cytidine diphosphate


Summary: Cytidine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. Synonyms: CRPP; cytidine pyrophosphate.

Top Publications

  1. Persson A, Sahlin M, Sjoberg B. Cysteinyl and substrate radical formation in active site mutant E441Q of Escherichia coli class I ribonucleotide reductase. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:31016-20 pubmed
    ..We also suggest that the substrate radical is localized to the 3'-position of the ribose moiety, the first substrate radical intermediate in the postulated reaction mechanism. ..
  2. Undie A. Relationship between dopamine agonist stimulation of inositol phosphate formation and cytidine diphosphate-diacylglycerol accumulation in brain slices. Brain Res. 1999;816:286-94 pubmed
    ..This study examined several parameters of cytidine diphosphate-diacylglycerol (CDP-DG) accumulation as an index of agonist-stimulated DG formation...
  3. Lawrence C, Bennati M, Obias H, Bar G, Griffin R, Stubbe J. High-field EPR detection of a disulfide radical anion in the reduction of cytidine 5'-diphosphate by the E441Q R1 mutant of Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:8979-84 pubmed
    ..These experiments demonstrate that high-field time-domain EPR spectroscopy is a powerful new tool for deconvolution of a mixture of radical species. ..
  4. Canales J, Fernández A, Ribeiro J, Cabezas A, Rodrigues J, Cameselle J, et al. Mn2+-dependent ADP-ribose/CDP-alcohol pyrophosphatase: a novel metallophosphoesterase family preferentially expressed in rodent immune cells. Biochem J. 2008;413:103-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the influence of ADPRibase-Mn on the CDP-choline or CDP-ethanolamine pathways of phospholipid biosynthesis cannot be discounted. ..
  5. Wang J, Lohman G, Stubbe J. Enhanced subunit interactions with gemcitabine-5'-diphosphate inhibit ribonucleotide reductases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14324-9 pubmed
    ..This information and the proposed asymmetry between the interactions of alphanbetan provide an explanation for complete inactivation of RNR with substoichiometric amounts of F2CDP. ..
  6. Nigou J, Besra G. Cytidine diphosphate-diacylglycerol synthesis in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Biochem J. 2002;367:157-62 pubmed form phosphatidic acid (PA), which is then converted to the central liponucleotide intermediate, cytidine diphosphate-diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG) via the CDP-DAG synthase (CDS)...
  7. Sauge Merle S, Falconet D, Fontecave M. An active ribonucleotide reductase from Arabidopsis thaliana cloning, expression and characterization of the large subunit. Eur J Biochem. 1999;266:62-9 pubmed
  8. Kasrayan A, Persson A, Sahlin M, Sjoberg B. The conserved active site asparagine in class I ribonucleotide reductase is essential for catalysis. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:5749-55 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that Asn-437, apart from hydrogen bonding to the substrate, also participates in the reduction steps of catalysis by class I ribonucleotide reductase. ..
  9. Sargent R, Ji J, Mun B, Mathews C. Ribonucleotide reductase: a determinant of 5-bromodeoxyuridine mutagenesis in phage T4. Mol Gen Genet. 1989;217:13-9 pubmed

More Information


  1. Wang J, Lohman G, Stubbe J. Mechanism of inactivation of human ribonucleotide reductase with p53R2 by gemcitabine 5'-diphosphate. Biochemistry. 2009;48:11612-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of the inactivated wt-alpha/beta' RNR by size exclusion chromatography indicates a quaternary structure of alpha6beta'6. A mechanism of inactivation common with halpha/beta is presented. ..
  2. Kajihara Y, Nishigaki S, Hanzawa D, Nakanishi G, Okamoto R, Yamamoto N. Unique self-anhydride formation in the degradation of cytidine-5'-monophosphosialic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac) and cytidine-5'-diphosphosialic acid (CDP-Neu5Ac) and its application in CMP-sialic acid analogue synthesis. Chemistry. 2011;17:7645-55 pubmed publisher
    ..This result indicated that the carboxylic acid of Neu5Ac is associated with its stability in solution. This finding also enabled the development of a novel chemical synthetic method for CMP-Neu5Ac and CMP-sialic acid derivatives. ..
