cytidine

Summary

Summary: A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.

Top Publications

  1. Yasui H, Inanami O, Asanuma T, Iizuka D, Nakajima T, Kon Y, et al. Treatment combining X-irradiation and a ribonucleoside anticancer drug, TAS106, effectively suppresses the growth of tumor cells transplanted in mice. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;68:218-28 pubmed
    ..X-irradiation and TAS106 effectively suppress tumor growth in mice. The inhibition of survivin expression by TAS106 is thought to mainly contribute to the suppression of the tumor growth. ..
  2. Hammond Thelin L, Thomas M, Iwasaki M, Abbruzzese J, Lassere Y, Meyers C, et al. Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of 3'-C-ethynylcytidine (TAS-106), an inhibitor of RNA polymerase I, II and III,in patients with advanced solid malignancies. Invest New Drugs. 2012;30:316-26 pubmed publisher
  3. Cui F, Wang J, Yao X, Wang L, Zhang Q, Qu G. Spectroscopic and molecular modeling studies of the interaction between cytidine and human serum albumin and its analytical application. Biopolymers. 2007;87:174-82 pubmed
    In this study, the interaction between cytidine and human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated for the first time by fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with UV absorption spectrum and molecular modeling under simulative ..
  4. Mandal D, Köhrer C, Su D, Russell S, Krivos K, Castleberry C, et al. Agmatidine, a modified cytidine in the anticodon of archaeal tRNA(Ile), base pairs with adenosine but not with guanosine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2872-7 pubmed publisher
    Modification of the cytidine in the first anticodon position of the AUA decoding tRNA(Ile) (tRNA2(Ile)) of bacteria and archaea is essential for this tRNA to read the isoleucine codon AUA and to differentiate between AUA and the ..
  5. Moody C, Tretyachenko Ladokhina V, Laue T, Senear D, Cocco M. Multiple conformations of the cytidine repressor DNA-binding domain coalesce to one upon recognition of a specific DNA surface. Biochemistry. 2011;50:6622-32 pubmed publisher
    The cytidine repressor (CytR) is a member of the LacR family of bacterial repressors with distinct functional features...
  6. Chiam K, Centenera M, Butler L, Tilley W, Bianco Miotto T. GSTP1 DNA methylation and expression status is indicative of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine efficacy in human prostate cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25634 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the DNA methylation and protein expression status of GSTP1 are good indicators of DNMTi efficacy. ..
  7. Flotho C, Claus R, Batz C, Schneider M, Sandrock I, Ihde S, et al. The DNA methyltransferase inhibitors azacitidine, decitabine and zebularine exert differential effects on cancer gene expression in acute myeloid leukemia cells. Leukemia. 2009;23:1019-28 pubmed publisher
  8. Aynaud M, Suspène R, Vidalain P, Mussil B, Guetard D, Tangy F, et al. Human Tribbles 3 protects nuclear DNA from cytidine deamination by APOBEC3A. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:39182-92 pubmed publisher
    The human polydeoxynucleotide cytidine deaminases APOBEC3A, APOBEC3C, and APOBEC3H are capable of mutating viral DNA in the nucleus, whereas APOBEC3A alone efficiently edits nuclear DNA...
  9. Zhao Y, Zeng Z, Kan Z, Hao Y, Tan Z. The folding and unfolding kinetics of the i-motif structure formed by the C-rich strand of human telomere DNA. Chembiochem. 2005;6:1957-60 pubmed

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications62

  1. Schwartz S, Alazzouzi H, Perucho M. Mutational dynamics in human tumors confirm the neutral intrinsic instability of the mitochondrial D-loop poly-cytidine repeat. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2006;45:770-80 pubmed
    ..We also suggest that the (C)(n) repeat may be used as an universal molecular clock to estimate the relative mitotic history of tumors. ..
