cyclic cmp


Summary: A cyclic nucleotide formed from CYTIDINE TRIPHOSPHATE by the action of cytidylate cyclase. It is a potential cyclic nucleotide intracellular mediator of signal transductions.

Top Publications

  1. Wildemann D, Schiene Fischer C, Aumüller T, Bachmann A, Kiefhaber T, Lücke C, et al. A nearly isosteric photosensitive amide-backbone substitution allows enzyme activity switching in ribonuclease s. J Am Chem Soc. 2007;129:4910-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the thioxopeptide bond modified polypeptide backbone represents a versatile probe for site-directed photoswitching of proteins. ..
  2. Beste K, Burhenne H, Kaever V, Stasch J, Seifert R. Nucleotidyl cyclase activity of soluble guanylyl cyclase ?1?1. Biochemistry. 2012;51:194-204 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, soluble "guanylyl" cyclase possesses much broader substrate specificity than previously assumed. Our data have important implications for cyclic nucleotide-mediated signal transduction. ..
  3. Hammerschmidt A, Chatterji B, Zeiser J, Schröder A, Genieser H, Pich A, et al. Binding of regulatory subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase to cyclic CMP agarose. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39848 pubmed publisher
    ..In agreement with our functional data, RI? and RII? were identified as cCMP-binding proteins. These data corroborate the notion that cAMP-dependent protein kinase may serve as a cCMP target. ..
  4. Covian R, French S, Kusnetz H, Balaban R. Stimulation of oxidative phosphorylation by calcium in cardiac mitochondria is not influenced by cAMP and PKA activity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1837:1913-21 pubmed
    ..These functional studies suggest that alterations in mitochondrial cAMP and PKA activity do not contribute significantly to the acute Ca2 + stimulation of oxidative phosphorylation ..
  5. Barbosa R, Scialfa J, Terra I, Cipolla Neto J, Simonneaux V, Afeche S. Tryptophan hydroxylase is modulated by L-type calcium channels in the rat pineal gland. Life Sci. 2008;82:529-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, it seems that the calcium influx through L-type high voltage-activated calcium channels is essential for the full activation of tryptophan hydroxylase leading to melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland. ..
  6. Curtin B, Pal N, Gordon R, Nambiar M. Forskolin, an inducer of cAMP, up-regulates acetylcholinesterase expression and protects against organophosphate exposure in neuro 2A cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 2006;290:23-32 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that transcriptional inducers, such as forskolin, can sufficiently up-regulate cellular AChE production and protect cells against organophosphate toxicity. ..
  7. Wang X, Dyson M, Mondillo C, Patrignani Z, Pignataro O, Stocco D. Interaction between arachidonic acid and cAMP signaling pathways enhances steroidogenesis and StAR gene expression in MA-10 Leydig tumor cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2002;188:55-63 pubmed
    ..The results from this study demonstrate that AA and cAMP act in a highly synergistic manner to increase the sensitivity of steroid production to trophic hormone stimulation and probably do so by increasing StAR gene expression. ..
  8. Bähre H, Danker K, Stasch J, Kaever V, Seifert R. Nucleotidyl cyclase activity of soluble guanylyl cyclase in intact cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;443:1195-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The identity of cCMP and cUMP was unambiguously confirmed by HPLC-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Our data indicate that cCMP and cUMP play second messenger roles and that Mn(2+) is a physiological sGC cofactor. ..
  9. Borrajo A, Rodriguez Perez A, Díaz Ruiz C, Guerra M, Labandeira Garcia J. Microglial TNF-? mediates enhancement of dopaminergic degeneration by brain angiotensin. Glia. 2014;62:145-57 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Lee S, Bishop K, Goellner J, O Brien C, Pike J. Mouse and human BAC transgenes recapitulate tissue-specific expression of the vitamin D receptor in mice and rescue the VDR-null phenotype. Endocrinology. 2014;155:2064-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a baseline for further dissection of mechanisms integral to mouse and human VDR gene expression and offer the potential to explore the consequence of selective mutations in VDR proteins in vivo. ..
  2. Sheffield L. Cyclic cytidine monophosphate stimulates DNA synthesis by bovine mammary tissue in vitro. Cell Biol Int Rep. 1987;11:557-62 pubmed
    ..were observed with sodium butyrate, suggesting that the decline was due to the butyrate rather than to a cyclic CMP-specific effect. With 1 micrograms/ml insulin, dbcCMP increased DNA synthesis...
