pyrimidine nucleosides


Summary: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.

Top Publications

  1. Ritzel M, Ng A, Yao S, Graham K, Loewen S, Smith K, et al. Molecular identification and characterization of novel human and mouse concentrative Na+-nucleoside cotransporter proteins (hCNT3 and mCNT3) broadly selective for purine and pyrimidine nucleosides (system cib). J Biol Chem. 2001;276:2914-27 pubmed
    The human concentrative (Na(+)-linked) plasma membrane transport proteins hCNT1 and hCNT2 are selective for pyrimidine nucleosides (system cit) and purine nucleosides (system cif), respectively...
  2. Chen W, Huang T, He X, Meng Q, You D, Bai L, et al. Characterization of the polyoxin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces cacaoi and engineered production of polyoxin H. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:10627-38 pubmed publisher
  3. Chirakul P, Sigurdsson S. Stereospecific syntheses of 3'-deuterated pyrimidine nucleosides and their site-specific incorporation into DNA. Org Lett. 2003;5:917-9 pubmed
    ..Conversion of the corresponding phorphoramidites 7a and 7b to 4-triazolo derivatives has, for the first time, enabled incorporation of 2'-deoxy-3'-deutero cytidine and 2'-deoxy-3'-deutero-5-methyl cytidine into oligonucleotides. ..
  4. Gu J, Xie Y, Schaefer H. Glycosidic bond cleavage of pyrimidine nucleosides by low-energy electrons: a theoretical rationale. J Am Chem Soc. 2005;127:1053-7 pubmed
    ..The process of the N1-glycosidic bond breaking of anion radicals of pyrimidine nucleosides, specifically the 2'-deoxyribothymidine (dT) and 2'-deoxyribocytidine (dC) anions, has been investigated ..
  5. Balzarini J, McGuigan C. Chemotherapy of varicella-zoster virus by a novel class of highly specific anti-VZV bicyclic pyrimidine nucleosides. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1587:287-95 pubmed
    ..The bicyclic pyrimidine nucleoside analogues represent an entirely new class of highly specific anti-VZV compounds that should be further pursued for clinical development. ..
  6. Kumar R, Nath M, Tyrrell D. Design and synthesis of novel 5-substituted acyclic pyrimidine nucleosides as potent and selective inhibitors of hepatitis B virus. J Med Chem. 2002;45:2032-40 pubmed
    A novel class of 5-substituted acyclic pyrimidine nucleosides, 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-5-(1-azidovinyl)uracil (9a), 1-[(2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy)methyl]-5-(1-azidovinyl)uracil (9b), and 1-[4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-1-butyl]-..
  7. Li R, Liu G, Xie Z, He X, Chen W, Deng Z, et al. PolY, a transcriptional regulator with ATPase activity, directly activates transcription of polR in polyoxin biosynthesis in Streptomyces cacaoi. Mol Microbiol. 2010;75:349-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that the ATPase domain might be a sensor of endogenous pool of ADP/ATP, whose change modulated PolY activity under the physiological conditions. ..
  8. Knobloch B, Linert W, Sigel H. Metal ion-binding properties of (N3)-deprotonated uridine, thymidine, and related pyrimidine nucleosides in aqueous solution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:7459-64 pubmed
    ..N3)H may possibly be acidified via carbonyl-coordinated M(2+) to become a proton donor in the physiological pH range, at which direct (N3)(-) binding of M(2+) also seems possible. ..
  9. Lee S, Jung M. The nucleoside analog sangivamycin induces apoptotic cell death in breast carcinoma MCF7/adriamycin-resistant cells via protein kinase Cdelta and JNK activation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:15271-83 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that sangivamycin induces mitochondria-mediated apoptotic cell death of MCF7/ADR cells via activation of JNK in a protein kinase Cdelta-dependent manner. ..

More Information


  1. Honcharenko D, Varghese O, Plashkevych O, Barman J, Chattopadhyaya J. Synthesis and structure of novel conformationally constrained 1',2'-azetidine-fused bicyclic pyrimidine nucleosides: their incorporation into oligo-DNAs and thermal stability of the heteroduplexes. J Org Chem. 2006;71:299-314 pubmed
    ..2.0]heptane) "azetidine" pyrimidine nucleosides and their transformations to the corresponding phosphoramidite building blocks (20, 39, and 42) for ..
