pyrimidine nucleotides


Summary: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.

Top Publications

  1. Sun B, Babu B, Sørensen M, Zakrzewska K, Wengel J, Sun J. Sequence and pH effects of LNA-containing triple helix-forming oligonucleotides: physical chemistry, biochemistry, and modeling studies. Biochemistry. 2004;43:4160-9 pubmed
    ..A rule for designing optimal LNA-containing TFOs is proposed. In addition, alternative LNA and 2'-O-methyl residues in TFOs do not significantly improve triple helix formation. ..
  2. Quemeneur L, Gerland L, Flacher M, Ffrench M, Revillard J, Genestier L. Differential control of cell cycle, proliferation, and survival of primary T lymphocytes by purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. J Immunol. 2003;170:4986-95 pubmed
    Purine and pyrimidine nucleotides play critical roles in DNA and RNA synthesis as well as in membrane lipid biosynthesis and protein glycosylation. They are necessary for the development and survival of mature T lymphocytes...
  3. Bao X, Wang J, Gu J, Leszczynski J. DNA strand breaks induced by near-zero-electronvolt electron attachment to pyrimidine nucleotides. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:5658-63 pubmed
    ..LEE), theoretical investigations of the LEE attachment-induced C(5')-O(5') sigma bond breaking of pyrimidine nucleotides (5'-dCMPH and 5'-dTMPH) were performed by using the B3LYP/DZP++ approach...
  4. Sawai H, Nagashima J, Kuwahara M, Kitagata R, Tamura T, Matsui I. Differences in substrate specificity of C(5)-substituted or C(5)-unsubstituted pyrimidine nucleotides by DNA polymerases from thermophilic bacteria, archaea, and phages. Chem Biodivers. 2007;4:1979-95 pubmed
    ..The substrate specificity of the C(5)-substituted or C(5)-unsubstituted pyrimidine nucleotides varied greatly depending on the type of DNA polymerase...
  5. Huang M, Graves L. De novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides; emerging interfaces with signal transduction pathways. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2003;60:321-36 pubmed
    The de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides provides essential precursors for multiple growth-related events in higher eukaryotes...
  6. Connolly G, Harrison P, Stone T. Action of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides on the rat superior cervical ganglion. Br J Pharmacol. 1993;110:1297-304 pubmed
    1. Using a grease-gap technique, we have investigated the effects of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides on the d.c. potential of the rat isolated superior cervical ganglion (SCG). 2...
  7. Marobbio C, Di Noia M, Palmieri F. Identification of a mitochondrial transporter for pyrimidine nucleotides in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: bacterial expression, reconstitution and functional characterization. Biochem J. 2006;393:441-6 pubmed
    ..The main physiological role of Rim2p is proposed to be to transport (deoxy)pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphates into mitochondria in exchange for intramitochondrially generated (deoxy)pyrimidine nucleoside monophosphates. ..
  8. Wunderlich C, Spitzer R, Santner T, Fauster K, Tollinger M, Kreutz C. Synthesis of (6-(13)C)pyrimidine nucleotides as spin-labels for RNA dynamics. J Am Chem Soc. 2012;134:7558-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Using (13)C CPMG relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy, the milli- to microsecond dynamics of the HIV-1 transactivation response element RNA and the Varkud satellite stem loop V motif was addressed...
  9. Joshi P, Aldersley M, Ferris J. Homochiral selectivity in RNA synthesis: montmorillonite-catalyzed quaternary reactions of D, L-purine with D, L- pyrimidine nucleotides. Orig Life Evol Biosph. 2011;41:213-36 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Taha H, Schmidt J, Göttle M, Suryanarayana S, Shen Y, Tang W, et al. Molecular analysis of the interaction of anthrax adenylyl cyclase toxin, edema factor, with 2'(3')-O-(N-(methyl)anthraniloyl)-substituted purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. Mol Pharmacol. 2009;75:693-703 pubmed publisher
    ..from our laboratory showed that mammalian membranous AC (mAC) exhibits broad specificity for purine and pyrimidine nucleotides ( Mol Pharmacol 70: 878-886, 2006 )...