  3. Larocca M, Soria L, Espelt M, Lehmann G, Marinelli R. Knockdown of hepatocyte aquaporin-8 by RNA interference induces defective bile canalicular water transport. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;296:G93-100 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Our data suggest that AQP8 plays a major role in water transport across canalicular membrane of HepG2 cells and support the notion that defective expression of AQP8 causes bile secretory dysfunction in human hepatocytes. ..
  4. Zachow R, Uzumcu M. The methoxychlor metabolite, 2,2-bis-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane, inhibits steroidogenesis in rat ovarian granulosa cells in vitro. Reprod Toxicol. 2006;22:659-65 pubmed
  5. Hilal Dandan R, He H, Martin J, Brunton L, Dillmann W. Endothelin downregulates SERCA2 gene and protein expression in adult rat ventricular myocytes: regulation by pertussis toxin-sensitive Gi protein and cAMP. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;296:H728-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The data indicate that, in adult myocytes, ET downregulates SERCA2 mRNA and protein levels, and the effect requires cross-talk between G(q) and PTX-sensitive G(i) pathways. ..
  6. Osawa S, Jo R, Weiss E. Phosphorylation of GRK7 by PKA in cone photoreceptor cells is regulated by light. J Neurochem. 2008;107:1314-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work demonstrates for the first time that cAMP can regulate proteins involved in the photoresponse in cones and introduces a novel mode of regulation for the retinal GRKs by PKA. ..
  7. Cattaneo M, Lecchi A. Inhibition of the platelet P2Y12 receptor for adenosine diphosphate potentiates the antiplatelet effect of prostacyclin. J Thromb Haemost. 2007;5:577-82 pubmed
    ..Anti-P2Y(12) drugs, by rescuing AC activity, potentiate the antiplatelet effect of PGI(2), which may contribute to their antithrombotic effect. ..
  8. Witters E, Van Dongen W, Esmans E, Van Onckelen H. Ion-pair liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry for the analysis of cyclic nucleotides. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1997;694:55-63 pubmed
    ..Using biological samples this method was evaluated and compared with a classical ion-suppression RP-HPLC method using UV detection. ..
  9. Bartram S, Boland W. The arduous way to the egg: follow the nose. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2003;42:4729-31 pubmed
  10. Yakunin A, Proudfoot M, Kuznetsova E, Savchenko A, Brown G, Arrowsmith C, et al. The HD domain of the Escherichia coli tRNA nucleotidyltransferase has 2',3'-cyclic phosphodiesterase, 2'-nucleotidase, and phosphatase activities. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:36819-27 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that the phosphohydrolase activities of the HD domain of the E. coli tRNA nucleotidyltransferase are involved in the repair of the 3'-CCA end of tRNA. ..
  11. Zhang M, Fei X, He Y, Yang G, Mei Y. Bradykinin inhibits the transient outward K+ current in mouse Schwann cells via the cAMP/PKA pathway. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C1364-72 pubmed publisher
    ..A cAMP assay revealed that BK significantly increased intracellular cAMP level. It is therefore concluded that BK inhibits the I(A) current in Schwann cells by cAMP/PKA-dependent pathways via activation of the B(2) receptor. ..
  12. Beste K, Seifert R. cCMP, cUMP, cTMP, cIMP and cXMP as possible second messengers: development of a hypothesis based on studies with soluble guanylyl cyclase ?(1)?(1). Biol Chem. 2013;394:261-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We hope that this article stimulates productive and critical research in an area that has been neglected for many years. ..
  13. Kubin T, Yanagida M, Mori S, Hayashi Y, Gohda E, Yamamoto I. Inhibition of DNA synthesis of adult rat hepatocytes in primary culture by dibutyrylcytidine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate. Cell Biol Int Rep. 1989;13:907-17 pubmed
    ..When added at the onset of DNA synthesis, Bt2cAMP was much less effective, but Bt2cCMP was still effective. Thus Bt2cCMP is able to inhibit growth factor-stimulated hepatocyte proliferation. ..
  14. Richards H, Das S, Smith C, Pereira L, Geisbrecht A, Devitt N, et al. Cyclic nucleotide content of tobacco BY-2 cells. Phytochemistry. 2002;61:531-7 pubmed
    ..cyclic AMP), guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) and cytidine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic CMP) were unambiguously confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry...
  15. Pulakat L, Mandavia C, Gavini N. Role of Phe308 in the seventh transmembrane domain of the AT2 receptor in ligand binding and signaling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;319:1138-43 pubmed
  16. Morisset A, Huot C, Légaré D, Tchernof A. Circulating IL-6 concentrations and abdominal adipocyte isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis in women. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16:1487-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that higher circulating IL-6 concentrations are associated with increased isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis especially in OM abdominal adipocytes in women. ..
