant proteins characterized in this study seem to be defective in this particular oligomerization process observed in vitro. ..
  68. Rohdich F, Wungsintaweekul J, Fellermeier M, Sagner S, Herz S, Kis K, et al. Cytidine 5'-triphosphate-dependent biosynthesis of isoprenoids: YgbP protein of Escherichia coli catalyzes the formation of 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methylerythritol. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:11758-63 pubmed
    ..A gene from Arabidopsis thaliana with similarity to ygbP carries a putative plastid import sequence, which is well in line with the assumed localization of the deoxyxylulose pathway in the plastid compartment of plants. ..
  69. Stevens S, Sanker S, Kent C, Zuiderweg E. Delineation of the allosteric mechanism of a cytidylyltransferase exhibiting negative cooperativity. Nat Struct Biol. 2001;8:947-52 pubmed
    ..This suggests that a fraction of the free energy of negative cooperativity is entropic in origin. ..
  70. Xiong Y, Li F, Wang J, Weiner A, Steitz T. Crystal structures of an archaeal class I CCA-adding enzyme and its nucleotide complexes. Mol Cell. 2003;12:1165-72 pubmed
    ..The structures of the AfCCA enzyme and the eukaryotic poly(A) polymerase are very similar, implying a close evolutionary relationship between them...
  71. Fowler A, Tiwari K, Campbell S, Secrist J. Chemical and enzymatic synthesis of 4'-thio-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine monophosphate and triphosphate. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2005;24:533-7 pubmed
    ..This triphosphate 5 was converted to 4'-thio-ara-C -5'-monophosphate 6 by treatment with snake venom phosphodiesterase I. The details of the synthesis, purification, and characterization of both nucleotides are described. ..
  72. De Vos D, Xu Y, Aerts T, Van Petegem F, Van Beeumen J. Crystal structure of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius aspartate carbamoyltransferase in complex with its allosteric activator CTP. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;372:40-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that the so-called "Nucleotide-Perturbation model" for explaining heterotropic allosteric behaviour, which is based on global conformational strain, is not a general mechanism of B-class ATCases. ..
  73. Toh Y, Takeshita D, Numata T, Fukai S, Nureki O, Tomita K. Mechanism for the definition of elongation and termination by the class II CCA-adding enzyme. EMBO J. 2009;28:3353-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The results collectively suggest that, in the class II CCA-adding enzyme, the head and neck domains collaboratively and dynamically define the number of nucleotide additions and the specificity of nucleotide selection. ..
  74. Zhang Y, Wang X, Xu B, Wang B, Wang Z, Liang Y, et al. Epigenetic silencing of miR-126 contributes to tumor invasion and angiogenesis in colorectal cancer. Oncol Rep. 2013;30:1976-84 pubmed publisher
    ..miR-126 may be a potential target for the therapeutic strategy against CRC. ..
  75. Liberek K, Skowyra D, Zylicz M, Johnson C, Georgopoulos C. The Escherichia coli DnaK chaperone, the 70-kDa heat shock protein eukaryotic equivalent, changes conformation upon ATP hydrolysis, thus triggering its dissociation from a bound target protein. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:14491-6 pubmed
    ..The ability of DnaK to hydrolyze various triphosphates correlates perfectly with its ability to release the bound denatured bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor polypeptide. ..
  76. Yamamoto I, Takai T, Mori S. Cytidylate cyclase activity in mouse tissues: the enzymatic conversion of cytidine 5'-triphosphate to cytidine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic CMP). Biochim Biophys Acta. 1989;993:191-8 pubmed
    ..Cytidylate cyclase activity was found to be present in all homogenates from a variety of mouse tissues examined except heart, with the highest level found in brain, and the lowest in liver. ..
  77. Kurihara K, Nakanishi N, Ueha T. A calcium channel in human submandibular duct cell line, HSG cells, not regulated by P2U purinergic receptor-mediated intracellular calcium mobilization. Arch Oral Biol. 1997;42:547-57 pubmed
    ..Thus, in HSG cells, IP3 formation is coupled to the P2U subclass, while 45Ca2+ influx is coupled to another subclass, such as P2X, that regulates calcium channels...
  78. Saitoh S, Wada T. Parent-of-origin specific histone acetylation and reactivation of a key imprinted gene locus in Prader-Willi syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2000;66:1958-62 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that (1) a significant role for histone deacetylation in gene silencing is associated with imprinting in 15q11-q13 and (2) silenced genes in PWS can be reactivated by drug treatment. ..
  79. Lee J, Chastain P, Griffith J, Richardson C. Lagging strand synthesis in coordinated DNA synthesis by bacteriophage t7 replication proteins. J Mol Biol. 2002;316:19-34 pubmed
    ..In the absence of a primase recognition site on the minicircle template no lagging strand synthesis occurs. The size of the Okazaki fragments is not affected by the number of recognition sites on the template. ..
