Summary: A ribonucleoside in which RIBOSE is linked to URACIL.

Top Publications

  1. Lou C, Xiao Q, Brennan L, Light M, Vergara Irigaray N, Atkinson E, et al. Synthesis and properties of triplex-forming oligonucleotides containing 2'-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-(3-aminoprop-1-ynyl)-uridine. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010;18:6389-97 pubmed publisher
    2'-O-(2-Methoxyethyl)-5-(3-aminoprop-1-ynyl)-uridine phosphoramidite (MEPU) has been synthesized from d-ribose and 5-iodouracil and incorporated into triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) by automated solid-phase oligonucleotide ..
  2. Li F, Ge P, Hui W, Atanasov I, Rogers K, Guo Q, et al. Structure of the core editing complex (L-complex) involved in uridine insertion/deletion RNA editing in trypanosomatid mitochondria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12306-10 pubmed publisher
    b>Uridine insertion/deletion RNA editing is a unique form of posttranscriptional RNA processing that occurs in mitochondria of kinetoplastid protists...
  3. Zhou J, Liang B, Li H. Functional and structural impact of target uridine substitutions on the H/ACA ribonucleoprotein particle pseudouridine synthase. Biochemistry. 2010;49:6276-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe the impact of chemical substitutions of target uridine on enzyme activity and structure...
  4. Aphasizhev R, Aphasizheva I. Uridine insertion/deletion editing in trypanosomes: a playground for RNA-guided information transfer. Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA. 2011;2:669-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we focus on uridine insertion/deletion mRNA editing found exclusively in mitochondria of kinetoplastid protists...
  5. Ibrahim F, Rymarquis L, Kim E, Becker J, Balassa E, Green P, et al. Uridylation of mature miRNAs and siRNAs by the MUT68 nucleotidyltransferase promotes their degradation in Chlamydomonas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:3906-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that MUT68 and RRP6 cooperate in the degradation of mature miRNAs and siRNAs, as a quality control mechanism to eliminate dysfunctional or damaged small RNA molecules. ..
  6. Völkl T, Ogilvie A, Neuhuber W, Ogilvie A. Cell death induced by uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) in contrast to adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) in human epidermoid carcinoma cells (A-431). Cell Physiol Biochem. 2008;22:441-54 pubmed publisher
    ..an adenosine uptake inhibitor, was able to abolish ATP toxicity, which was also counteracted by the addition of uridine. In addition, we found functional and transcriptional evidence for P2 receptors on A-431 cells...
  7. Auxilien S, Rasmussen A, Rose S, Brochier Armanet C, Husson C, Fourmy D, et al. Specificity shifts in the rRNA and tRNA nucleotide targets of archaeal and bacterial m5U methyltransferases. RNA. 2011;17:45-53 pubmed publisher
    Methyltransferase enzymes that use S-adenosylmethionine as a cofactor to catalyze 5-methyl uridine (m(5)U) formation in tRNAs and rRNAs are widespread in Bacteria and Eukaryota, but are restricted to the Thermococcales and Nanoarchaeota ..
  8. Ali J, Creek D, Burgess K, Allison H, Field M, Maser P, et al. Pyrimidine salvage in Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream forms and the trypanocidal action of halogenated pyrimidines. Mol Pharmacol. 2013;83:439-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This transporter had low affinity for uridine and 2'deoxyuridine and was the sole pyrimidine transporter expressed in these cells...
  9. Trunkfield A, Gurcha S, Besra G, Bugg T. Inhibition of Escherichia coli glycosyltransferase MurG and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Gal transferase by uridine-linked transition state mimics. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010;18:2651-63 pubmed publisher
    ..for MurG, containing a functionalised proline, linked through the alpha-carboxylic acid, via a spacer, to a uridine nucleoside...