  3. Kong P, Ufermann C, Zimmermann D, Yin Q, Suo X, Helms J, et al. Two phylogenetically and compartmentally distinct CDP-diacylglycerol synthases cooperate for lipid biogenesis in Toxoplasma gondii. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:7145-7159 pubmed publisher
    ..Its rapid intracellular replication within a vacuole requires efficient synthesis of glycerophospholipids. Cytidine diphosphate-diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG) serves as a major precursor for phospholipid synthesis...
  4. Laurence A, Layton M, Duley J, Simmonds H. Elevated erythrocyte CDP-choline levels associated with beta-thalassaemia in patients with transfusion independent anaemia. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2004;23:1265-7 pubmed
    ..Here we associate it with transfusion independent beta-thalassaemia. ..
  5. Steenbergen R, Nanowski T, Beigneux A, Kulinski A, Young S, Vance J. Disruption of the phosphatidylserine decarboxylase gene in mice causes embryonic lethality and mitochondrial defects. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:40032-40 pubmed
    ..Moreover, elimination of PE production in mitochondria causes fragmented, misshapen mitochondria, an abnormality that likely contributes to the embryonic lethality. ..
  6. Atencia E, Montes M, Günther Sillero M, Sillero A. Several dinucleoside polyphosphates are acceptor substrates in the T4 RNA ligase catalyzed reaction. Eur J Biochem. 2000;267:1707-14 pubmed
    ..Gp2G, Gp3G and Xp4X were not substrates of the reaction. Dinucleotides containing two guanines and at least four inner phosphates were the preferred acceptors of cytidine-3', 5'-bisphosphate at their 3'-OH group(s). ..
  7. Cassilly C, Farmer A, Montedonico A, Smith T, Campagna S, Reynolds T. Role of phosphatidylserine synthase in shaping the phospholipidome of Candida albicans. FEMS Yeast Res. 2017;17: pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations that disrupt these enzymes compromise virulence. These enzymes are part of the cytidine diphosphate-diacylglycerol pathway (i.e. de novo pathway) for phospholipid synthesis...
  8. Kang S, Sinhababu A, Cory J, Mitchell B, Thakker D, Cho M. Cellular delivery of nucleoside diphosphates: a prodrug approach. Pharm Res. 1997;14:706-12 pubmed
    ..The present study indicates that the first step to monophosphate is rate-limiting, justifying a prodrug approach with the monophosphate. ..
  9. Berglund L, Bjorkhem I, Angelin B, Einarsson K. Activation of rat liver cytosolic phosphatidic acid phosphatase by nucleoside diphosphates. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1989;1002:382-7 pubmed
    ..The possibility is discussed that these effects might be of importance for the regulation of triacylglycerol biosynthesis. ..
  10. Zhou B, Mi S, Mo X, Shih J, Tsai J, Hu E, et al. Time and sequence dependence of hydroxyurea in combination with gemcitabine in human KB cells. Anticancer Res. 2002;22:1369-77 pubmed
    ..The subsequent depletion of dNTP pools allows for increased incorporation of dFdCTP into cells arrested in S-phase, resulting in higher levels of cytotoxicity than either treatment alone...
  11. Sato N, Mori N, Hirashima T, Moriyama T. Diverse pathways of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in algae as estimated by labeling studies and genomic sequence analysis. Plant J. 2016;87:281-92 pubmed publisher synthesized de novo by methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or transfer of phosphocholine from cytidine diphosphate (CDP)-choline to diacylglycerol...
  12. Jordan A, Torrents E, Jeanthon C, Eliasson R, Hellman U, Wernstedt C, et al. B12-dependent ribonucleotide reductases from deeply rooted eubacteria are structurally related to the aerobic enzyme from Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:13487-92 pubmed
    ..From the conservation of substrate- and effector-binding residues we propose that the B12-dependent class II enzymes contain a similar barrel...
  13. Chen Y, Li B, Cen K, Lu Y, Zhang S, Wang C. Diverse effect of phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic genes on phospholipid homeostasis, cell autophagy and fungal developments in Metarhizium robertsii. Environ Microbiol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, two key genes (Mrpct and Mrpem) putatively involved in the cytidine diphosphate (CDP)-choline and phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) pathways for PC biosynthesis were ..