  17. Shanahan M, Edwards B. Stimulation of glucose transport in rat cardiac myocytes by guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate. Endocrinology. 1989;125:1074-81 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with the notion that cGMP may be involved in glucose transport stimulation. ..
  18. Bhattacharjee P, Sharma R. Antithetical effects of corticosterone and dibutyryl cAMP on adenosine deaminase in the gastrointestinal tract of chicken during postnatal development. Mol Cell Biochem. 2009;327:79-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the study suggests that the ADA activity level is highest at day 1 in all the regions of chicken GIT and could be reduced or enhanced by corticosterone and dibutyryl cAMP, respectively, in an age-specific manner. ..
  19. Hancock K, Coleman E, Tao Y, Morrison E, Braden T, Kemppainen B, et al. Genistein decreases androgen biosynthesis in rat Leydig cells by interference with luteinizing hormone-dependent signaling. Toxicol Lett. 2009;184:169-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have implications for testicular steroidogenesis in individuals exposed to genistein and soy-based products. ..
  20. Tsujikawa H, Song Y, Watanabe M, Masumiya H, Gupte S, Ochi R, et al. Cholesterol depletion modulates basal L-type Ca2+ current and abolishes its -adrenergic enhancement in ventricular myocytes. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;294:H285-92 pubmed
    ..We suggest that cholesterol affects the structural coupling between L-type Ca(2+) channels and adjacent regulatory proteins. ..
  21. Chen D, Reierstad S, Lin Z, Lu M, Brooks C, Li N, et al. Prostaglandin E(2) induces breast cancer related aromatase promoters via activation of p38 and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase in adipose fibroblasts. Cancer Res. 2007;67:8914-22 pubmed
    ..Taken together, PGE(2) activation of p38 and JNK1 via PKA and PKC is necessary for aromatase induction in BAFs, and p38 and JNK1 are potential new drug targets for tissue-specific ablation of aromatase expression in breast cancer. ..
  22. Rieth H, Mörmann M, Luty A, Assohou Luty C, Roupelieva M, Kremsner P, et al. A three base pair gene variation within the distal 5'-flanking region of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene is related to the in vitro IL-10 production capacity of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2004;15:153-8 pubmed
    ..Our findings further the understanding of the complexity of IL-10 gene regulation in relation to defined regulatory gene variations. ..
  23. Funaki C, Hodges R, Dartt D. Identification of the Raf-1 signaling pathway used by cAMP to inhibit p42/p44 MAPK in rat lacrimal gland acini: role in potentiation of protein secretion. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:6321-8 pubmed publisher
    ..GGTI-298 did not have any effect on cAMP-dependent decrease in MAPK activity. The authors conclude that cAMP mediates the inhibition of MAPK by PKA in a Raf-1-dependent manner. ..
  24. Tzeng S, Tsai M, Hung S, Cheng H. Neuronal morphological change of size-sieved stem cells induced by neurotrophic stimuli. Neurosci Lett. 2004;367:23-8 pubmed
    ..The findings indicate that neurotrophic signaling and cAMP-dependent signaling might promote the neuronal differentiation of SSCs. ..
  25. Negishi T, Ishii Y, Kyuwa S, Kuroda Y, Yoshikawa Y. Primary culture of cortical neurons, type-1 astrocytes, and microglial cells from cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) fetuses. J Neurosci Methods. 2003;131:133-40 pubmed
    ..These selective primary culture systems of primate cerebral cortical cells will be useful in issues involving species specificity in neuroscience. ..
  26. Hirobe T, Hasegawa K, Furuya R, Fujiwara R, Sato K. Effects of fibroblast-derived factors on the proliferation and differentiation of human melanocytes in culture. J Dermatol Sci. 2013;71:45-57 pubmed publisher
  27. Desch M, Schinner E, Kees F, Hofmann F, Seifert R, Schlossmann J. Cyclic cytidine 3',5'-monophosphate (cCMP) signals via cGMP kinase I. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:3979-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that cCMP acts as intracellular messenger molecule, most unexpectedly utilizing the cGMP signal transduction pathway. ..
  28. Maldonado E, Patnaik J, Mullins M, Lemasters J. Free tubulin modulates mitochondrial membrane potential in cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2010;70:10192-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasma membrane potential assessed by DiBAC(4)(3) was not altered by any of the treatments. We propose that inhibition of VDAC by free tubulin limits mitochondrial metabolism in cancer cells. ..
