Summary: Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Tanaka H, Tsugawa K, Oki E, Suzuki K, Ito E. Mizoribine intermittent pulse protocol for induction therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus in children: an open-label pilot study with five newly diagnosed patients. Clin Rheumatol. 2008;27:85-9 pubmed
    ..Further studies to confirm the long-term efficacy and safety of our current protocol in larger numbers of patients are, however, needed. ..
  2. Chou S. Cytomegalovirus UL97 mutations in the era of ganciclovir and maribavir. Rev Med Virol. 2008;18:233-46 pubmed publisher
    ..So far, no UL97 mutations are known to confer resistance to both GCV and MBV. ..
  3. Tanaka E, Inoue E, Kawaguchi Y, Tomatsu T, Yamanaka H, Hara M, et al. Acceptability and usefulness of mizoribine in the management of rheumatoid arthritis in methotrexate-refractory patients and elderly patients, based on analysis of data from a large-scale observational cohort study. Mod Rheumatol. 2006;16:214-9 pubmed
  4. Marty F, Ljungman P, Papanicolaou G, Winston D, Chemaly R, Strasfeld L, et al. Maribavir prophylaxis for prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in recipients of allogeneic stem-cell transplants: a phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011;11:284-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical and virological composite endpoints should be used in future trials. ViroPharma Incorporated. ..
  5. Kawasaki Y, Takano K, Isome M, Suzuki J, Suyama K, Kanno H, et al. Efficacy of single dose of oral mizoribine pulse therapy two times per week for frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome. J Nephrol. 2007;20:52-6 pubmed
    ..None of patients had severe adverse effects, such as uricacidemia, leukopenia, liver dysfunction or alopecia. Oral mizoribine pulse therapy consisting of a single dose two days a week may be effective and safe in some FRNS patients. ..
  6. Smith D, Martin J, Klumpp K, Baker S, Blomgren P, Devos R, et al. Design, synthesis, and antiviral properties of 4'-substituted ribonucleosides as inhibitors of hepatitis C virus replication: the discovery of R1479. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007;17:2570-6 pubmed
    ..Data on related analogues have been used to generate some preliminary requirements for activity within this series of nucleosides. ..
  7. Stypinski D, Obaidi M, Combs M, Weber M, Stewart A, Ishikawa H. Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of higher-dose mizoribine in healthy male volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2007;63:459-68 pubmed
  8. Ishida K, Takaai M, Yotsutani A, Taguchi M, Hashimoto Y. Membrane transport mechanisms of mizoribine in the rat intestine and human epithelial LS180 cells. Biol Pharm Bull. 2009;32:741-5 pubmed
    ..7% of that without NBMPR. These findings suggest that Na(+)-independent nucleoside transporters are largely responsible for absorption of mizoribine in the intestine. ..
  9. Su R, Chao Y, Chen T, Huang D, Lin W. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside sensitizes TRAIL- and TNF{alpha}-induced cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells through AMP-activated protein kinase signaling. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007;6:1562-71 pubmed
    ..The sensitization effect of AICAR in cell apoptosis was mediated through AMPK pathway, requires p53 activity, and involves mitochondria-dependent apoptotic cascades, p38 and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. ..

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Kuo C, Ho F, Chang M, Prakash E, Lin W. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside is independent of AMP-activated protein kinase. J Cell Biochem. 2008;103:931-40 pubmed
  2. Drew B, Kingwell B. Acadesine, an adenosine-regulating agent with the potential for widespread indications. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2008;9:2137-44 pubmed
    ..Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of acadesine for other ischaemic indications, including during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction. ..
  3. Wan J, Xia Y, Liu Y, Wang M, Rocchi P, Yao J, et al. Discovery of novel arylethynyltriazole ribonucleosides with selective and effective antiviral and antiproliferative activity. J Med Chem. 2009;52:1144-55 pubmed publisher
    Novel ethynyltriazole ribonucleosides were synthesized using a simple and efficient two-step procedure involving Sonogashira coupling and subsequent ammonolysis...
  4. Capuco A, Evock Clover C, Minuti A, Wood D. In vivo expansion of the mammary stem/ progenitor cell population by xanthosine infusion. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2009;234:475-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first demonstration of an in vivo treatment to increase the endogenous population of mammary stem cells, with utility for biomedical research and dairy management. ..
  5. Tanaka H, Tsugawa K, Suzuki K, Nakahata T, Ito E. Long-term mizoribine intermittent pulse therapy for young patients with flare of lupus nephritis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2006;21:962-6 pubmed
    ..Further studies to confirm the long-term efficacy and safety of oral MZR intermittent pulse therapy in larger numbers of patients are needed. ..