  14. Menon A, Eppinger M, Mayor S, Schwarz R. Phosphatidylethanolamine is the donor of the terminal phosphoethanolamine group in trypanosome glycosylphosphatidylinositols. EMBO J. 1993;12:1907-14 pubmed
    ..The data support the proposal that the terminal phosphoethanolamine group in trypanosome GPIs is derived from PE. ..
  15. Heinemann V, Plunkett W. Modulation of deoxynucleotide metabolism by the deoxycytidylate deaminase inhibitor 3,4,5,6-tetrahydrodeoxyuridine. Biochem Pharmacol. 1989;38:4115-21 pubmed
    ..dTHU is a useful new tool for investigating the role of dCMPD in the regulation of deoxynucleotide metabolism in whole cells. ..
  16. Brachwitz H, Lachmann U, Thomas Y, Bergmann J, Berdel W, Langen P. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of cytidine-5'-alkylphosphonophosphates and structurally related compounds. Chem Phys Lipids. 1996;83:77-85 pubmed
    ..The structure of the new compounds were confirmed by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB). The FAB fragmentation pattern is discussed. ..
  17. Guixé V, Merino F. The ADP-dependent sugar kinase family: kinetic and evolutionary aspects. IUBMB Life. 2009;61:753-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The simulation shows that, in fact, the metal coordinates the catalytic ensemble and interacts with crucial residues for catalysis. ..
  18. Sinhababu A, Boehlert C, Gan L, Yanni S, Thakker D. High-performance liquid chromatographic purification, optimization of the assay, and properties of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase from rabbit bone marrow. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1995;317:285-91 pubmed
    ..This purification method and the optimized assay together with the understanding of the fate of CDP in partially purified preparations should find application in studies with reductases from other eukaryotic sources. ..
  19. Yang F, Lu G, Rubin H. Isolation of ribonucleotide reductase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and cloning, expression, and purification of the large subunit. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:6738-43 pubmed
    ..The predicted molecular mass of R1 from the DNA sequence is 82,244 Da. Recombinant M. tuberculosis R1, purified to homogeneity, was biochemically active when assayed with extracts of M. tuberculosis enriched for R2. ..
  20. Liu Y, Wang J, Xu C, Chen Y, Yang J, Liu D, et al. Efficient multi-enzyme-catalyzed CDP-choline production driven by an ATP donor module. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017;101:1409-1417 pubmed publisher
    b>Cytidine diphosphate choline (CDP-choline) has been applied for treating acute craniocerebral injury and allowing recovery of consciousness after brain surgery...
  21. Sandbrink J, Stromberg R. Synthesis of 2'-deuterio and 3'-deuterio cytidine 5'-diphosphate. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2003;22:1657-9 pubmed
  22. Klezovitch O, Brandenburger Y, Geindre M, Deshusses J. Characterization of reactions catalysed by yeast phosphatidylinositol synthase. FEBS Lett. 1993;320:256-60 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that CMP-stimulated exchange and CMP-dependent reverse reactions are distinct processes catalysed by the same enzyme, phosphatidylinositol synthase. ..
  23. Shimofuruya H, Suzuki J. Pyrimidine nucleoside monophosphate kinase isolated from pig brain homogenate catalyzes disproportionation of phosphate between two CDP molecules. Biochem Int. 1992;26:853-61 pubmed
    ..These characteristics show that the enzyme species from pig brain homogenate has a rather broad specificity toward phosphate donor in phosphorylating nucleoside monophosphate. ..
  24. Schönleber R, Bendig J, Hagen V, Giese B. Rapid photolytic release of cytidine 5'-diphosphate from a coumarin derivative: a new tool for the investigation of ribonucleotide reductases. Bioorg Med Chem. 2002;10:97-101 pubmed
    ..The rate constant of the formation of alcohol 2 and cytidine 5'-diphosphate 3 is 2x10(8) s(-1) and the quantum efficiency for the disappearance of caged CDP 1 is 2.9%. ..
  25. Wang Q, Xu Y, Perepelov A, Knirel Y, Reeves P, Shashkov A, et al. Characterization of the CDP-D-mannitol biosynthetic pathway in Streptococcus pneumoniae 35A. Glycobiology. 2012;22:1760-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of temperature, pH and cations on the two enzymes were analyzed. This is the first time that the biosynthetic pathway of CDP-d-mannitol has been identified biochemically. ..