  80. Yoon H, Shin J, Yang S, Chae D, Kim H, Lee D, et al. Association of the CD14 gene -159C polymorphism with progression of IgA nephropathy. J Med Genet. 2003;40:104-8 pubmed
    ..0003). These results suggest that the CD14/-159 polymorphism is an important marker for the progression of IgAN and may modulate the level of the inflammatory responses. ..
  81. Simard D, Hewitt K, Lunn F, Iyengar A, Bearne S. Limited proteolysis of Escherichia coli cytidine 5'-triphosphate synthase. Identification of residues required for CTP formation and GTP-dependent activation of glutamine hydrolysis. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:2195-206 pubmed
    ..This suggests that Arg429 plays a role in both GTP-dependent activation and GTP binding. ..
  82. Boyer J, Delaney S, Villanueva D, Harden T. A molecularly identified P2Y receptor simultaneously activates phospholipase C and inhibits adenylyl cyclase and is nonselectively activated by all nucleoside triphosphates. Mol Pharmacol. 2000;57:805-10 pubmed
    ..This is the first cloned P2Y receptor that is clearly Gi/adenylyl cyclase-linked. ..
  83. Karamychev V, Tatusov A, Komissarova N, Kashlev M, Neumann R, Zhurkin V, et al. Iodine-125 radioprobing of E. coli RNA polymerase transcription elongation complexes. Methods Enzymol. 2003;371:106-20 pubmed
  84. Sekiguchi T, Ito R, Hayakawa H, Sekiguchi M. Elimination and utilization of oxidized guanine nucleotides in the synthesis of RNA and its precursors. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:8128-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Escherichia coli cells appear to possess mechanisms to prevent misincorporation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine into RNA. ..
  85. LiCata V, Allewell N. Solvent perturbation of the allosteric regulation of aspartate transcarbamylase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1384:306-14 pubmed
    ..4) The change in hydration of ATCase upon substrate binding is the same in the presence and absence of allosteric effectors. 5) The linkage between heterotropic and homotropic allostery is different for ATP and CTP. ..
  86. Kusmierczyk A, MARTIN J. Nested cooperativity and salt dependence of the ATPase activity of the archaeal chaperonin Mm-cpn. FEBS Lett. 2003;547:201-4 pubmed
    ..Initial rates of ATP hydrolysis by Mm-cpn were determined at various ATP concentrations, revealing for the first time the presence of both positive intra-ring and negative inter-ring cooperativity in the archaeal chaperonin. ..
  87. Meng Q, Turnbough C, Switzer R. Attenuation control of pyrG expression in Bacillus subtilis is mediated by CTP-sensitive reiterative transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:10943-8 pubmed
    ..This control mechanism is likely to operate in other Gram-positive bacteria containing similar pyrG leader sequences. ..
  88. Hurwitz S, Asif G, Schinazi R. Development of a population simulation model for HIV monotherapy virological outcomes using lamivudine. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2007;18:329-41 pubmed
    ..Therefore, once parameter and variance distributions are standardized, this modelling approach could be helpful in planning clinical trials and predicting the antiviral contribution of each agent in a HAART modality. ..
  89. Zhu Y, Hu L, Zhou Y, Yao Q, Liu L, Shao F. Structural mechanism of host Rab1 activation by the bifunctional Legionella type IV effector SidM/DrrA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:4699-704 pubmed publisher
    ..Further biochemical and structural analyses reveal a unique mechanism of coupled GDP release and GDI displacement likely triggered by the SidM-induced drastic displacement of switch I of Rab1. ..
  90. Jiang P, Peliska J, Ninfa A. Enzymological characterization of the signal-transducing uridylyltransferase/uridylyl-removing enzyme (EC of Escherichia coli and its interaction with the PII protein. Biochemistry. 1998;37:12782-94 pubmed
    ..Our kinetic data were consistent with the hypothesis that both transferase and uridylyl-removal reactions occurred at a single active center on the enzyme. ..
  91. Lim S, Copeland W. Differential incorporation and removal of antiviral deoxynucleotides by human DNA polymerase gamma. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:23616-23 pubmed
    ..Thus, although their greatest inhibitory effects are through incorporation and chain termination, persistence of these analogs in DNA and inhibition of exonucleolytic proofreading may also contribute to mitochondrial toxicity. ..
  92. Shi G, Wu J, Li Y, Geleziunas R, Gallagher K, Emm T, et al. Novel direct detection method for quantitative determination of intracellular nucleoside triphosphates using weak anion exchange liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2002;16:1092-9 pubmed