  6. Santidrian A, González Gironès D, Iglesias Serret D, Coll Mulet L, Cosialls A, de Frias M, et al. AICAR induces apoptosis independently of AMPK and p53 through up-regulation of the BH3-only proteins BIM and NOXA in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. Blood. 2010;116:3023-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support the notion that AICAR is an interesting alternative therapeutic option for CLL patients with impaired p53 function and resistance to conventional chemotherapy. ..
  7. Katahira R, Ashihara H. Profiles of purine biosynthesis, salvage and degradation in disks of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers. Planta. 2006;225:115-26 pubmed
    ..The purine ribonucleosides, adenosine and guanosine, were salvaged exclusively to nucleotides, by adenosine kinase (EC 2.7.1...
  8. Turek P, Novak P, Pohl R, Hocek M, Kotora M. Preparation of highly substituted 6-arylpurine ribonucleosides by Ni-catalyzed cyclotrimerization. Scope of the reaction. J Org Chem. 2006;71:8978-81 pubmed
    Transition metal complex catalyzed cocyclotrimerization of protected alkynylpurine ribonucleosides 1 with various diynes 2 gave rise to a series of 6-arylpurine nucleosides 3 that were further deprotected to free nucleosides 4...
  9. Garcia Gil M, Bertini F, Pesi R, Voccoli V, Tozzi M, Camici M. 5 '-Amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside induces apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells via the mitochondrial pathway. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2006;25:1265-70 pubmed
    ..Therefore, our results suggest that the toxic effect of AICA riboside on some types of neurons may participate in the neurological manifestations of syndromes related to purine dismetabolisms. ..
  10. Zhou C, Honcharenko D, Chattopadhyaya J. 2-(4-Tolylsulfonyl)ethoxymethyl (TEM)-a new 2'-OH protecting group for solid-supported RNA synthesis. Org Biomol Chem. 2007;5:333-43 pubmed
  11. Mangano D, Miao Y, Tudor I, Dietzel C. Post-reperfusion myocardial infarction: long-term survival improvement using adenosine regulation with acadesine. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48:206-14 pubmed
    ..Acadesine is the first therapy proven to be effective for reducing the severity of acute post-reperfusion MI, substantially reducing the risk of dying over the 2 years after infarction. ..
  12. Benner S, Kim H, Carrigan M. Asphalt, water, and the prebiotic synthesis of ribose, ribonucleosides, and RNA. Acc Chem Res. 2012;45:2025-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Well-known chemistry transforms these structures into nucleosides, nucleotides, and partially formylated oligomeric RNA. ..
  13. Chou S, Wechel L, Marousek G. Cytomegalovirus UL97 kinase mutations that confer maribavir resistance. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:91-4 pubmed
    ..The 3 UL97 mutations now known to confer MBV resistance are located upstream of UL97 mutations linked to ganciclovir resistance, closer to kinase domains that are associated with adenosine triphosphate binding and phosphotransfer. ..
  14. Kuroda T, Hirose S, Tanabe N, Sato H, Nakatsue T, Ajiro J, et al. Mizoribine therapy for patients with lupus nephritis: the association between peak mizoribine concentration and clinical efficacy. Mod Rheumatol. 2007;17:206-12 pubmed
    ..66 microg/ml and clinical improvement (P = 0.021). Our results suggest that an optimal MZR blood concentration was important for the treatment of lupus nephritis. ..
  15. Ramzaeva N, Michalek E, Kazimierczuk Z, Seela F, Rosemeyer H. Hoogsteen vs. Watson-Crick base pairing: incorporation of 2-substituted adenine- and 7-deazaadenine 2'-deoxy-beta-D-ribonucleosides into oligonucleotides. Chem Biodivers. 2007;4:2725-44 pubmed
    ..These were studied with respect to their thermal stability as well as of the base pairing mode (Watson-Crick vs. Hoogsteen) of modified bases. ..
  16. Yoshikawa N, Nakanishi K, Ishikura K, Hataya H, Iijima K, Honda M. Combination therapy with mizoribine for severe childhood IgA nephropathy: a pilot study. Pediatr Nephrol. 2008;23:757-63 pubmed publisher
    ..No patients required a change of treatment. In conclusion, the efficacy and safety of the mizoribine combination seems to be acceptable for treating children with severe IgA-N...
  17. Winston D, Young J, Pullarkat V, Papanicolaou G, Vij R, Vance E, et al. Maribavir prophylaxis for prevention of cytomegalovirus infection in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study. Blood. 2008;111:5403-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Maribavir had no adverse effect on neutrophil or platelet counts. These results show that maribavir can reduce the incidence of CMV infection and, unlike ganciclovir, does not cause myelosuppression. ..