  26. Danchin A. Comparison between the Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis genomes suggests that a major function of polynucleotide phosphorylase is to synthesize CDP. DNA Res. 1997;4:9-18 pubmed
    ..This article briefly discusses the availability of cytosine nucleotides in eukaryotes, and suggests that they are derived from phospholipids turnover. Finally, the GC content of genomes is discussed in this new light. ..
  27. Chen X, Wiemer D. Alpha-phosphono lactone analogues of cytidine and cytosine arabinoside diphosphates: synthesis via ring closing metathesis. J Org Chem. 2003;68:6597-604 pubmed
  28. McMaster C, Tardi P, Choy P. Modulation of phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis by exogenous ethanolamine and analogues in the hamster heart. Mol Cell Biochem. 1992;116:69-73 pubmed
  29. Just G, Holler E. Enhanced levels of cyclic AMP, adenosine(5')tetraphospho(5')adenosine and nucleoside 5'-triphosphates in mouse leukemia P388/D1 after treatment with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II). Biochem Pharmacol. 1991;42:285-94 pubmed
    ..The correlation of responses of metabolically and regulatory active nucleotides with biological effects suggests their function in antitumorigenesis. ..
  30. Vance J, Vance D. Phospholipid biosynthesis in mammalian cells. Biochem Cell Biol. 2004;82:113-28 pubmed
    ..Finally, the two base-exchange enzymes, phosphatidylserine synthase-1 and phosphatidylserine synthase-2, that synthesize phosphatidylserine in mammalian cells are also discussed. ..
  31. Leonardi R, Frank M, Jackson P, Rock C, Jackowski S. Elimination of the CDP-ethanolamine pathway disrupts hepatic lipid homeostasis. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:27077-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The absence of the ECT pathway for diacylglycerol utilization at the endoplasmic reticulum triggers increased fatty acid synthesis to support the formation of triacylglycerols leading to liver steatosis...
  32. Roy B, Lepoivre M, Decout J, Lhomme J, Fontecave M. 8-Azidoadenosine and ribonucleotide reductase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992;187:432-7 pubmed
    ..One compound, 8-azidoadenosine, inhibits CDP reduction in cytosolic extracts from cancer cells. The corresponding diphosphate behaves as a substrate for ribonucleotide reductase while the triphosphate is an allosteric effector. ..
  33. Obiol Pardo C, Cordero A, Rubio Martinez J, Imperial S. Homology modeling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 2C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, the third enzyme in the MEP pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis. J Mol Model. 2010;16:1061-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we propose that electrostatic interactions could explain the higher affinity of the MEP substrate compared with the cytosine 5'-triphosphate substrate in the M. tuberculosis enzyme as reported previously. ..
  34. Stone S, Cui Z, Vance J. Cloning and expression of mouse liver phosphatidylserine synthase-1 cDNA. Overexpression in rat hepatoma cells inhibits the CDP-ethanolamine pathway for phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:7293-302 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that (i) cellular levels of PtdSer and PtdEtn are tightly controlled, and (ii) the metabolism of PtdSer and PtdEtn is coordinately regulated to maintain phospholipid homeostasis. ..
  35. Lindqvist L, Schweda K, Reeves P, Lindberg A. In vitro synthesis of CDP-d-abequose using Salmonella enzymes of cloned rfb genes. Production of CDP-6-deoxy-D-xylo-4-hexulose, CDP-3,6-dideoxy-D-xylo-4-hexulose and CDP-3,6-dideoxy-D-galactose, and isolation by HPLC. Eur J Biochem. 1994;225:863-72 pubmed
    ..A HPLC technique, where the four CDP-sugars were baseline separated, was developed and used for enzyme assays and for the analysis of synthesized products. ..
  36. Hao Z, Stowe E, Ahluwalia G, Baker D, Hebbler A, Chisena C, et al. Characterization of 2',3'-dideoxycytidine diphosphocholine and 2',3'-dideoxycytidine diphosphoethanolamine. Prominent phosphodiester metabolites of the anti-HIV nucleoside 2',3'-dideoxycytidine. Drug Metab Dispos. 1993;21:738-44 pubmed
    ..The possible role of these phosphodiesters in contributing to the unusual toxicity of ddCyd is discussed. ..