  2. Murphy B, Stoll A, Harris P, Ravichandran C, Babb S, Carlezon W, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid treatment, with or without cytidine, fails to show therapeutic properties in bipolar disorder: a double-blind, randomized add-on clinical trial. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2012;32:699-703 pubmed publisher
    ..study aimed to test the effects of omega-3 fatty acids (O3FA), given as fish oil capsules, with and without oral cytidine (CYT), a pyrimidine with reported preclinical and clinical antidepressant-like effects, in patients with bipolar ..
  3. Xue Z, Sjogren H, Salford L, Widegren B. An epigenetic mechanism for high, synergistic expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) by combined treatment with zebularine and IFN-?: potential therapeutic use in autoimmune diseases. Mol Immunol. 2012;51:101-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The demonstrated synergistic activation of IDO1 expression has implications in relation to therapeutic induction of immunosuppression in autoimmunity and chronic inflammation. ..
  4. Tinsley R, Walter N. Pyrrolo-C as a fluorescent probe for monitoring RNA secondary structure formation. RNA. 2006;12:522-9 pubmed
    ..3-[beta-D-2-ribofuranosyl]-6-methylpyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(3H)-one, is a fluorescent analog of the nucleoside cytidine that retains its Watson-Crick base-pairing capacity with G...
  5. Yoo C, Cheng J, Jones P. Zebularine: a new drug for epigenetic therapy. Biochem Soc Trans. 2004;32:910-2 pubmed
    ..Further studies exploring the effectiveness of zebularine in a variety of settings could allow the development of novel therapies for cancer. ..
  6. Matsubara T, Dupuis M, Aida M. Ab initio ONIOM-molecular dynamics (MD) study on the deamination reaction by cytidine deaminase. J Phys Chem B. 2007;111:9965-74 pubmed
    We applied the ONIOM-molecular dynamics (MD) method to the hydrolytic deamination of cytidine by cytidine deaminase, which is an essential step of the activation process of the anticancer drug inside the human body...
  7. Liu H, Xue Z, Sjogren H, Salford L, Widegren B. Low dose Zebularine treatment enhances immunogenicity of tumor cells. Cancer Lett. 2007;257:107-15 pubmed
    ..This immunosuppression should be considered when cancer is treated with Zebularine or drugs acting in a similar way. ..
  8. Friday B, Lassere Y, Meyers C, Mita A, Abbruzzese J, Thomas M. A phase I study to determine the safety and pharmacokinetics of intravenous administration of TAS-106 once per week for three consecutive weeks every 28 days in patients with solid tumors. Anticancer Res. 2012;32:1689-96 pubmed
    ..No suggested phase II dose was determined. However, at the 1.32 mg/m(2)/dose level, no patients experienced DLTs during course 1 or 2. This could be further studied to determine its viability as a potential phase II dosage. ..
  9. Suzuki M, Shinohara F, Endo M, Sugazaki M, Echigo S, Rikiishi H. Zebularine suppresses the apoptotic potential of 5-fluorouracil via cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway against human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009;64:223-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that combination therapies have to be carefully investigated due to potential harmful effects in the clinical application of DNMT inhibitors. ..
  10. Rao S, Rechsteiner M, Berger C, Sigrist J, Nadal D, Bernasconi M. Zebularine reactivates silenced E-cadherin but unlike 5-Azacytidine does not induce switching from latent to lytic Epstein-Barr virus infection in Burkitt's lymphoma Akata cells. Mol Cancer. 2007;6:3 pubmed
  11. Chen M, Shabashvili D, Nawab A, Yang S, Dyer L, Brown K, et al. DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, zebularine, delays tumor growth and induces apoptosis in a genetically engineered mouse model of breast cancer. Mol Cancer Ther. 2012;11:370-82 pubmed publisher
    Zebularine is a novel potent inhibitor of both cytidine deaminase and DNA methylation...
  12. Lui V, Lau C, Cheung C, Ho K, Ng M, Cheng S, et al. An RNA-directed nucleoside anti-metabolite, 1-(3-C-ethynyl-beta-d-ribo-pentofuranosyl)cytosine (ECyd), elicits antitumor effect via TP53-induced Glycolysis and Apoptosis Regulator (TIGAR) downregulation. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010;79:1772-80 pubmed publisher
    1-(3-C-ethynyl-beta-d-ribo-pentofuranosyl)cytosine (ECyd) is a ribose-modified nucleoside analog of cytidine with potent anticancer activity in several cancers...