  2. von Kugelgen I, Starke K. Evidence for two separate vasoconstriction-mediating nucleotide receptors, both distinct from the P2x-receptor, in rabbit basilar artery: a receptor for pyrimidine nucleotides and a receptor for purine nucleotides. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1990;341:538-46 pubmed
    ..The order of potency of the pyrimidine nucleotides was: UTP = UDP much greater than UMP = CTP; that of the purine nucleotides was: ATP gamma S greater than ..
  3. Gallois Montbrun S, Faraj A, Seclaman E, Sommadossi J, Deville Bonne D, Veron M. Broad specificity of human phosphoglycerate kinase for antiviral nucleoside analogs. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004;68:1749-56 pubmed
  4. Pinto C, Lushington G, Richter M, Gille A, Geduhn J, Konig B, et al. Structure-activity relationships for the interactions of 2'- and 3'-(O)-(N-methyl)anthraniloyl-substituted purine and pyrimidine nucleotides with mammalian adenylyl cyclases. Biochem Pharmacol. 2011;82:358-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These properties of ACs are indicative for ligand-specific conformational landscapes that extend to the VC1:VC1 homodimer and should facilitate development of non-nucleotide inhibitors. ..
  5. Noji H, Bald D, Yasuda R, Itoh H, Yoshida M, Kinosita K. Purine but not pyrimidine nucleotides support rotation of F(1)-ATPase. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:25480-6 pubmed
    ..Here we show by single-molecule imaging that purine nucleotides ATP, GTP, and ITP support rotation but pyrimidine nucleotides UTP and CTP do not, suggesting that the extra ring in purine is indispensable for proper operation of this ..
  6. Minic Z, Simon V, Penverne B, Gaill F, Herve G. Contribution of the bacterial endosymbiont to the biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides in the deep-sea tube worm Riftia pachyptila. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:23777-84 pubmed
    ..In this work, we analyzed the contribution of the two partners to the biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides through both the "de novo" and "salvage" pathways...
  7. Loukanina N, Stasolla C, Belmonte M, Yeung E, Thorpe T. Changes in the de novo, salvage, and degradation pathways of pyrimidine nucleotides during tobacco shoot organogenesis. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2008;46:665-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall these results suggest that the organogenic process in tobacco is underlined by precise fluctuations in pyrimidine metabolism which delineate structural events culminating in shoot formation. ..
  8. Froschauer E, Rietzschel N, Hassler M, Binder M, Schweyen R, Lill R, et al. The mitochondrial carrier Rim2 co-imports pyrimidine nucleotides and iron. Biochem J. 2013;455:57-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results document that Rim2 catalyses the co-import of pyrimidine nucleotides and divalent metal ions including ferrous iron...
  9. Stam R, den Boer M, Meijerink J, Ebus M, Peters G, Noordhuis P, et al. Differential mRNA expression of Ara-C-metabolizing enzymes explains Ara-C sensitivity in MLL gene-rearranged infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 2003;101:1270-6 pubmed
    ..046) mRNA expression in patients with MLL gene-rearranged ALL. We conclude that an elevated expression of hENT1, which transports Ara-C across the cell membrane, contributes to Ara-C sensitivity in MLL gene-rearranged infant ALL. ..
  10. Jiang P, Peliska J, Ninfa A. Enzymological characterization of the signal-transducing uridylyltransferase/uridylyl-removing enzyme (EC of Escherichia coli and its interaction with the PII protein. Biochemistry. 1998;37:12782-94 pubmed
    ..Our kinetic data were consistent with the hypothesis that both transferase and uridylyl-removal reactions occurred at a single active center on the enzyme. ..
  11. Dove S, Danker K, Stasch J, Kaever V, Seifert R. Structure/activity relationships of (M)ANT- and TNP-nucleotides for inhibition of rat soluble guanylyl cyclase ?1?1. Mol Pharmacol. 2014;85:598-607 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, it may become possible to develop mAC inhibitors with selectivity relative to sGC. ..
  12. Lefèvre S, Chauveinc L, Stoppa Lyonnet D, Michon J, Lumbroso L, Berthet P, et al. A T to C mutation in the polypyrimidine tract of the exon 9 splicing site of the RB1 gene responsible for low penetrance hereditary retinoblastoma. J Med Genet. 2002;39:E21 pubmed
  13. Muradjan C, Martin H, Martin R. [Molecularbiology of ageing. 20th report: RNA-metabolism and aging--relations between pool of precursors and labelling of nuclear RNA-fractions (author's transl)]. Z Alternsforsch. 1980;35:155-64 pubmed
  14. Yacoub E, Ben Abdelmoumen Mardassi B. Mm19, a Mycoplasma meleagridis Major Surface Nuclease that Is Related to the RE_AlwI Superfamily of Endonucleases. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0152171 pubmed publisher
    ..Like most mycoplasma species, M. meleagridis is characterized by its inability to synthesize purine and pyrimidine nucleotides de novo...