More Information


  1. Moukadiri I, Prado S, Piera J, Velazquez Campoy A, Bjork G, Armengod M. Evolutionarily conserved proteins MnmE and GidA catalyze the formation of two methyluridine derivatives at tRNA wobble positions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:7177-93 pubmed publisher
    The wobble uridine of certain bacterial and mitochondrial tRNAs is modified, at position 5, through an unknown reaction pathway that utilizes the evolutionarily conserved MnmE and GidA proteins...
  2. Slugoski M, Smith K, Ng A, Yao S, Karpinski E, Cass C, et al. Conserved glutamate residues Glu-343 and Glu-519 provide mechanistic insights into cation/nucleoside cotransport by human concentrative nucleoside transporter hCNT3. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:17266-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Both residues were accessible to the external medium and inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate when converted to cysteine. ..
  3. Zhao Y, Yu Y, Zhai J, Ramachandran V, Dinh T, Meyers B, et al. The Arabidopsis nucleotidyl transferase HESO1 uridylates unmethylated small RNAs to trigger their degradation. Curr Biol. 2012;22:689-94 pubmed publisher
    ..small RNAs from 3'-to-5' truncation and 3' uridylation, the addition of nontemplated nucleotides, predominantly uridine [2, 7, 8]...
  4. Wurtman R, Cansev M, Ulus I. Synapse formation is enhanced by oral administration of uridine and DHA, the circulating precursors of brain phosphatides. J Nutr Health Aging. 2009;13:189-97 pubmed
    ..We observe that giving normal rodents uridine and the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) orally can enhance dendritic spine levels (3), and ..
  5. Le T, Ziemba A, Urasaki Y, Hayes E, Brotman S, Pizzorno G. Disruption of uridine homeostasis links liver pyrimidine metabolism to lipid accumulation. J Lipid Res. 2013;54:1044-57 pubmed publisher
    We report in this study an intrinsic link between pyrimidine metabolism and liver lipid accumulation utilizing a uridine phosphorylase 1 transgenic mouse model UPase1-TG...
  6. Kamminga L, Luteijn M, den Broeder M, Redl S, Kaaij L, Roovers E, et al. Hen1 is required for oocyte development and piRNA stability in zebrafish. EMBO J. 2010;29:3688-700 pubmed publisher
    ..This system discriminates between piRNA targets and is required for ovary development and fully efficient transposon silencing. ..
  7. Gao G, Rogers K, Li F, Guo Q, Osato D, Zhou S, et al. Uridine insertion/deletion RNA editing in Trypanosomatids: specific stimulation in vitro of Leishmania tarentolae REL1 RNA ligase activity by the MP63 zinc finger protein. Protist. 2010;161:489-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The specificity for REL1 is consistent with MP63 being a component of the REL1 subcomplex. These results suggest that in vivo the interaction of MP63 with REL1 may play a role in regulating the overall activity of RNA editing. ..
  8. Fu Y, Dai Q, Zhang W, Ren J, Pan T, He C. The AlkB domain of mammalian ABH8 catalyzes hydroxylation of 5-methoxycarbonylmethyluridine at the wobble position of tRNA. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2010;49:8885-8 pubmed publisher
  9. Songe Møller L, van den Born E, Leihne V, Vågbø C, Kristoffersen T, Krokan H, et al. Mammalian ALKBH8 possesses tRNA methyltransferase activity required for the biogenesis of multiple wobble uridine modifications implicated in translational decoding. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:1814-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the complete loss of all of these uridine modifications, Alkbh8-/- mice appear normal...
  10. Lashkov A, Zhukhlistova N, Gabdoulkhakov A, Shtil A, Efremov R, Betzel C, et al. The X-ray structure of Salmonella typhimurium uridine nucleoside phosphorylase complexed with 2,2'-anhydrouridine, phosphate and potassium ions at 1.86 A resolution. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2010;66:51-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Uridine nucleoside phosphorylase is an important drug target for the development of anti-infective and antitumour agents...
  11. Gramer M, Eckblad J, Donahue R, Brown J, Shultz C, Vickerman K, et al. Modulation of antibody galactosylation through feeding of uridine, manganese chloride, and galactose. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2011;108:1591-602 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Uridine (U), manganese chloride (M), and galactose (G), constituents involved in the intracellular galactosylation ..