  13. Gertych A, Farkas D, Tajbakhsh J. Measuring topology of low-intensity DNA methylation sites for high-throughput assessment of epigenetic drug-induced effects in cancer cells. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:3150-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Measuring changes in the topology of low-intensity sites can potentially be a valuable component in the high-throughput assessment of demethylation and risk of chromatin reorganization in epigenetic-drug screening tasks. ..
  14. Gillick K, Pollpeter D, Phalora P, Kim E, Wolinsky S, Malim M. Suppression of HIV-1 infection by APOBEC3 proteins in primary human CD4(+) T cells is associated with inhibition of processive reverse transcription as well as excessive cytidine deamination. J Virol. 2013;87:1508-17 pubmed publisher
    ..exert their suppressive effects through the inhibition of viral reverse transcription as well as the induction of cytidine deamination within nascent viral cDNA...
  15. Zhang Z, Jakkaraju S, Blain J, Gogol K, Zhao L, Hartley R, et al. Cytidine derivatives as IspF inhibitors of Burkolderia pseudomallei. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013;23:6860-3 pubmed publisher
    ..of IspF from Burkholderia pseudomallei were used to design and synthesize a series of molecules linking the cytidine moiety to different zinc pocket fragment binders...
  16. Verschuur A, Van Gennip A, Leen R, van Kuilenburg A. Increased cytotoxicity of 2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine in human leukemic cell-lines after a preincubation with cyclopentenyl cytosine. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2004;23:1517-21 pubmed
    ..We conclude that CPEC enhances the incorporation of dFdCTP into DNA and thus increases the cytotoxicity of gemcitabine in lymphocytic and myeloid leukemic cell-lines. ..
  17. Wu J, Yu W, Fu L, He W, Wang Y, Chai B, et al. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of new 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-4'-triazole cytidine nucleosides as potent antiviral agents. Eur J Med Chem. 2013;63:739-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides, the anti-HBV activity of compounds 10, 11 and 17 had been investigated. ..
  18. Lemaire M, Momparler L, Bernstein M, Marquez V, Momparler R. Enhancement of antineoplastic action of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine by zebularine on L1210 leukemia. Anticancer Drugs. 2005;16:301-8 pubmed
    ..One hindrance to the curative potential of 5-AZA-CdR is its rapid in vivo inactivation by cytidine deaminase (CD)...
  19. Ben Kasus T, Ben Zvi Z, Marquez V, Kelley J, Agbaria R. Metabolic activation of zebularine, a novel DNA methylation inhibitor, in human bladder carcinoma cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005;70:121-33 pubmed
    Zebularine (2(1H)-pyrimidinone riboside, Zeb), a synthetic analogue of cytidine that is a potent inhibitor of cytidine deaminase, has been recently identified as a general inhibitor of DNA methylation...
  20. Guymon R, Pomerantz S, Ison J, Crain P, McCloskey J. Post-transcriptional modifications in the small subunit ribosomal RNA from Thermotoga maritima, including presence of a novel modified cytidine. RNA. 2007;13:396-403 pubmed
    ..coli. An unusual derivative of cytidine was found, designated N-330 (Mr 330.117), and was sequenced to position 1404 in the decoding region of the rRNA...
  21. Balch C, Yan P, Craft T, Young S, Skalnik D, Huang T, et al. Antimitogenic and chemosensitizing effects of the methylation inhibitor zebularine in ovarian cancer. Mol Cancer Ther. 2005;4:1505-14 pubmed
    ..In summary, zebularine seems to be a promising clinical candidate, singly or combined with conventional regimens, for the therapy of drug-resistant ovarian cancer. ..