  15. Xie H, Wu R, Xia F, Cao Z. Effects of electron attachment on C5'-O5' and C1'-N1 bond cleavages of pyrimidine nucleotides: A theoretical study. J Comput Chem. 2008;29:2025-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Calculations show that the low-energy electrons attachment to the pyrimidine nucleotides results in remarkable structural and chemical bonding changes...
  16. Brown K, Spinelli J, Asara J, Toker A. Adaptive Reprogramming of De Novo Pyrimidine Synthesis Is a Metabolic Vulnerability in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. Cancer Discov. 2017;7:391-399 pubmed publisher
    ..and in vivo metabolic profiling of TNBC cells, we show that an increase in the abundance of pyrimidine nucleotides occurs in response to chemotherapy exposure...
  17. Srivatsan S, Tor Y. Synthesis and enzymatic incorporation of a fluorescent pyrimidine ribonucleotide. Nat Protoc. 2007;2:1547-55 pubmed
    ..The total time for the synthesis of ribonucleoside triphosphate is approximately 6 days, and that for the incorporation of the nucleoside triphosphate and purification of the fluorescently labeled RNA approximately 40 h. ..
  18. Berezhnoy A, Duplij S. Dependence of nucleotide physical properties on their placement in codons and determinative degree. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2005;6:948-60 pubmed
    ..The dependencies of these variables from the place in the codon and the determinative degree were obtained. The difference of these variables for codons and anticodons is shown. ..
  19. Larsen N, Moslehi Jenabian S, Werner B, Jensen M, Garrigues C, Vogensen F, et al. Transcriptome analysis of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis during milk acidification as affected by dissolved oxygen and the redox potential. Int J Food Microbiol. 2016;226:5-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes up-regulated in response to oxygen depletion were implicated in biosynthesis and transport of pyrimidine nucleotides, branched chain amino acids and in arginine catabolic pathways; whereas genes involved in salvage of ..
  20. Gassmann M, Stanzel A, Werner S. Growth factor-regulated expression of enzymes involved in nucleotide biosynthesis: a novel mechanism of growth factor action. Oncogene. 1999;18:6667-76 pubmed
  21. Graci J, Harki D, Korneeva V, Edathil J, Too K, Franco D, et al. Lethal mutagenesis of poliovirus mediated by a mutagenic pyrimidine analogue. J Virol. 2007;81:11256-66 pubmed
  22. Samanta B, Seikowski J, Höbartner C. Fluorogenic Labeling of 5-Formylpyrimidine Nucleotides in DNA and RNA. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2016;55:1912-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This direct labeling approach of 5-formylpyrimidines is expected to help in elucidating the occurrence, enzymatic transformations, and functional roles of these epigenetic/epitranscriptomic nucleobase modifications in DNA and RNA. ..
  23. Li J, Shikiya R, Marky L, Gold B. Triple helix forming TRIPside molecules that target mixed purine/pyrimidine DNA sequences. Biochemistry. 2004;43:1440-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, triplexes using the TRIPsides form in a highly sequence specific manner. ..
  24. Ohara T, Ohashi Kobayashi A, Maeda M. Biochemical characterization of transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)-like (ABCB9) expressed in insect cells. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31:1-5 pubmed
    ..b>Pyrimidine nucleotides such as uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) and cytidine 5'-triphosphate (CTP) were less effective competitors, ..
  25. Wang S, Zhang M, Liu P, Xie S, Cheng F, Wang L. DNA intrastrand cross-links induced by the purine-type deoxyguanosine-8-yl radical: a DFT study. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2017;19:16621-16628 pubmed publisher, probable additions of the highly reactive deoxyguanosine-8-yl radical to its 3'/5' neighboring pyrimidine nucleotides in four model compounds, 5'-G˙T-3', 5'-TG˙-3', 5'-G˙C-3', and 5'-CG˙-3', were studied ..