  29. Picanço Diniz D, Valenca M, Antunes Rodrigues J. Adenosine A1 receptor-mediated inhibition of in vitro prolactin secretion from the rat anterior pituitary. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2006;39:1493-9 pubmed
    ..w.) on PRL secretion stimulation by pertussis toxin (0.5 mg/mL; 430.00 +/- 26.00 ng/mg t.w.). These results suggest that inhibition of PRL secretion after A1 receptor activation by R-PIA is mediated by a Gi protein-dependent mechanism. ..
  30. Numata T, Kimura M. Contribution of Gln9 and Phe80 to substrate binding in ribonuclease MC1 from bitter gourd seeds. J Biochem. 2001;130:621-6 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that these four residues may contribute to uridine binding in a mutually independent manner. ..
  31. Yanagida M, Gohda E, Yamamoto I. Dibutyrylcytidine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate stimulates neurite outgrowth in rat pheochromocytoma PC12. Neurosci Lett. 1990;114:323-8 pubmed
    ..Staurosporine inhibited the neurite outgrowth induced by NGF, but not that by Bt2cCMP. These results suggest that Bt2cCMP stimulates neuronal differentiation by a mechanism different from that by NGF. ..
  32. Beres J, Bentrude W, Otvos L, Balzarini J, De Clercq E. Synthesis and cytostatic and antiviral activities of 1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-5-alkylcytosine (5-alkylcytidine) cyclic 3',5'-monophosphates. J Med Chem. 1989;32:224-8 pubmed
    ..A drug design rationale for utilization of 5-alkylcytidines based on their potential conversion to biologically active 5-alkyl-2'-deoxyuridines is not supported by these experimental findings. ..
  33. Borsick M, Rajkhowa T, Taub M. Evidence for post-transcriptional regulation of Na,K-ATPase by prostaglandin E1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;345:739-45 pubmed
    ..However, the stimulatory effect of PGE1 and 8Br-cAMP on Na,K-ATPase biosynthesis was lost in DBr (unlike PGE1 Ind) variants. These results can be explained by a defect in post-transcriptional regulation. ..
  34. Newton R, Salvage B, Hakeem N. Cytidylate cyclase: development of assay and determination of kinetic properties of a cytidine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate-synthesizing enzyme. Biochem J. 1990;265:581-6 pubmed
    A method is described for the separation of cytidine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic CMP) from cytidine tri-, di- and mono-phosphates and from cytidine 3',5'-cyclic pyrophosphate, cytidine 2'-monophosphate-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, ..
  35. Kasono K, Saito T, Saito T, Tamemoto H, Yanagidate C, Uchida S, et al. Hypertonicity regulates the aquaporin-2 promoter independently of arginine vasopressin. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2005;20:509-15 pubmed
    ..1 and -4.3 kb 5'-flanking region of the AQP-2 gene, in which the structure and mechanism of response to hypertonicity could be distinct from those of TonE. ..
  36. Yao H, Sem D. Cofactor fingerprinting with STD NMR to characterize proteins of unknown function: identification of a rare cCMP cofactor preference. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:661-6 pubmed
    ..31P NMR was used to monitor the preferential hydrolysis of ATP versus GTP, suggesting that RSP2 is a kinase. ..
  37. Kim P, Hoffman B, Plesner A, Helgason C, Verchere C, Chung S, et al. Differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into endoderm without embryoid body formation. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14146 pubmed publisher
    ..1. This protocol using all-trans-retinoic acid, DBcAMP, in the absence of embryoid bodies, generated cells that have features of definitive endoderm that may serve as pancreatic endocrine precursors. ..
  38. Glaze P, Watson D, Young N, Tanner M. Biosynthesis of CMP-N,N'-diacetyllegionaminic acid from UDP-N,N'-diacetylbacillosamine in Legionella pneumophila. Biochemistry. 2008;47:3272-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the three enzymes constitute a pathway that converts a UDP-linked bacillosamine derivative into a CMP-linked legionaminic acid derivative. ..
  39. Tai P, Ascoli M. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in the cAMP-induced activation of Ras and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in Leydig cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:885-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that, in Leydig cells, cAMP enhances the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 via a mitochondria-derived, ROS-dependent activation of Ras...
  40. Soukup G, DeRose E, Koizumi M, Breaker R. Generating new ligand-binding RNAs by affinity maturation and disintegration of allosteric ribozymes. RNA. 2001;7:524-36 pubmed
    ..This "affinity maturation" effect is expected to be a valuable attribute of allosteric selection as future endeavors seek to apply engineered allosteric ribozymes as biosensor components and as controllable genetic switches. ..