  37. Shapiro A, Hajec L, Gao N. High-throughput, homogeneous, fluorescence intensity-based measurement of adenosine diphosphate and other ribonucleoside diphosphates with nanomolar sensitivity. Anal Biochem. 2011;415:190-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The assay detected 75 nM ADP produced by the pyruvate kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation of pyruvate with a signal-to-baseline ratio of 2.8. The assay may be used in either a continuous or a discontinuous mode. ..
  38. Ji J, Sargent R, Mathews C. T4 phage ribonucleotide reductase. Allosteric regulation in vivo by thymidine triphosphate. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:16289-92 pubmed
    ..Although we don't know the basis for this loss of feedback sensitivity, the results suggest that kinetic properties of enzymes in intact cells are determined by the cellular milieu in ways not apparent from analysis of purified enzymes. ..
  39. Takagaki K, Nakamura T, Shibata S, Higuchi T, Endo M. Characterization and biological significance of sialyl alpha 2-3galactosyl beta 1-4xylosyl beta 1-(4-methylumbelliferone) synthesized in cultured human skin fibroblasts. J Biochem. 1996;119:697-702 pubmed
    ..Addition of CDP, an inhibitor of sialytransferase, to the cell culture medium increased the secretion of GAG-MU. These results suggest that SA-Gal-Xyl-MU production may be related to the regulation of GAG-MU biosynthesis. ..
  40. Harrington J, Miller W, Spector T. Effector studies of 3'-azidothymidine nucleotides with human ribonucleotide reductase. Biochem Pharmacol. 1987;36:3757-61 pubmed
    ..The possible indirect effects caused by alterations in the pools of the natural effectors are discussed. ..
  41. van der Donk W, Yu G, Perez L, Sanchez R, Stubbe J, Samano V, et al. Detection of a new substrate-derived radical during inactivation of ribonucleotide reductase from Escherichia coli by gemcitabine 5'-diphosphate. Biochemistry. 1998;37:6419-26 pubmed
    ..This unique mode of inactivation is proposed to be responsible for its observed clinical efficacy. ..
  42. Gasowska A. Interaction centres of pyrimidine nucleotides: cytidine-5'-diphosphate (CDP) and cytidine-5'-triphosphate (CTP) in their reactions with tetramines and Cu(II) ions. J Inorg Biochem. 2005;99:1698-707 pubmed
    ..The main centre of Cu(II) interaction in the nucleotide, both in the system with Spm and 3,3,3-tet is the phosphate group of the nucleotide. ..
  43. Cubitt A, Thaw C, Gershengorn M. 5'-CMP stimulates phospholipase A-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol in permeabilized pituitary GH3 cells. Biochem J. 1991;278 ( Pt 3):831-4 pubmed
    ..These data show that 5'-CMP stimulates a phospholipase A activity in permeabilized GH3 cells that hydrolyses PtdIns. ..
  44. Vance J, Tasseva G. Formation and function of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine in mammalian cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1831:543-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PS and PE participate in many previously unanticipated facets of mammalian cell biology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phospholipids and Phospholipid Metabolism. ..
  45. Zhu L, Johnson C, Bakovic M. Stimulation of the human CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase gene by early growth response protein 1. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:2197-211 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that EGR1 is an important transcriptional stimulator of the human PCYT2 and that conditions that modify EGR1 also affect the function of ECT and consequently PE synthesis. ..
  46. Tipples G, McClarty G. Isolation and initial characterization of a series of Chlamydia trachomatis isolates selected for hydroxyurea resistance by a stepwise procedure. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:4932-40 pubmed
    ..In total, our results indicate that C. trachomatis obtains the precursors for DNA synthesis as ribonucleotides with subsequent conversion to deoxyribonucleotides catalyzed by a chlamydia-specific ribonucleotide reductase. ..
  47. Kashlan O, Cooperman B. Comprehensive model for allosteric regulation of mammalian ribonucleotide reductase: refinements and consequences. Biochemistry. 2003;42:1696-706 pubmed
  48. Rifkin M, Strobos C, Fairlamb A. Specificity of ethanolamine transport and its further metabolism in Trypanosoma brucei. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:16160-6 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with the conclusion that trypanosomes are able to synthesize phospholipids via the Kennedy pathway...
  49. Tung R, Kurachi Y. On the mechanism of nucleotide diphosphate activation of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel in ventricular cell of guinea-pig. J Physiol. 1991;437:239-56 pubmed
    ..Millimolar concentrations of various NDPs, e.g. UDP (uridine diphosphate), IDP (inosine diphosphate), CDP (cytidine diphosphate) and GDP (guanosine diphosphate), applied to the internal side of the patch membrane, induced openings of ..