  12. Van Wolfswinkel J, Claycomb J, Batista P, Mello C, Berezikov E, Ketting R. CDE-1 affects chromosome segregation through uridylation of CSR-1-bound siRNAs. Cell. 2009;139:135-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The conserved nature of CDE-1 suggests that similar sorting mechanisms may operate in other animals, including mammals. ..
  13. Kabadi S, Maher T. Posttreatment with uridine and melatonin following traumatic brain injury reduces edema in various brain regions in rats. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1199:105-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the effect of posttreatment with uridine and melatonin, separate and in combination, on edema in various brain regions following TBI via lateral fluid ..
  14. Zhou J, Lv C, Liang B, Chen M, Yang W, Li H. Glycosidic bond conformation preference plays a pivotal role in catalysis of RNA pseudouridylation: a combined simulation and structural study. J Mol Biol. 2010;401:690-5 pubmed publisher
    The most abundant chemical modification on RNA is isomerization of uridine (or pseudouridylation) catalyzed by pseudouridine synthases...
  15. Osato D, Rogers K, Guo Q, Li F, Richmond G, Klug F, et al. Uridine insertion/deletion RNA editing in trypanosomatid mitochondria: In search of the editosome. RNA. 2009;15:1338-44 pubmed publisher
    The RNA ligase-containing or L-complex is the core complex involved in uridine insertion/deletion RNA editing in trypanosome mitochondria...
  16. Osawa T, Ito K, Inanaga H, Nureki O, Tomita K, Numata T. Conserved cysteine residues of GidA are essential for biogenesis of 5-carboxymethylaminomethyluridine at tRNA anticodon. Structure. 2009;17:713-24 pubmed publisher
    The 5-carboxymethylaminomethyl modification of uridine (cmnm(5)U) at the anticodon first position occurs in tRNAs that read split codon boxes ending with purine...
  17. Wurtman R, Cansev M, Sakamoto T, Ulus I. Nutritional modifiers of aging brain function: use of uridine and other phosphatide precursors to increase formation of brain synapses. Nutr Rev. 2010;68 Suppl 2:S88-101 pubmed publisher
    Brain phosphatide synthesis requires three circulating compounds: docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), uridine, and choline...
  18. Paul D, O Leary S, Rajashankar K, Bu W, Toms A, Settembre E, et al. Glycal formation in crystals of uridine phosphorylase. Biochemistry. 2010;49:3499-509 pubmed publisher
    b>Uridine phosphorylase is a key enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway. This enzyme catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine to uracil and ribose 1-phosphate (or 2'-deoxyuridine to 2'-deoxyribose 1-phosphate)...
  19. Brunschweiger A, Iqbal J, Umbach F, Scheiff A, Munkonda M, Sevigny J, et al. Selective nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-2 (NTPDase2) inhibitors: nucleotide mimetics derived from uridine-5'-carboxamide. J Med Chem. 2008;51:4518-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the synthesized uridine derivatives, we identified the first potent and selective inhibitors of human NTPDase2...
  20. Studte P, Zink S, Jablonowski D, Bär C, von der Haar T, Tuite M, et al. tRNA and protein methylase complexes mediate zymocin toxicity in yeast. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:1266-77 pubmed publisher
    Modification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae tRNA anticodons at the wobble uridine (U34) position is required for tRNA cleavage by the zymocin tRNase killer toxin from Kluyveromyces lactis...
  21. Cansev M, Ulus I, Wang L, Maher T, Wurtman R. Restorative effects of uridine plus docosahexaenoic acid in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Neurosci Res. 2008;62:206-9 pubmed publisher
    Administering uridine-5'-monophosphate (UMP) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) increases synaptic membranes (as characterized by pre- and post-synaptic proteins) and dendritic spines in rodents...