  26. Zhang H, Switzer R. Transcriptional pausing in the Bacillus subtilis pyr operon in vitro: a role in transcriptional attenuation?. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:4764-71 pubmed
    ..This suggests that NusA, by stabilizing pausing, plays a role in termination of pyr transcription in vivo. ..
  27. Shibui Nihei A, Ohmori Y, Yoshida K, Imai J, Oosuga I, Iidaka M, et al. The 5' terminal oligopyrimidine tract of human elongation factor 1A-1 gene functions as a transcriptional initiator and produces a variable number of Us at the transcriptional level. Gene. 2003;311:137-45 pubmed
    ..Many other housekeeping genes, including ribosomal protein genes, are also members of the 5' TOP gene family, and the 5' TOP sequence may be an important core-promoter element of these genes. ..
  28. Liu D, Wyttenbach T, Bowers M. Hydration of mononucleotides. J Am Chem Soc. 2006;128:15155-63 pubmed
    ..The insight gained on nucleotide stabilization by individual water molecules is used to discuss the competition between hydration of individual nucleotides and Watson-Crick base pairing. ..
  29. Wurm A, Lipp S, Pannicke T, Linnertz R, Krügel U, Schulz A, et al. Endogenous purinergic signaling is required for osmotic volume regulation of retinal glial cells. J Neurochem. 2010;112:1261-72 pubmed publisher
    ..It is suggested that autocrine/paracrine activation of purinergic receptors and enzymes is crucially involved in the regulation of the glial cell volume. ..
  30. Matallana Surget S, Meador J, Joux F, Douki T. Effect of the GC content of DNA on the distribution of UVB-induced bipyrimidine photoproducts. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2008;7:794-801 pubmed publisher
    ..Because cytosine-containing photoproducts are highly mutagenic, it may be predicted that species with genomes exhibiting a high GC content are more susceptible to UV-induced mutagenesis. ..
  31. Cogoi S, Ballico M, Bonora G, Xodo L. Antiproliferative activity of a triplex-forming oligonucleotide recognizing a Ki-ras polypurine/polypyrimidine motif correlates with protein binding. Cancer Gene Ther. 2004;11:465-76 pubmed
    ..The biological implications of this study are discussed. ..
  32. Alexandrova L, Ivanov M, Victorova L, Kukhanova M. Furano- and pyrrolo [2,3-d] pyrimidine nucleosides and their 5'-O-triphospates: synthesis and enzymatic activity. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2007;26:1083-6 pubmed
    ..Substrate properties of the triphosphates toward some RNA and DNA polymerases are reported. ..
  33. Inoue K, Dowell D. HILIC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of nucleotides in infant formula and adult nutritional formula: First Action 2011.21. J AOAC Int. 2012;95:603-5 pubmed
    ..03 microg/mL, respectively. Recovery data were collected for intraday and interday testing and ranged from 98.1 to 108.9% with an RSD of 0.7-5.4%. The analytical range of the method is between 0.04 to 5 microg/mL for standard solution. ..
  34. Morvan F, Bologna J, Vives E, Imbach J. Cellular uptake and intracellular quantification of fluorescent labeled T20 Me-SATE prooligonucleotides. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2001;20:1165-8 pubmed
    ..Fluorescein labeled Me-SATE T20 models were synthesized. The high uptake of these prooligos in HeLa cells was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and by spectrofluorometry. ..
  35. Dittmar F, Abdelilah Seyfried S, Tschirner S, Kaever V, Seifert R. Temporal and organ-specific detection of cNMPs including cUMP in the zebrafish. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;468:708-12 pubmed publisher
    The cyclic pyrimidine nucleotides cCMP and cUMP occur in mammalian cell lines. Recently, cCMP was also identified in mouse organs. Due to technical difficulties, it has not been possible to detect cUMP in organs or tissues yet...
  36. Kafer C, Zhou L, Santoso D, Guirgis A, Weers B, Park S, et al. Regulation of pyrimidine metabolism in plants. Front Biosci. 2004;9:1611-25 pubmed
    b>Pyrimidine nucleotides represent one of the most fundamental of cellular components...