  22. Marquez V, Barchi J, Kelley J, Rao K, Agbaria R, Ben Kasus T, et al. Zebularine: a unique molecule for an epigenetically based strategy in cancer chemotherapy. The magic of its chemistry and biology. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2005;24:305-18 pubmed
    1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-1,2-dihydropyrimidin-2-one (zebularine) is structurally 4-deamino cytidine. The increased electrophilic character of this simple aglycon endows the molecule with unique chemical and biological properties, making ..
  23. Marquez V, Kelley J, Agbaria R, Ben Kasus T, Cheng J, Yoo C, et al. Zebularine: a unique molecule for an epigenetically based strategy in cancer chemotherapy. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1058:246-54 pubmed
    1-(Beta-d-ribofuranosyl)-1,2-dihydropyrimidin-2-one (zebularine) corresponds structurally to cytidine minus the exocyclic 4-amino group...
  24. Stresemann C, Brueckner B, Musch T, Stopper H, Lyko F. Functional diversity of DNA methyltransferase inhibitors in human cancer cell lines. Cancer Res. 2006;66:2794-800 pubmed
    ..These results show a substantial diversity in the molecular activities of DNA methyltransferase inhibitors and provide valuable insights into the developmental potential of individual drugs. ..
  25. Hobartner C, Sicoli G, Wachowius F, Gophane D, Sigurdsson S. Synthesis and characterization of RNA containing a rigid and nonperturbing cytidine-derived spin label. J Org Chem. 2012;77:7749-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic characterization of mono-, bi-, and trimolecular RNA structures shows that Çm will be applicable for advanced EPR studies to elucidate structural and dynamic aspects of folded RNA. ..
  26. Pierra C, Amador A, Benzaria S, Cretton Scott E, D Amours M, Mao J, et al. Synthesis and pharmacokinetics of valopicitabine (NM283), an efficient prodrug of the potent anti-HCV agent 2'-C-methylcytidine. J Med Chem. 2006;49:6614-20 pubmed
  27. Neureiter D, Zopf S, Leu T, Dietze O, Hauser Kronberger C, Hahn E, et al. Apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation patterns are influenced by Zebularine and SAHA in pancreatic cancer models. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2007;42:103-16 pubmed
    ..These compounds may therefore be suitable as adjunctive therapeutic agents in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. ..
  28. Zhou P, Lu Y, Sun X. Zebularine suppresses TGF-beta-induced lens epithelial cell-myofibroblast transdifferentiation by inhibiting MeCP2. Mol Vis. 2011;17:2717-23 pubmed
    ..Zebularine could reverse the TGF?2-induced ?-SMA expression by inhibiting MeCP2 expression. Therefore, zebularine could potentially prevent PCO formation. ..
  29. Patil A, Sang P, Govindan A, Varshney U. Mycobacterium tuberculosis MutT1 (Rv2985) and ADPRase (Rv1700) proteins constitute a two-stage mechanism of 8-oxo-dGTP and 8-oxo-GTP detoxification and adenosine to cytidine mutation avoidance. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:11252-62 pubmed publisher
    ..coli for its MutT deficiency by decreasing A to C mutations (a hallmark of MutT deficiency). We suggest that the concerted action of MtuMutT1 and Rv1700 plays a crucial role in survival of bacteria against oxidative stress...
  30. Cantara W, Crain P, Rozenski J, McCloskey J, Harris K, Zhang X, et al. The RNA Modification Database, RNAMDB: 2011 update. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:D195-201 pubmed publisher
    ..The expanded future role of The RNA Modification Database will be to serve as a primary information portal for researchers across the entire spectrum of RNA-related research. ..
  31. Moriwaki K, Narisada M, Imai T, Shinzaki S, Miyoshi E. The effect of epigenetic regulation of fucosylation on TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Glycoconj J. 2010;27:649-59 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that cellular fucosylation is regulated through DNA methylation in many cancer cells. Moreover, zebularine might be useful as a combination drug with TRAIL-based therapies in patients with TRAIL-resistant cancer. ..