  22. You D, Xu T, Yao F, Zhou X, Deng Z. Direct evidence that ThiI is an ATP pyrophosphatase for the adenylation of uridine in 4-thiouridine biosynthesis. Chembiochem. 2008;9:1879-82 pubmed publisher
  23. Jones M, Blahna M, Kozlowski E, Matsuura K, Ferrari J, Morris S, et al. Zcchc11 uridylates mature miRNAs to enhance neonatal IGF-1 expression, growth, and survival. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003105 pubmed publisher
    ..Zcchc11 deficiency diminished the lengths and terminal uridine frequencies for diverse mature miRNAs, but it had no influence on the quantities of any miRNAs...
  24. Yamamoto T, Koyama H, Kurajoh M, Shoji T, Tsutsumi Z, Moriwaki Y. Biochemistry of uridine in plasma. Clin Chim Acta. 2011;412:1712-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Uridine is a pyrimidine nucleoside that plays a crucial role in synthesis of RNA, glycogen, and biomembrane...
  25. McDonald M, Miracco E, Chen J, Xie Y, Mueller E. The handling of the mechanistic probe 5-fluorouridine by the pseudouridine synthase TruA and its consistency with the handling of the same probe by the pseudouridine synthases TruB and RluA. Biochemistry. 2011;50:426-36 pubmed
    ..via a mechanism involving a Michael addition by an active site aspartic acid residue to the pyrimidine ring of uridine or F(5)U...
  26. Ren G, Chen X, Yu B. Uridylation of miRNAs by hen1 suppressor1 in Arabidopsis. Curr Biol. 2012;22:695-700 pubmed publisher
    ..HESO1 encodes a terminal nucleotidyl transferase that prefers to add untemplated uridine to the 3' end of RNA, which is completely abolished by 2'-O-methylation...
  27. Ranaei Siadat E, Fabret C, Seijo B, Dardel F, Grosjean H, Nonin Lecomte S. RNA-methyltransferase TrmA is a dual-specific enzyme responsible for C5-methylation of uridine in both tmRNA and tRNA. RNA Biol. 2013;10:572-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The evidence comes from the lack of m (5)U in purified tmRNA or TLD variants recovered from an Escherichia coli mutant strain deleted of the trmA gene. Detection of m (5)U in RNA was performed by NMR analysis...
  28. Li F, Herrera J, Zhou S, Maslov D, Simpson L. Trypanosome REH1 is an RNA helicase involved with the 3'-5' polarity of multiple gRNA-guided uridine insertion/deletion RNA editing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:3542-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Uridine insertion/deletion RNA editing in kinetoplastid mitochondria corrects encoded frameshifts in mRNAs...
  29. Mehlgarten C, Jablonowski D, Wrackmeyer U, Tschitschmann S, Sondermann D, Jäger G, et al. Elongator function in tRNA wobble uridine modification is conserved between yeast and plants. Mol Microbiol. 2010;76:1082-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that Arabidopsis mutants lacking the Elongator subunit AtELP3/ELO3 have a defect in tRNA wobble uridine modification...
  30. Carlucci M, Kierzek E, Olejnik A, Turner D, Kierzek R. Chemical synthesis of LNA-2-thiouridine and its influence on stability and selectivity of oligonucleotide binding to RNA. Biochemistry. 2009;48:10882-93 pubmed publisher
    ..It is known, however, that replacement of uridine with 2-thiouridine significantly improves binding and selectivity...
  31. Heo I, Joo C, Kim Y, Ha M, Yoon M, Cho J, et al. TUT4 in concert with Lin28 suppresses microRNA biogenesis through pre-microRNA uridylation. Cell. 2009;138:696-708 pubmed publisher
    ..This study uncovers the role of TUT4 and Lin28 as specific suppressors of miRNA biogenesis, which has implications for stem cell research and cancer biology. ..
  32. Cansev M, Marzloff G, Sakamoto T, Ulus I, Wurtman R. Giving uridine and/or docosahexaenoic acid orally to rat dams during gestation and nursing increases synaptic elements in brains of weanling pups. Dev Neurosci. 2009;31:181-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the effects of maternal uridine (as uridine-5'-monophosphate) and docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on pups' brain phospholipids, synaptic ..