  2. Balestri F, Giannecchini M, Sgarrella F, Carta M, Tozzi M, Camici M. Purine and pyrimidine nucleosides preserve human astrocytoma cell adenylate energy charge under ischemic conditions. Neurochem Int. 2007;50:517-23 pubmed
    ..paper, we report that human astrocytoma cells (ADF) undergoing ischemic conditions may use both purine and pyrimidine nucleosides as energy source to slow down cellular damage...
  3. Aird S. Taxonomic distribution and quantitative analysis of free purine and pyrimidine nucleosides in snake venoms. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;140:109-26 pubmed
  4. Pillarsetty N, Cai S, Ageyeva L, Finn R, Blasberg R. Synthesis and evaluation of [18F] labeled pyrimidine nucleosides for positron emission tomography imaging of herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase gene expression. J Med Chem. 2006;49:5377-81 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that [18F]FBrVAU and [18F]FTMAU have better uptake profiles in comparison to [18F]FPAU and have potential as PET probes for imaging HSV1-tk gene expression. ..
  5. Fortin H, Tomasi S, Delcros J, Bansard J, Boustie J. In vivo antitumor activity of clitocine, an exocyclic amino nucleoside isolated from Lepista inversa. ChemMedChem. 2006;1:189-96 pubmed
    ..The induction of apoptosis may be the basis of the antitumor activity of clitocine against L1210 as suggested by flow-cytometry analysis of cells treated in vitro. ..
  6. Komi Y, Ohno O, Suzuki Y, Shimamura M, Shimokado K, Umezawa K, et al. Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by targeting endothelial surface ATP synthase with sangivamycin. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2007;37:867-73 pubmed
  7. Ren G, Zhao Y, Yang L, Fu C. Anti-proliferative effect of clitocine from the mushroom Leucopaxillus giganteus on human cervical cancer HeLa cells by inducing apoptosis. Cancer Lett. 2008;262:190-200 pubmed publisher
  8. Szekely J, Rizzo C, Marnett L. Chemical properties of oxopropenyl adducts of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides and their reactivity toward amino acid cross-link formation. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:2195-201 pubmed publisher
    ..The results define the acidity of oxopropenyl deoxynucleosides and highlight its importance to their reactivity toward nucleophiles. This study also identifies the structures of a potential novel class of DNA-protein cross-links. ..
  9. Bronckaers A, Balzarini J, Liekens S. The cytostatic activity of pyrimidine nucleosides is strongly modulated by Mycoplasma hyorhinis infection: Implications for cancer therapy. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008;76:188-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the association of M. hyorhinis with several human cancers, our findings suggest that pyrimidine nucleoside-based but not 5FU-based anti-cancer therapy might be more effective when combined with a mycoplasmal TP inhibitor...
  10. Chacko A, Qu W, Kung H. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of 5-[(18)f]fluoroalkyl pyrimidine nucleosides for molecular imaging of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase reporter gene expression. J Med Chem. 2008;51:5690-701 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite their selective accumulation in HSV1- tk-expressing cells, all 5-fluoroalkyl pyrimidine nucleosides had low-to-negligible cytotoxic activity (CC50 > 1000-1209 microM)...
  11. Brumovská E, Sychrovsky V, Vokacova Z, Sponer J, Schneider B, Trantirek L. Effect of local sugar and base geometry on 13C and 15N magnetic shielding anisotropy in DNA nucleosides. J Biomol NMR. 2008;42:209-23 pubmed publisher
  12. Li R, Xie Z, Tian Y, Yang H, Chen W, You D, et al. polR, a pathway-specific transcriptional regulatory gene, positively controls polyoxin biosynthesis in Streptomyces cacaoi subsp. asoensis. Microbiology. 2009;155:1819-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that PolR acts in a positive manner to regulate POL production by activating the transcription of at least two putative operons in the pol gene cluster. ..
  13. Munzarová M, Sklenář V. Three-bond sugar-base couplings in purine versus pyrimidine nucleosides: a DFT study of Karplus relationships for (3)J(C2/4-H1') and (3)J(C6/8-H1') in DNA. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124:10666-7 pubmed
    ..for purine nucleosides, but reveals the opposite relation ((3)J(C-H(cis)) > (3)J(C-H(trans))) for pyrimidine nucleosides. Our results compare well with the experiment for deoxyguanosine and predict a novel trend in the case of ..
  14. Lee C, Daanen J, Jiang M, Yu H, Kohlhaas K, Alexander K, et al. Synthesis and biological evaluation of clitocine analogues as adenosine kinase inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2001;11:2419-22 pubmed
    ..We have prepared a number of analogues of clitocine in order to improve its potency and demonstrated that 5'-deoxy-5'-amino-clitocine (7) improved AK inhibitory potency by 50-fold. ..