  32. Yoo C, Chuang J, Byun H, Egger G, Yang A, Dubeau L, et al. Long-term epigenetic therapy with oral zebularine has minimal side effects and prevents intestinal tumors in mice. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2008;1:233-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, prolonged treatment of mice with epigenetic drugs resulted in only minor developmental and histologic changes. ..
  33. Suspène R, Aynaud M, Vartanian J, Wain Hobson S. Efficient deamination of 5-methylcytidine and 5-substituted cytidine residues in DNA by human APOBEC3A cytidine deaminase. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63461 pubmed publisher
    Deamination of 5-methylcytidine (5MeC) in DNA results in a G:T mismatch unlike cytidine (C) deamination which gives rise to a G:U pair. Deamination of C was generally considered to arise spontaneously...
  34. Schroeder G, Zhou L, Snider M, Chen X, Wolfenden R. Flight of a cytidine deaminase complex with an imperfect transition state analogue inhibitor: mass spectrometric evidence for the presence of a trapped water molecule. Biochemistry. 2012;51:6476-86 pubmed
    b>Cytidine deaminase (CDA) binds the inhibitor zebularine as its 3,4-hydrate (K(d) ~ 10(-12) M), capturing all but ~5.6 kcal/mol of the free energy of binding expected of an ideal transition state analogue (K(tx) ~ 10(-16) M)...
  35. Lemaire M, Momparler L, Raynal N, Bernstein M, Momparler R. Inhibition of cytidine deaminase by zebularine enhances the antineoplastic action of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009;63:411-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Cytidine (CR) deaminase is a key enzyme in the catabolism of cytosine nucleoside analogues, since their deamination results in a loss of their pharmacological activity...
  36. Gowher H, Jeltsch A. Mechanism of inhibition of DNA methyltransferases by cytidine analogs in cancer therapy. Cancer Biol Ther. 2004;3:1062-8 pubmed
    ..This review provides an insight to how the chemistry of DNA methylation is involved in the performance of these drugs targeted against it. ..
  37. Inanami O, Iizuka D, Iwahara A, Yamamori T, Kon Y, Asanuma T, et al. A novel anticancer ribonucleoside, 1-(3-C-ethynyl-beta-D-ribo-pentofuranosyl)cytosine, enhances radiation-induced cell death in tumor cells. Radiat Res. 2004;162:635-45 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that TAS106 enhances X-ray-induced cell death through down-regulation of survivin and abrogation of the cell cycle machinery. ..
  38. Kawasaki T, Nagatsugi F, Ali M, Maeda M, Sugiyama K, Hori K, et al. Hybridization-promoted and cytidine-selective activation for cross-linking with the use of 2-amino-6-vinylpurine derivatives. J Org Chem. 2005;70:14-23 pubmed
    ..4) and the phenylsulfoxide (3) derivatives, by a hybridization-promoted activation process with selectivity to cytidine. The phenylsulfide precursor (4) exhibited cross-linking ability despite its high stability toward strong ..
  39. Huthoff H, Malim M. Cytidine deamination and resistance to retroviral infection: towards a structural understanding of the APOBEC proteins. Virology. 2005;334:147-53 pubmed
    ..with an intracellular antiretroviral activity that is associated with the hypermutation of viral DNA through cytidine deamination...
  40. Holleran J, Parise R, Joseph E, Eiseman J, Covey J, Glaze E, et al. Plasma pharmacokinetics, oral bioavailability, and interspecies scaling of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, zebularine. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:3862-8 pubmed
    ..Interspecies scaling produced the following relationship: CL(tb) = 6.46(weight(0.9)). Zebularine has limited oral bioavailability. Interspecies scaling projects a CL(tb) of 296 mL/min in humans. ..
  41. Cornish P, Hennig M, Giedroc D. A loop 2 cytidine-stem 1 minor groove interaction as a positive determinant for pseudoknot-stimulated -1 ribosomal frameshifting. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:12694-9 pubmed
    ..Five consecutive triple base pairs flank the helical junction where the 3' nucleotide of L2, C27, adopts a cytidine 27 N3-cytidine 14 2'-OH hydrogen bonding interaction with the C14-G7 base pair...