  33. Sheng J, Zhang W, Hassan A, Gan J, Soares A, Geng S, et al. Hydrogen bond formation between the naturally modified nucleobase and phosphate backbone. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:8111-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding suggests a general interaction between the nucleobase and backbone and reveals a plausible function of the tRNA 5-O-CH(3) modification, which might potentially rigidify the local conformation and facilitates translation. ..
  34. Suzuki T, Miyauchi K, Suzuki T, Yokobori S, Shigi N, Kondow A, et al. Taurine-containing uridine modifications in tRNA anticodons are required to decipher non-universal genetic codes in ascidian mitochondria. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:35494-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Acquisition of the wobble modification appears to be a prerequisite for the genetic code alteration. ..
  35. Miracco E, Mueller E. The products of 5-fluorouridine by the action of the pseudouridine synthase TruB disfavor one mechanism and suggest another. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:11826-9 pubmed publisher
    ..proposed mechanism involving an acylal intermediate operates but with an added reaction manifold for 5-fluorouridine versus uridine. The arabino product strongly disfavors a mechanism involving a Michael addition to the pyrimidine ring.
  36. Chen M, Thelen J. Plastid uridine salvage activity is required for photoassimilate allocation and partitioning in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2011;23:2991-3006 pubmed publisher
    Nucleotides are synthesized from de novo and salvage pathways. To characterize the uridine salvage pathway, two genes, UKL1 and UKL2, that tentatively encode uridine kinase (UK) and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) bifunctional ..
  37. Rissland O, Norbury C. Decapping is preceded by 3' uridylation in a novel pathway of bulk mRNA turnover. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:616-23 pubmed publisher
    ..As human cells contain Cid1 orthologs, uridylation may form the basis of a widespread, conserved mechanism of mRNA decay. ..
  38. Jao C, Salic A. Exploring RNA transcription and turnover in vivo by using click chemistry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:15779-84 pubmed publisher
    We describe a chemical method to detect RNA synthesis in cells, based on the biosynthetic incorporation of the uridine analog 5-ethynyluridine (EU) into newly transcribed RNA, on average once every 35 uridine residues in total RNA...
  39. McComsey G, Walker U, Budhathoki C, Su Z, Currier J, Kosmiski L, et al. Uridine supplementation in the treatment of HIV lipoatrophy: results of ACTG 5229. AIDS. 2010;24:2507-15 pubmed publisher
    ..A pilot trial showed that uridine (NucleomaxX) increased limb fat...
  40. Li H, Miller P, Seidman M. Selectivity and affinity of DNA triplex forming oligonucleotides containing the nucleoside analogues 2'-O-methyl-5-(3-amino-1-propynyl)uridine and 2'-O-methyl-5-propynyluridine. Org Biomol Chem. 2008;6:4212-7 pubmed publisher
    ..containing the nucleoside analogues 2'-O-methyl-5-propynyluridine (1) and 2'-O-methyl-5-(3-amino-1-propynyl)uridine (2) were synthesized...
  41. Jung B, Flörchinger M, Kunz H, Traub M, Wartenberg R, Jeblick W, et al. Uridine-ribohydrolase is a key regulator in the uridine degradation pathway of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2009;21:876-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe the cloning of such an enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana, Uridine-Ribohydrolase 1 (URH1) and the characterization by complementation of a yeast mutant...
  42. Chen C, Tuck S, Byström A. Defects in tRNA modification associated with neurological and developmental dysfunctions in Caenorhabditis elegans elongator mutants. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000561 pubmed publisher
    ..elpc-1; tuc-1 and elpc-3; tuc-1 double mutants display developmental defects. Our results suggest that, by its effect on tRNA modification, Elongator promotes both neural function and development. ..