  37. Zhuang P, Kolbanovskiy A, Amin S, Geacintov N. Base sequence dependence of in vitro translesional DNA replication past a bulky lesion catalyzed by the exo- Klenow fragment of Pol I. Biochemistry. 2001;40:6660-9 pubmed
    ..The latter depend on the base Y and on the base preferentially inserted opposite the adduct. Thus, downstream template sequences as well as the bases flanking G* influence DNA translesion synthesis. ..
  38. Miazga A, Ziemkowski P, Siwecka M, Lipniacki A, Piasek A, Kulikowski T. Synthesis, biological properties and anti-HIV-1 activity of new pyrimidine P1,P2-dinucleotides. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2010;29:438-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The obtained results point to reverse transcriptase inhibition, with somewhat lower inhibitory activity than that of their parental nucleoside-5'-triphosphates. Compound 6 may be regarded as a potent anti-HIV/AIDS drug. ..
  39. Dell H. Scavengers beware!. Drug Discov Today. 2004;9:425 pubmed
  40. Pelled D, Sperling O, Zoref Shani E. Abnormal purine and pyrimidine nucleotide content in primary astroglia cultures from hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient transgenic mice. J Neurochem. 1999;72:1139-45 pubmed
    ..of salvage nucleotide synthesis, and higher level of UTP, probably due to enhanced de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. Altered nucleotide content in the brain may have a role in the pathogenesis of the neurological deficit ..
  41. Morinaga H, Yonekura S, Nakamura N, Sugiyama H, Yonei S, Zhang Akiyama Q. Purification and characterization of Caenorhabditis elegans NTH, a homolog of human endonuclease III: essential role of N-terminal region. DNA Repair (Amst). 2009;8:844-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, DNA glycosylase activity that cleaved thymine glycol containing oligonucleotides was detected in the extract of the NTH-deficient C. elegans. ..
  42. Manjunath K, Jeyakanthan J, Sekar K. Catalytic pathway, substrate binding and stability in SAICAR synthetase: A structure and molecular dynamics study. J Struct Biol. 2015;191:22-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The CAIR binding site displays a preference for pyrimidine nucleotides. In the ADP·TMP·ASP complex, the ASP binds at a position equivalent to that found in Saccharomyces ..
  43. Farahbakhsh N. Ectonucleotidases of the rabbit ciliary body nonpigmented epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:3952-60 pubmed
    ..NPE cells possess at least three distinct ectonucleotidases capable of catalyzing the stepwise hydrolysis of adenine and pyrimidine nucleotides, as well as cAMP, thus shaping the purinergic-receptor-coupled signaling in these cells.
  44. Wang Q, Unrau P. Ribozyme motif structure mapped using random recombination and selection. RNA. 2005;11:404-11 pubmed
  45. Mills M, Arimondo P, Lacroix L, Garestier T, Klump H, Mergny J. Chemical modification of the third strand: differential effects on purine and pyrimidine triple helix formation. Biochemistry. 2002;41:357-66 pubmed
    ..This purine-to-pyrimidine triplex conversion depends on the chemical nature of the triplex-forming strands and the stability of the corresponding triplexes. ..
  46. Soderberg M, Lang M. Megaprimer-based methodology for deletion of a large fragment within a repetitive polypyrimidine-rich DNA. Mol Biotechnol. 2006;32:65-71 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the megaprimer method offers a solution for generating large internal deletions in repetitive sequences, which facilitates investigations on large repetitive DNA or RNA regions interacting with trans-factors. ..
  47. Sugimoto N, Wu P, Hara H, Kawamoto Y. pH and cation effects on the properties of parallel pyrimidine motif DNA triplexes. Biochemistry. 2001;40:9396-405 pubmed
    ..These observations would be useful for the design of triplex-forming oligonucleotides for antigene drugs and therapeutic purposes. ..
  48. Schwartsmann G, Peters G, Laurensse E, de Waal F, Loonen A, Leyva A, et al. DUP 785 (NSC 368390): schedule-dependency of growth-inhibitory and antipyrimidine effects. Biochem Pharmacol. 1988;37:3257-66 pubmed
    ..In WiDR cells, there was a clear accumulation of cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle after 24 hr drug exposure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  49. Karachevtsev M, Karachevtsev V. Peculiarities of homooligonucleotides wrapping around carbon nanotubes: molecular dynamics modeling. J Phys Chem B. 2011;115:9271-9 pubmed publisher
  50. Aird K, Zhang G, Li H, Tu Z, Bitler B, Garipov A, et al. Suppression of nucleotide metabolism underlies the establishment and maintenance of oncogene-induced senescence. Cell Rep. 2013;3:1252-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal the molecular basis whereby the stable growth arrest of oncogene-induced senescence is established and maintained through suppression of nucleotide metabolism. ..