  15. Li J, Li L, Tian Y, Niu G, Tan H. Hybrid antibiotics with the nikkomycin nucleoside and polyoxin peptidyl moieties. Metab Eng. 2011;13:336-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates the use of the combinatorial biosynthetic approach to produce valuable and novel hybrid antibiotics with improved properties. ..
  16. Li J, Li L, Feng C, Chen Y, Tan H. Novel polyoxins generated by heterologously expressing polyoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in the sanN inactivated mutant of Streptomyces ansochromogenes. Microb Cell Fact. 2012;11:135 pubmed publisher
    ..Polyoxin P showed potent antifungal activity,while the activity of polyoxin O was weak. The strategy presented here may be available for other antibiotics producers. ..
  17. Ohno O, Shima Y, Ikeda Y, Kondo S, Kato K, Toi M, et al. Selective growth inhibition by sangivamycin of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Int J Oncol. 2001;18:1009-15 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, sangivamycin was found to inhibit DNA synthesis selectively in HUVECs. Thus, sangivamycin was shown to be a new selective growth inhibitor of HUVECs acting on DNA synthesis. ..
  18. Srivastav N, Shakya N, Mak M, Agrawal B, Tyrrell D, Kumar R. Antiviral activity of various 1-(2'-deoxy-?-D-lyxofuranosyl), 1-(2'-fluoro-?-D-xylofuranosyl), 1-(3'-fluoro-?-D-arabinofuranosyl), and 2'-fluoro-2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxyribose pyrimidine nucleoside analogues against duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV). J Med Chem. 2010;53:7156-66 pubmed publisher
    ..1 ?M. In contrast, 50% inhibition could not be achieved by lamivudine at 44 ?M concentration in the drug-resistant strain. The compounds investigated did not show cytotoxicity to host cells up to the highest concentrations tested...
  19. Tellam R, Eisemann C. Chitin is only a minor component of the peritrophic matrix from larvae of Lucilia cuprina. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2000;30:1189-201 pubmed
    ..RT-PCR did not detect a chitin synthase mRNA in cardia, the tissue from which PM originates. It is concluded that chitin is a minor structural component of the type 2 peritrophic matrix of this insect. ..
  20. McGuigan C, Brancale A, Barucki H, Srinivasan S, Jones G, Pathirana R, et al. Furano pyrimidines as novel potent and selective anti-VZV agents. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2001;12:77-89 pubmed
    Bicyclic furano pyrimidine nucleosides have been found to be highly potent and selective inhibitors of varicella zoster virus (VZV)...
  21. Minakawa N, Kojima N, Hikishima S, Sasaki T, Kiyosue A, Atsumi N, et al. New base pairing motifs. The synthesis and thermal stability of oligodeoxynucleotides containing imidazopyridopyrimidine nucleosides with the ability to form four hydrogen bonds. J Am Chem Soc. 2003;125:9970-82 pubmed
    ..synthesis and thermal stability of oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing imidazo[5',4':4,5]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine nucleosides 1-4 (N(N), O(O), N(O), and O(N), respectively) with the aim of developing two sets of new base pairing ..
  22. Seo Y, Yan T, Schupp J, Colussi V, Taylor K, Kinsella T. Differential radiosensitization in DNA mismatch repair-proficient and -deficient human colon cancer xenografts with 5-iodo-2-pyrimidinone-2'-deoxyribose. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:7520-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that IPdR-mediated radiosensitization can be an effective in vivo approach to treat "drug-resistant" MMR-deficient tumors as well as MMR-proficient tumors. ..
  23. Balzarini J, Liekens S, Solaroli N, El Omari K, Stammers D, Karlsson A. Engineering of a single conserved amino acid residue of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase allows a predominant shift from pyrimidine to purine nucleoside phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:19273-9 pubmed
  24. Krečmerová M, Dracinsky M, Snoeck R, Balzarini J, Pomeisl K, Andrei G. New prodrugs of two pyrimidine acyclic nucleoside phosphonates: Synthesis and antiviral activity. Bioorg Med Chem. 2017;25:4637-4648 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the bis(hexadecylamido-l-tyrosyl) and the bis(POM) esters of PME-5-azaC were also very potent anti-herpesvirus drugs, these were less selective than the mono-octadecyl ester prodrug. ..