  41. Seib T, Patel S, Bridges R. Regulation of the system x(C)- cystine/glutamate exchanger by intracellular glutathione levels in rat astrocyte primary cultures. Glia. 2011;59:1387-401 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of this pathway likely reflects the inherent vulnerability of the CNS to oxidative damage and raises interesting questions as to the functional consequences of changes in Sx(C)- activity in CNS injury and disease...
  42. Clemens S, Calin Jageman R, Sakurai A, Katz P. Altering cAMP levels within a central pattern generator modifies or disrupts rhythmic motor output. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2007;193:1265-71 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that cAMP levels can dynamically modulate swim motor pattern generation, possibly shaping the output of the central pattern generator on a cycle-by-cycle basis. ..
  43. Mori S, Muto N, Yamamoto I. Interaction of rat brain cytidylate cyclase with phospholipids. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989;162:1502-7 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that cytidylate cyclase could be regulated by phospholipids constituting its microenvironment of the membrane. ..
  44. Chan P, Henig I, Tredway D. Regulation of mouse trophoblast giant cell nucleus development in hatched mouse blastocysts by cyclic cytidine 3',5'-monophosphate (cCMP). Experientia. 1988;44:774-5 pubmed
    ..The result suggests that cCMP has a trophic effect on embryonic development, specifically by altering the size of the trophoblast cell nucleus but does not enhance trophoblast cell proliferation processes. ..
  45. Zong X, Krause S, Chen C, Krüger J, Gruner C, Cao Ehlker X, et al. Regulation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel activity by cCMP. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:26506-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our findings establish cCMP as a gating regulator of HCN channels and indicate that this cyclic nucleotide has to be considered in HCN channel-regulated processes. ..
  46. You F, Osawa Y, Hayashi S, Nakashima S. Immediate early gene IEX-1 induces astrocytic differentiation of U87-MG human glioma cells. J Cell Biochem. 2007;100:256-65 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that IEX-1 plays an important role in astrocytic differentiation of human glioma cells and that IEX-1 functions at downstream of PKA. ..
  47. Shah S, Nolan R, Davis E, Stokin G, Niesman I, Canto I, et al. Examination of potential mechanisms of amyloid-induced defects in neuronal transport. Neurobiol Dis. 2009;36:11-25 pubmed publisher
    ..ROS and membrane permeability are also unlikely to be responsible for fibril-mediated toxicity. Collectively, our results indicate that multiple initiating factors converge upon pathways of defective transport. ..
  48. Burrell B, Sahley C. Serotonin mediates learning-induced potentiation of excitability. J Neurophysiol. 2005;94:4002-10 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that sensitization-induced enhancement of S-cell excitability is mediated by 5-HT and suggests that these changes may contribute to this form of learning. ..
  49. Balint G, Galfi M, Rimanoczy A, Falkay G, Juhaaz A. On a possible new intracellular signal-system in rat gastric mucosa. J Physiol Paris. 2001;95:243-5 pubmed
  50. Ding M, Wong J, Rogers N, Ignarro L, Voskuhl R. Gender differences of inducible nitric oxide production in SJL/J mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 1997;77:99-106 pubmed
    ..These data show an association between No production and EAE severity, suggesting a possible role of NO in the pathogenesis of EAE. ..
  51. Kim S, Choi S, Chao W, Volsky D. Transcriptional regulation of human excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAT1): cloning of the EAAT1 promoter and characterization of its basal and inducible activity in human astrocytes. J Neurochem. 2003;87:1485-98 pubmed
    ..Conversely, tumor necrosis factor-alpha reduced both EAAT promoter activity and cellular EAAT1 mRNA expression. These results enable studies of transcriptional regulation of EAAT1 gene at the promoter level. ..
  52. Yamamoto I, Takai T, Mori S. Cytidylate cyclase activity in mouse tissues: the enzymatic conversion of cytidine 5'-triphosphate to cytidine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic CMP). Biochim Biophys Acta. 1989;993:191-8 pubmed
    ..activity, which enzymatically converts cytidine 5'-triphosphate (CTP) to cytidine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic CMP), has been demonstrated in mouse tissue homogenates by use of a highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) ..
  53. Goichberg P, Kalinkovich A, Borodovsky N, Tesio M, Petit I, Nagler A, et al. cAMP-induced PKCzeta activation increases functional CXCR4 expression on human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors. Blood. 2006;107:870-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data reveal major roles for cAMP-induced PKCzeta activation in signaling governing the motility and development of CD34+ cells. ..