  42. Herranz M, Martin Caballero J, Fraga M, Ruiz Cabello J, Flores J, Desco M, et al. The novel DNA methylation inhibitor zebularine is effective against the development of murine T-cell lymphoma. Blood. 2006;107:1174-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, our data support the role of zebularine as a DNA demethylating agent with antitumor activity and little toxicity. ..
  43. Scott S, Lakshimikuttysamma A, Sheridan D, Sanche S, Geyer C, DeCoteau J. Zebularine inhibits human acute myeloid leukemia cell growth in vitro in association with p15INK4B demethylation and reexpression. Exp Hematol. 2007;35:263-73 pubmed
    ..The cytidine analog zebularine is a stable DNA methylation inhibitor that has minimal toxicity in vitro and in vivo...
  44. Champion C, Guianvarc h D, Senamaud Beaufort C, Jurkowska R, Jeltsch A, Ponger L, et al. Mechanistic insights on the inhibition of c5 DNA methyltransferases by zebularine. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12388 pubmed publisher
    ..Zebularine (1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-2(1H)- pyrimidinone) is another cytidine analog described as a potent inhibitor that acts by forming a covalent complex with DNMT when incorporated into ..
  45. Lusic H, Gustilo E, Vendeix F, Kaiser R, Delaney M, Graham W, et al. Synthesis and investigation of the 5-formylcytidine modified, anticodon stem and loop of the human mitochondrial tRNAMet. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:6548-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The modification contributes to the tRNA's anticodon domain structure, thermodynamic properties and its ability to bind codons AUA and AUG in translational initiation and elongation. ..
  46. Leroy J. The formation pathway of i-motif tetramers. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:4127-34 pubmed publisher
  47. Van Bemmel D, Brank A, Eritja R, Marquez V, Christman J. DNA (Cytosine-C5) methyltransferase inhibition by oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing 2-(1H)-pyrimidinone (zebularine aglycon) at the enzymatic target site. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009;78:633-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The differing stability and reversibility of the covalent bonds may partially account for the observed differences in cytotoxicity between zebularine and 5-azacytidine inhibitors. ..
  48. Schott H, Schott S, Schwendener R. Synthesis and in vitro activities of new anticancer duplex drugs linking 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5-FdU) with 3'-C-ethynylcytidine (ECyd) via a phosphodiester bonding. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009;17:6824-31 pubmed publisher
  49. Laisné A, Pompon D, Leroy J. [C7GC4]4 association into supra molecular i-motif structures. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:3817-26 pubmed publisher
    The self-associative properties of cytidine-rich oligonucleotides into symmetrical i-motif tetramers give to these oligonucleotides the capacity of forming supramolecular structures (sms) that have potential applications in the ..
  50. Crowe M, Sutherland J. Reaction of cytidine nucleotides with cyanoacetylene: support for the intermediacy of nucleoside-2',3'-cyclic phosphates in the prebiotic synthesis of RNA. Chembiochem. 2006;7:951-6 pubmed
    ..We recently reported a synthesis of cytidine-2',3'-cyclic phosphate 1 (C>p) in which the nucleobase was assembled in stages on a sugar-phosphate template...
  51. Zhang X, Wadkins R. DNA hairpins containing the cytidine analog pyrrolo-dC: structural, thermodynamic, and spectroscopic studies. Biophys J. 2009;96:1884-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, our data indicate that PdC can act as a fluorescence resonance energy transfer donor for the fluorescent drug 7-aminoactinomycin D. ..
  52. Billam M, Sobolewski M, Davidson N. Effects of a novel DNA methyltransferase inhibitor zebularine on human breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;120:581-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of one such agent, zebularine, which inhibits DNMT and cytidine deaminase, were assessed in two human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7...
  53. Costanzi S, Vilar S, Micozzi D, Carpi F, Ferino G, Vita A, et al. Delineation of the molecular mechanisms of nucleoside recognition by cytidine deaminase through virtual screening. ChemMedChem. 2011;6:1452-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Cytidine deaminase (EC 3.5.4...