  18. Strasfeld L, Lee I, Tatarowicz W, Villano S, Chou S. Virologic characterization of multidrug-resistant cytomegalovirus infection in 2 transplant recipients treated with maribavir. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:104-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The relatively rapid onset of maribavir resistance probably resulted from incomplete viral suppression in an immunosuppressed host with a high viral load. ..
  19. Avery R, Marty F, Strasfeld L, Lee I, Arrieta A, Chou S, et al. Oral maribavir for treatment of refractory or resistant cytomegalovirus infections in transplant recipients. Transpl Infect Dis. 2010;12:489-96 pubmed publisher
  20. Cappellacci L, Petrelli R, Franchetti P, Vita P, Kusumanchi P, Kumar M, et al. Synthesis and biological activity of novel N6-substituted and 2,N6-disubstituted adenine ribo- and 3'-C-methyl-ribonucleosides as antitumor agents. Eur J Med Chem. 2011;46:1499-504 pubmed publisher
    A series of N6-aminopurine-9-?-D-ribonucleosides and ribose-modified 3'-C-methyl analogues substituted at N6-position with a small group like hydroxy, methoxy or amino group or at C2(N6) position have been synthesized and tested against ..
  21. Imaizumi T, Kawasaki Y, Matsuura H, Matsumoto A, Takano K, Suyama K, et al. Efficacy of steroid pulse, plasmapheresis, and mizoribine in a patient with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2007;22:1215-8 pubmed
    ..We report that steroid pulse and MZB combined with PP may be an effective treatment in a patient with FSGS complicated by CyA-induced leukoencephalopathy. ..
  22. Hwang J, Kregler O, Schilf R, Bannert N, Drach J, Townsend L, et al. Identification of acetylated, tetrahalogenated benzimidazole D-ribonucleosides with enhanced activity against human cytomegalovirus. J Virol. 2007;81:11604-11 pubmed
    ..We now have tested several new benzimidazole d-ribonucleosides in order to determine whether these compounds represent new, potent inhibitors...
  23. Lackey J, Mitra D, Somoza M, Cerrina F, Damha M. Acetal levulinyl ester (ALE) groups for 2'-hydroxyl protection of ribonucleosides in the synthesis of oligoribonucleotides on glass and microarrays. J Am Chem Soc. 2009;131:8496-502 pubmed publisher
    ..The chemistry and methods described here pave the way to the fabrication of microarrays of immobilized RNA probes for analyzing molecular interactions of biological interest. ..
  24. Arnold J, Sharma S, Feng J, Ray A, Smidansky E, Kireeva M, et al. Sensitivity of mitochondrial transcription and resistance of RNA polymerase II dependent nuclear transcription to antiviral ribonucleosides. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1003030 pubmed publisher
    ..However, their clinical applications have been limited by off target effects. Development of antiviral ribonucleosides for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been hampered by appearance of toxicity during ..
  25. Stet E, de Abreu R, Bokkerink J, Lambooy L, Vogels Mentink T, Keizer Garritsen J, et al. Reversal of methylmercaptopurine ribonucleoside cytotoxicity by purine ribonucleosides and adenine. Biochem Pharmacol. 1995;49:49-56 pubmed
  26. Williams S, Hartline C, Kushner N, Harden E, Bidanset D, Drach J, et al. In vitro activities of benzimidazole D- and L-ribonucleosides against herpesviruses. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:2186-92 pubmed
    ..The parent benzimidazole ribonucleosides evaluated in this series, 2-bromo-5,6-dichloro-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)benzimidazole (BDCRB) and maribavir (..
  27. Eldrup A, Prhavc M, Brooks J, Bhat B, Prakash T, Song Q, et al. Structure-activity relationship of heterobase-modified 2'-C-methyl ribonucleosides as inhibitors of hepatitis C virus RNA replication. J Med Chem. 2004;47:5284-97 pubmed
    ..limitations, we now report upon the synthesis and evaluation of a series of heterobase-modified 2'-C-methyl ribonucleosides. The structure-activity relationship within this series of nucleosides reveals 4-amino-7-(2-C-methyl-beta-d-..
  28. Niwa T, Takeda N, Yoshizumi H. RNA metabolism in uremic patients: accumulation of modified ribonucleosides in uremic serum. Technical note. Kidney Int. 1998;53:1801-6 pubmed
    To determine the metabolism of ribonucleic acid (RNA) in uremia, serum and urine levels of ribonucleosides in uremic patients were analyzed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography...