  50. Baur S, Marles Wright J, Buckenmaier S, Lewis R, Vollmer W. Synthesis of CDP-activated ribitol for teichoic acid precursors in Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:1200-10 pubmed publisher
    ..CDP-activated ribitol is a precursor for the synthesis of pneumococcal teichoic acids and some of the capsular polysaccharides. Thus, all eight genes in the lic region have a role in teichoic acid synthesis...
  51. Cubitt A, Gershengorn M. CMP activates reversal of phosphatidylinositol synthase and base exchange by distinct mechanisms in rat pituitary GH3 cells. Biochem J. 1990;272:813-6 pubmed
    ..We conclude that in GH3 cells reversal of PtdIns synthase and PtdIns/Ins base exchange are both stimulated by CMP, but are distinct processes. ..
  52. Oyama F, Kikuchi R, Uchida T. A synthetic, partial pre-mRNA for ovalbumin primes its own complementary DNA with reverse transcriptase. J Biochem. 1988;104:403-8 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of self-priming occurs following ligation of pCp or poly-adenylation at the 3'-terminus of the synthetic RNA. The secondary structure of 3'-end region of the template RNA strongly affected the ability of self-priming. ..
  53. Hjelmstad R, Bell R. sn-1,2-diacylglycerol choline- and ethanolaminephosphotransferases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mixed micellar analysis of the CPT1 and EPT1 gene products. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:4357-65 pubmed
    ..These studies provide the first definitive kinetic properties of individual choline- and ethanolaminephosphotransferases...
  54. Walsh M, Blum J. Effects of hypoxia and acute osmotic stress on intermediary metabolism in Leishmania promastigotes. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1992;50:205-14 pubmed
    ..The identity of the sensors responsive to pO2 and osmolality, and the mechanisms by which they regulate flux through the pathways of intermediary metabolism, require further study. ..
  55. Harrington J, Spector T. Human ribonucleotide reductase. Activation and inhibition by analogs of ATP. Biochem Pharmacol. 1991;42:759-63 pubmed
    ..No analog inhibited as potently as 2'-dATP, which had an IC50 of 30-50 microM versus the stimulation of CDP and GDP reduction by 2.0 mM ATP. ..
  56. Jarrett H. Hybrid selection with cDNA-silica. J Chromatogr A. 1996;742:87-94 pubmed
    ..These results show that even rare RNAs can be selectively purified in high yield using cDNA-silica. The importance of these results to hybrid selection and subtractive library preparation is discussed. ..
  57. Lutz N, Yahi N, Fantini J, Cozzone P. Analysis of individual purine and pyrimidine nucleoside di- and triphosphates and other cellular metabolites in PCA extracts by using multinuclear high resolution NMR spectroscopy. Magn Reson Med. 1996;36:788-95 pubmed
    ..This allows for efficient, quantitative, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy without extract contamination by standard material. ..
  58. Lykidis A, Wang J, Karim M, Jackowski S. Overexpression of a mammalian ethanolamine-specific kinase accelerates the CDP-ethanolamine pathway. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:2174-9 pubmed
    ..The data demonstrate the existence of separate ethanolamine and choline kinases in mammals and show that ethanolamine kinase can be a rate-controlling step in PtdEtn biosynthesis. ..
  59. Matthes E, Lehmann C, Scholz D, Rosenthal H, Langen P. Phosphorylation, anti-HIV activity and cytotoxicity of 3'-fluorothymidine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988;153:825-31 pubmed
    ..1 microM. All other tested human cell-lines displayed a far less antiproliferative sensitivity to FddThd, comparable with that of AzT. ..
  60. Mao S, Johnston M, Bollinger J, Stubbe J. Mechanism-based inhibition of a mutant Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase (cysteine-225----serine) by its substrate CDP. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:1485-9 pubmed
    ..7% the rate of wild-type B1. When dithiothreitol is utilized as reductant, however, the rate of CDP reduction with [Ser759]B1 is identical to that observed with wild type. ..