  51. Takano Shimizu T. Local changes in GC/AT substitution biases and in crossover frequencies on Drosophila chromosomes. Mol Biol Evol. 2001;18:606-19 pubmed
    ..melanogaster after the melanogaster-yakuba divergence but before the melanogaster-simulans divergence. ..
  52. Fujita Y, Murakami R, Muramatsu Y, Miyakoshi S, Takatsu T. A-94964, novel inhibitor of bacterial translocase I, produced by Streptomyces sp. SANK 60404. II. Physico-chemical properties and structure elucidation. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2008;61:545-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure of A-94964 was elucidated primarily by various NMR studies, including a 1H-31P HMBC experiment. A-94964 has a unique structure which possesses a nucleoside moiety and an N-acylglucosamine moiety connected via a phosphate. ..
  53. Ramasamy K, Stoisavljevic V, Lau J. Synthesis and biophysical studies of oligonucleotides containing hydroxamate linkages. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2001;20:1173-6 pubmed
    ..Novel thymidine dimers containing hydroxamate linkages were synthesized, incorporated into oligonucleotide sequences and studied their hybridization properties against complementary DNA and RNA targets. ..
  54. Kaneda T, Sakaguchi R, Shimizu K, Urakawa N, Nakajyo S. Effects of high-K+, Na+-deficient solution on contractility of the smooth muscles of the bovine trachea. J Vet Med Sci. 2006;68:1039-45 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, I-154 K+ solution induced-relaxation in the bovine trachea may be due to swelling of smooth muscle cells and the mechanism of swelling is probably involved in DIDS-sensitive anion movement. ..
  55. Devroede N, Huysveld N, Charlier D. Mutational analysis of intervening sequences connecting the binding sites for integration host factor, PepA, PurR, and RNA polymerase in the control region of the Escherichia coli carAB operon, encoding carbamoylphosphate synthase. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:3236-45 pubmed
    ..of Escherichia coli reflects the dual function of carbamoylphosphate in the biosynthesis of arginine and pyrimidine nucleotides. The tandem pair of promoters is regulated by various mechanisms depending on the needs of both pathways ..
  56. Giorgelli F, Bottai C, Mascia L, Scolozzi C, Camici M, Ipata P. Recycling of alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate for nucleoside interconversion. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997;1335:6-22 pubmed
    ..the catabolism of purine nucleosides can be transferred to uracil and, in the presence of ATP, used for the synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides; therefore, purine nucleosides can act as ribose donors for the salvage of pyrimidine bases.
  57. Damron D, Dorman R. [3H]arachidonic acid metabolism in rat brain minces: effects of nucleotide triphosphates, CDPcholine and CMP. Neurochem Res. 1988;13:777-83 pubmed
  58. Salvetti R, Pregnolato M, Verri A, Focher F, Spadari S, Marchand A, et al. Synthesis and in vitro activity of D- and L-enantiomers of 5-(trifluoromethyl)uracil nucleoside derivatives. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2001;20:1123-5 pubmed
    ..5-CF3-beta-L-dUrd (7) as well as some other related L-nucleoside derivatives were stereospecifically prepared and tested in vitro against viral (HSV-1 and HSV-2) and human thymidine kinases (TK). ..
  59. Stasolla C, Loukanina N, Ashihara H, Yeung E, Thorpe T. Comparative studies on pyrimidine metabolism in excised cotyledons of Pinus radiata during shoot formation in vitro. J Plant Physiol. 2007;164:429-41 pubmed
    ..The de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides was operative under both SF and NSF conditions, and the activity of orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (..
  60. Fairbanks L, Bofill M, Ruckemann K, Simmonds H. Importance of ribonucleotide availability to proliferating T-lymphocytes from healthy humans. Disproportionate expansion of pyrimidine pools and contrasting effects of de novo synthesis inhibitors. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:29682-9 pubmed
    ..They also demonstrate an absence of coordinate regulation between de novo purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis. ..