  43. van den Born E, Vågbø C, Songe Møller L, Leihne V, Lien G, Leszczynska G, et al. ALKBH8-mediated formation of a novel diastereomeric pair of wobble nucleosides in mammalian tRNA. Nat Commun. 2011;2:172 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings expand the function of the ALKBH oxygenases beyond nucleic acid repair and increase the current knowledge on mammalian wobble uridine modifications and their biogenesis.
  44. Jurk M, Chikh G, Schulte B, Kritzler A, Richardt Pargmann D, Lampron C, et al. Immunostimulatory potential of silencing RNAs can be mediated by a non-uridine-rich toll-like receptor 7 motif. Nucleic Acid Ther. 2011;21:201-14 pubmed publisher
    ..production in human peripheral blood immune cells, but not all of them did contain previously described guanosine/uridine TLR7 or adenosine/uridine TLR8 motifs...
  45. Sun H, Sheng J, Hassan A, Jiang S, Gan J, Huang Z. Novel RNA base pair with higher specificity using single selenium atom. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:5171-9 pubmed publisher
    ..to discriminate against U/G wobble pair by tailoring the steric and electronic effects at the 2-exo position of uridine and replacing the 2-exo oxygen with a selenium atom...
  46. Persaud C, Lu Y, Vila Sanjurjo A, Campbell J, Finley J, O Connor M. Mutagenesis of the modified bases, m(5)U1939 and psi2504, in Escherichia coli 23S rRNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;392:223-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results link these sites of post-transcriptional modification with the ribosome's response to antibiotics and the control of translational fidelity. ..
  47. Fukushima R, Kanamori S, Hirashiba M, Hishikawa A, Muranaka R, Kaneto M, et al. Inhibiting the teratogenicity of the immunosuppressant leflunomide in mice by supplementation of exogenous uridine. Toxicol Sci. 2009;108:419-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we coadministered Leflunomide and uridine, a precursor substance of pyrimidine nucleotides, to pregnant CD-1 mice, and examined whether or not a decreased ..
  48. Fu D, Brophy J, Chan C, Atmore K, Begley U, Paules R, et al. Human AlkB homolog ABH8 Is a tRNA methyltransferase required for wobble uridine modification and DNA damage survival. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:2449-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that human AlkB homolog 8 (ABH8) catalyzes tRNA methylation to generate 5-methylcarboxymethyl uridine (mcm(5)U) at the wobble position of certain tRNAs, a critical anticodon loop modification linked to DNA damage ..
  49. Dudzinska W, Lubkowska A, Jakubowska K, Suska M, Skotnicka E. Insulin resistance induced by maximal exercise correlates with a post-exercise increase in uridine concentration in the blood of healthy young men. Physiol Res. 2013;62:163-70 pubmed
    b>Uridine is postulated to participate in the development of insulin resistance...
  50. Slugoski M, Ng A, Yao S, Lin C, Mulinta R, Cass C, et al. Substituted cysteine accessibility method analysis of human concentrative nucleoside transporter hCNT3 reveals a novel discontinuous region of functional importance within the CNT family motif (G/A)XKX3NEFVA(Y/M/F). J Biol Chem. 2009;284:17281-92 pubmed publisher
  51. Silva R, Kipp D, Schramm V. Constrained bonding environment in the Michaelis complex of Trypanosoma cruzi uridine phosphorylase. Biochemistry. 2012;51:6715-7 pubmed
    The transition state for the Trypanosoma cruzi uridine phosphorylase (TcUP) reaction has an expanded S(N)2 character...
  52. Yamamoto T, Inokuchi T, Ka T, Yamamoto A, Takahashi S, Tsutsumi Z, et al. Relationship between plasma uridine and insulin resistance in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2010;29:504-8 pubmed publisher
    It has been demonstrated that uridine infusion induces insulin resistance in rats...
  53. Roosild T, Castronovo S. Active site conformational dynamics in human uridine phosphorylase 1. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12741 pubmed publisher
    b>Uridine phosphorylase (UPP) is a central enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway, catalyzing the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine to uracil and ribose-1-phosphate...