  29. Seo K, Lee H, Choi S, So B, Kim S, Chung S. Mizoribine-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway in human T-Cell line. Transplant Proc. 2005;37:155-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, MZR induces the apoptotic death of human Jurkat T cells via activation of caspase family proteases as well as by mitochondrial dysfunction. ..
  30. Tsuzuki K. Role of mizoribine in renal transplantation. Pediatr Int. 2002;44:224-31 pubmed
    ..However, MZ is a more useful immunosuppressive drug than AZA, when it is used in combination with CNI. ..
  31. Liu D, Kobayashi T, Nagasaka T, Yokoyama I, Ma Y, Miwa Y, et al. Potential value of high-dose mizoribine as rescue therapy for ongoing acute humoral rejection. Transpl Int. 2005;18:401-7 pubmed
    ..However, leukocytopenia was observed when MZ trough level was maintained over 10 mug/ml. Treatment with high-dose MZ would be applicable to a clinical trial, if blood level is carefully monitored. ..
  32. Hirayama K, Kobayashi M, Hashimoto Y, Usui J, Shimizu Y, Hirayama A, et al. Treatment with the purine synthesis inhibitor mizoribine for ANCA-associated renal vasculitis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2004;44:57-63 pubmed
    ..Considering the balance between suppression of disease activity and adverse effects of treatment, mizoribine may be useful for preemptive treatment for patients with ANCA-associated renal vasculitis at high risk for relapse. ..
  33. Ohtomo Y, Fujinaga S, Takada M, Murakami H, Akashi S, Shimizu T, et al. High-dose mizoribine therapy for childhood-onset frequently relapsing steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome with cyclosporin nephrotoxicity. Pediatr Nephrol. 2005;20:1744-9 pubmed
    ..Our experience shows that high-dose MZR therapy in patients with FR-SDNS who are also CsA-dependent appears to be effective in reducing CsA exposure as well as in decreasing the frequency of relapses...
  34. Yoshioka K, Ohashi Y, Sakai T, Ito H, Yoshikawa N, Nakamura H, et al. A multicenter trial of mizoribine compared with placebo in children with frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome. Kidney Int. 2000;58:317-24 pubmed
    ..This drug may be useful in young children with FRNS who generally relapse more frequently than older children. ..
  35. Campas C, Lopez J, Santidrian A, Barragan M, Bellosillo B, Colomer D, et al. Acadesine activates AMPK and induces apoptosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells but not in T lymphocytes. Blood. 2003;101:3674-80 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a new pathway involving AMPK in the control of apoptosis in B-CLL cells and raise the possibility of using acadesine in B-CLL treatment. ..
  36. Lee H, Crane G, Merok J, Tunstead J, Hatch N, Panchalingam K, et al. Clonal expansion of adult rat hepatic stem cell lines by suppression of asymmetric cell kinetics (SACK). Biotechnol Bioeng. 2003;83:760-71 pubmed
  37. Kawasaki Y, Suzuki J, Sakai N, Etoh S, Murai H, Nozawa R, et al. Efficacy of prednisolone and mizoribine therapy for diffuse IgA nephropathy. Am J Nephrol. 2004;24:147-53 pubmed
    ..There have been only a few studies concerning oral prednisolone and mizoribine therapy for diffuse IgA nephritis (IgAN). We evaluated the efficacy of prednisolone and mizoribine therapy for diffuse IgAN...
  38. Saijo M, Morikawa S, Fukushi S, Mizutani T, Hasegawa H, Nagata N, et al. Inhibitory effect of mizoribine and ribavirin on the replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus. Antiviral Res. 2005;66:159-63 pubmed
    ..Mizoribine inhibited replication of SARS-CoV more strongly than ribavirin. However, neither drug could completely inhibit replication of SARS-CoV even at concentrations up to 100 microg/ml. ..
  39. Hager P, Collart F, Huberman E, Mitchell B. Recombinant human inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase type I and type II proteins. Purification and characterization of inhibitor binding. Biochem Pharmacol. 1995;49:1323-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, MMP is a potent, tight-binding competitive inhibitor that does not discriminate between the two IMPDH isozymes. ..
  40. Campas C, Santidrián A, Domingo A, Gil J. Acadesine induces apoptosis in B cells from mantle cell lymphoma and splenic marginal zone lymphoma. Leukemia. 2005;19:292-4 pubmed
  41. Dittmer A, Drach J, Townsend L, Fischer A, Bogner E. Interaction of the putative human cytomegalovirus portal protein pUL104 with the large terminase subunit pUL56 and its inhibition by benzimidazole-D-ribonucleosides. J Virol. 2005;79:14660-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that DNA concatemers synthesized in the presence of the compound failed to be processed. ..