  61. Kahler A, Switzer R. Identification of a novel gene of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis, pyrDII, that is required for dihydroorotate dehydrogenase activity in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:5013-6 pubmed
    ..We propose that pyrDII encodes a protein subunit of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase that catalyzes electron transfer from the pyrDI-encoded subunit to components of the electron transport chain. ..
  62. Chander P, Halbig K, Miller J, Fields C, Bonner H, Grabner G, et al. Structure of the nucleotide complex of PyrR, the pyr attenuation protein from Bacillus caldolyticus, suggests dual regulation by pyrimidine and purine nucleotides. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:1773-82 pubmed
    ..The new findings of specific GMP binding and its antagonism of RNA binding suggest cross-regulation of the pyr operon by purines. ..
  63. Spät A. Glomerulosa cell--a unique sensor of extracellular K+ concentration. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2004;217:23-6 pubmed
    ..The cytoplasmic Ca2+ signal is transferred into the mitochondrial matrix and enhances the reduction of mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides. ..
  64. Golan O, Issan Y, Isak A, Leipziger J, Robaye B, Shainberg A. Extracellular nucleotide derivatives protect cardiomyocytes against hypoxic stress. Biochem Pharmacol. 2011;81:1219-27 pubmed publisher
    ..a pyrimidine nucleotide (UTP) on myocardial infarction has been examined, the role of different purine and pyrimidine nucleotides and nucleosides in cardioprotection against hypoxic stress has not been reported...
  65. Amitsur M, Benjamin S, Rosner R, Chapman Shimshoni D, Meidler R, Blanga S, et al. Bacteriophage T4-encoded Stp can be replaced as activator of anticodon nuclease by a normal host cell metabolite. Mol Microbiol. 2003;50:129-43 pubmed
    ..The data also reveal that Stp can be replaced as the activator of latent anticodon nuclease by certain pyrimidine nucleotides, the most potent of which is dTTP...
  66. West T. Regulation of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis in Pseudomonas synxantha. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2007;92:353-8 pubmed
    ..At the level of enzyme activity, aspartate transcarbamoylase activity in P. synxantha ATCC 9890 was strongly inhibited in vitro by pyrophosphate, UTP, ADP, ATP, CTP and GTP under saturating substrate concentrations. ..
  67. Tabucchi A, Carlucci F, Re M, Furlini G, Consolmagno E, Leoncini R, et al. The behavior of free purine nucleotides in lymphocytes infected with HIV-1 virus. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993;1182:317-22 pubmed
    ..Many interesting variations in the catabolic and of anabolic pathways were observed, demonstrating that the viral penetration affects purine nucleotide metabolism. These results suggest interesting perspectives in AIDS research. ..
  68. Balzarini J, Pannecouque C, De Clercq E, Aquaro S, Perno C, Egberink H, et al. Antiretrovirus activity of a novel class of acyclic pyrimidine nucleoside phosphonates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:2185-93 pubmed
    ..e., DNA, RNA, or protein) synthesis. Compounds 1 and 11 should be considered attractive novel pyrimidine nucleotide phosphonate analogues to be further pursued for their potential as antiretroviral agents in the clinical setting. ..
  69. Barton W, Biggins J, Jiang J, Thorson J, Nikolov D. Expanding pyrimidine diphosphosugar libraries via structure-based nucleotidylyltransferase engineering. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:13397-402 pubmed
    ..In aggregate, our results provide valuable blueprints for altering nucleotidylyltransferase specificity by design, which is the first step toward in vitro glycorandomization. ..
  70. Kilstrup M, Hammer K, Ruhdal Jensen P, Martinussen J. Nucleotide metabolism and its control in lactic acid bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2005;29:555-90 pubmed
  71. Carrey E, Smolenski R, Edbury S, Laurence A, Marinaki A, Duley J, et al. An unusual pyridine nucleotide accumulating in erythrocytes: its identity and positive correlation with degree of renal failure. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2004;23:1135-9 pubmed
    ..Both Me2Py and the nucleotide accumulate to high concentrations in the blood during uraemia: our investigations of samples from renal out-patients have provided information on a plausible link between the two compounds. ..
  72. Kanno H, Takizawa T, Miwa S, Fujii H. Molecular basis of Japanese variants of pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase deficiency. Br J Haematol. 2004;126:265-71 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that L142P increases susceptibility to the degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. ..
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