  61. Porter D, Harrington J, Spector T. Herpes simplex virus type 1 ribonucleotide reductase: selective and synergistic inactivation by A1110U and its iron complex. Biochem Pharmacol. 1990;39:639-46 pubmed
    ..The inactivated enzymes were reactivated rapidly by FeSO4, but were not reactivated by CoCl2, CuSO4, or NiCl2. MnCl2 inhibited reactivation of the viral enzyme by FeSO4. ..
  62. Fanselow M, Helmstetter F. Conditional analgesia, defensive freezing, and benzodiazepines. Behav Neurosci. 1988;102:233-43 pubmed
    ..Midazolam and diazepam also reduced the freezing response. The finding that these anxiolytic agents attenuate both conditional responses suggests that the freezing and analgesia are mediated by a common fearlike process. ..
  63. Rouhier N, Vlamis Gardikas A, Lillig C, Berndt C, Schwenn J, Holmgren A, et al. Characterization of the redox properties of poplar glutaredoxin. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2003;5:15-22 pubmed
    ..glutaredoxin is able to reduce the Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase 1a (in vitro reduction of cytidine diphosphate)...
  64. Hoar P, Mahoney C, Kerrick W. MgADP- increases maximum tension and Ca2+ sensitivity in skinned rabbit soleus fibers. Pflugers Arch. 1987;410:30-6 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with the hypothesis that cooperative interactions between actin and myosin can affect the affinity of troponin for Ca2+. ..
  65. Behravan G, Sen S, Rova U, Thelander L, Eckstein F, Graslund A. Formation of a free radical of the sulfenylimine type in the mouse ribonucleotide reductase reaction with 2'-azido-2'-deoxycytidine 5'-diphosphate. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995;1264:323-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the data suggest that the radical is located at the active site in protein R1, and is probably of the sulfenylimine type. ..
  66. Zimanyi C, Ando N, Brignole E, Asturias F, Stubbe J, Drennan C. Tangled up in knots: structures of inactivated forms of E. coli class Ia ribonucleotide reductase. Structure. 2012;20:1374-83 pubmed publisher
  67. Takeda E, Kuroda Y, Naito E, Yokota I, Saijo T, Hirose M, et al. Effects of deoxyadenosine on ribonucleotide reductase in adenosine deaminase-deficient lymphocytes. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1991;14:87-95 pubmed
    ..The activity of cytidine diphosphate (CDP) reductase in resting but not in proliferating lymphocytes in culture was inhibited by 1 to 10 mumol/L ..
  68. Yoshimura H. [Our drug metabolism studies during the last four decades]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 1991;111:737-55 pubmed
    ..Metabolic and toxicologic studies on furylfuramide (AF-2) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) have also been performed using rats and other animal species, and some interesting results were obtained. ..
  69. Stone S, Vance J. Cloning and expression of murine liver phosphatidylserine synthase (PSS)-2: differential regulation of phospholipid metabolism by PSS1 and PSS2. Biochem J. 1999;342 ( Pt 1):57-64 pubmed
    ..In addition, mRNAs encoding the two synthases are differentially expressed in several murine tissues, supporting the idea that PSS1 and PSS2 might perform unique functions. ..
  70. McMaster C, Choy P. Serine regulates phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis in the hamster heart. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:14586-91 pubmed
  71. Topalis D, Kumamoto H, Amaya Velasco M, Dugue L, Haouz A, Alexandre J, et al. Nucleotide binding to human UMP-CMP kinase using fluorescent derivatives -- a screening based on affinity for the UMP-CMP binding site. FEBS J. 2007;274:3704-3714 pubmed publisher
    ..The broad specificity of the enzyme acceptor-binding site is in agreement with a large substrate-binding pocket, as shown by the 2.1 A crystal structure. ..
  72. Horibata Y, Hirabayashi Y. Identification and characterization of human ethanolaminephosphotransferase1. J Lipid Res. 2007;48:503-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we propose that in addition to previously identified CEPT, hEPT1 is involved in the biosynthesis of PE via the Kennedy pathway. ..
  73. Heckmann J, Lang C, Hartl H, Tomandl B. Multiple brain abscesses caused by Fusobacterium nucleatum treated conservatively. Can J Neurol Sci. 2003;30:266-8 pubmed
    ..The most probable source is oral infection. Multiple brain abscesses may be caused by Fusobacterium nucleatum. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis using PCR technique is helpful with diagnosis. Conservative management can be successful. ..
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