  42. Kawasaki Y, Hosoya M, Suzuki J, Onishi N, Takahashi A, Isome M, et al. Efficacy of multidrug therapy combined with mizoribine in children with diffuse IgA nephropathy in comparison with multidrug therapy without mizoribine and with methylprednisolone pulse therapy. Am J Nephrol. 2004;24:576-81 pubmed
  43. Swinnen J, Beckers A, Brusselmans K, Organe S, Segers J, Timmermans L, et al. Mimicry of a cellular low energy status blocks tumor cell anabolism and suppresses the malignant phenotype. Cancer Res. 2005;65:2441-8 pubmed
    ..These findings point toward a central tie between energy, anabolism, and cancer and suggest that the cellular energy sensing machinery in cancer cells is an exploitable target for cancer prevention and/or therapy. ..
  44. Nagaoka R, Kaneko K, Ohtomo Y, Yamashiro Y. Mizoribine treatment for childhood IgA nephropathy. Pediatr Int. 2002;44:217-23 pubmed
  45. Koshkin A, Fensholdt J, Pfundheller H, Lomholt C. A simplified and efficient route to 2'-O, 4'-C-methylene-linked bicyclic ribonucleosides (locked nucleic acid). J Org Chem. 2001;66:8504-12 pubmed
    ..The LNA-T diol and base-protected LNA diols can be directly converted into LNA-phosphoramidites for automated chemical synthesis of LNA containing oligonucleotides. ..
  46. Foldesi A, Trifonova A, Dinya Z, Chattopadhyaya J. Total synthesis of 2',3',4',5',5' '-(2)h(5)-ribonucleosides: the key building blocks for NMR structure elucidation of large RNA. J Org Chem. 2001;66:6560-70 pubmed
    ..The deuterated ribonucleosides 21a-d have been prepared by the condensation of appropriately protected aglycone with 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-(..
  47. Yokota S. Mizoribine: mode of action and effects in clinical use. Pediatr Int. 2002;44:196-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, mizoribine is superior to azathioprine, in that it may not cause damages to normal cells and normal nucleic acid. ..
  48. Yumura W, Suganuma S, Uchida K, Moriyama T, Otsubo S, Takei T, et al. Effects of long-term treatment with mizoribine in patients with proliferative lupus nephritis. Clin Nephrol. 2005;64:28-34 pubmed
    ..Early initiation of the therapy can protect against renal relapses among severe proliferative lupus nephritis patients without serious side effects. ..
  49. Meisel H, Gunther S, Martin D, Schlimme E. Apoptosis induced by modified ribonucleosides in human cell culture systems. FEBS Lett. 1998;433:265-8 pubmed
    The in vitro modulation of apoptosis and cell proliferation by modified in comparison with non-modified ribonucleosides was investigated for the first time using peripheral blood lymphocytes, HL-60 cells and Caco-2 cells as human cell ..
  50. Sato N, Shiraiwa K, Kai K, Watanabe A, Ogawa S, Kobayashi Y, et al. Mizoribine ameliorates the tubulointerstitial fibrosis of obstructive nephropathy. Nephron. 2001;89:177-85 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that mizoribine has a beneficial effect on several steps contributing to the progression of tubulointerstitial fibrosis caused by obstruction of the ureter. ..
  51. Gan L, Seyedsayamdost M, Shuto S, Matsuda A, Petsko G, Hedstrom L. The immunosuppressive agent mizoribine monophosphate forms a transition state analogue complex with inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Biochemistry. 2003;42:857-63 pubmed
    ..The closed conformation provides a structural explanation for the differences in drug selectivity and catalytic efficiency of IMPDH isozymes. ..
  52. Wang L, Peck R, Yin Y, Allanson J, Wiggs R, Wire M. Phase I safety and pharmacokinetic trials of 1263W94, a novel oral anti-human cytomegalovirus agent, in healthy and human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:1334-42 pubmed
    ..In the trial with HIV-infected subjects, consumption of a high-fat meal decreased the 1263W94 AUC(0- infinity ) and C(max) in plasma by approximately 30%. ..
  53. Kawasaki Y, Suzuki J, Takahashi A, Isome M, Nozawa R, Suzuki H. Mizoribine oral pulse therapy for steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol. 2005;20:96-8 pubmed
    ..5 microg/ml for about 10 h (from 3 h after the first dose of MZB to 2 h after the final dose). Thus, our results suggest that this regimen may be effective for patients with steroid-dependent NS. ..