  25. Chen R, Zhang H, Zhang G, Li S, Zhang G, Zhu Y, et al. Characterizing amosamine biosynthesis in amicetin reveals AmiG as a reversible retaining glycosyltransferase. J Am Chem Soc. 2013;135:12152-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This study indicates that AmiG is a potential catalyst for diversifying nucleoside antibiotics and paves the way for mechanistic studies of a natural-product retaining glycosyltransferase. ..
  26. Wamhoff H, Bamberg A, Sohár P. Efficient synthesis of fused isothiazolo C-nucleosides. III. Synthesis of substituted isothiazol. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2001;20:229-41 pubmed
    ..We want to report on the synthesis of novel 7-substituted isothiazolo = [4,5-d]pyrimidine C-nucleosides. As we could show in previous papers (1,4), there exists a simple approach to the protected C-glycosides 4-6. ..
  27. Shakya N, Vedi S, Liang C, Agrawal B, Tyrrell D, Kumar R. A new class of pyrimidine nucleosides: inhibitors of hepatitis B and C viruses. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:6475-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we report a new category of dideoxy pyrimidine nucleosides possessing a 4'-carboxyl (or carboxymethyl) function (7-9, 13, 16, 17), which are discovered as potential ..
  28. Golan O, Issan Y, Isak A, Leipziger J, Robaye B, Shainberg A. Extracellular nucleotide derivatives protect cardiomyocytes against hypoxic stress. Biochem Pharmacol. 2011;81:1219-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Extracellular tri/di-phosphates are apparently the molecule responsible for cardioprotection against hypoxic damage, probably by preventing free radicals formation. ..
  29. Kodama T, Shuto S, Nomura M, Matsuda A. An efficient method for the preparation of 1'alpha-branched-chain sugar pyrimidine ribonucleosides from uridine: the first conversion of a natural nucleoside into 1'-substituted ribonucleosides. Chemistry. 2001;7:2332-40 pubmed
    ..reaction with a vinylsilyl tether--an efficient procedure for preparing 1'alpha-branched-chain sugar pyrimidine nucleosides. Successive treatment of 8 with LiHMDS and PhSeCl in THF at < -70 degrees C gave the desired 1'-..
  30. Jeong L, Kim Y, Kim H, Yoo S, Park Y, Yeon S, et al. Synthesis and antiviral activity of D- and L-2'-azido-2',3'-dideoxy-4'-thiopyrimidine and purine nucleosides. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2001;20:665-8 pubmed
    ..When the final nucleosides were tested against HIV-1, HSV-1, HSV-2, and HCMV, they were found to be only active against HCMV without cytotoxicity up to 100 micrograms/ml. ..
  31. Al Madhoun A, Tjarks W, Eriksson S. The role of thymidine kinases in the activation of pyrimidine nucleoside analogues. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2004;4:341-50 pubmed
    ..Important substrate activity relationships will be discussed. ..
  32. Sigal S, Jacobson I. Future therapies for hepatitis C: where do we go from here?. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;4:60-1 pubmed
  33. Kim A, Hong J. Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of novel 5'-norcarboacyclic phosphonic acid nucleosides. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2006;25:941-50 pubmed
    ..In addition, these compounds were evaluated for their antiviral properties against various viruses. ..
  34. Yonemura Y, Endo Y, Obata T, Sasaki T. Recent advances in the treatment of peritoneal dissemination of gastrointestinal cancers by nucleoside antimetabolites. Cancer Sci. 2007;98:11-8 pubmed
    ..These non-fluoropyrimidine nucleosides may potentially help to improve the poor prognosis observed in patients with advanced cancers involving peritoneal dissemination. ..
  35. Byun Y, Narayanasamy S, Johnsamuel J, Bandyopadhyaya A, Tiwari R, Al Madhoun A, et al. 3-Carboranyl thymidine analogues (3CTAs) and other boronated nucleosides for boron neutron capture therapy. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2006;6:127-44 pubmed
    ..This review will analyze design strategies applied for the synthesis of boron-containing nucleosides in general and in particular reference to 3CTAs. Results of biological studies with these molecules will be discussed. ..
  36. Shammas C, Donarski J, Ramesh V. NMR structure of the peptidyl transferase RNA inhibitor antibiotic amicetin. Magn Reson Chem. 2007;45:133-41 pubmed
    ..27 and 7.52, respectively, which are in agreement with the reported values in literature. Solving the NMR structure of amicetin provides a valuable opportunity to determine the structure of its complex with RNA in solution state. ..
  37. Benzaria S, Bardiot D, Bouisset T, Counor C, Rabeson C, Pierra C, et al. 2'-C-Methyl branched pyrimidine ribonucleoside analogues: potent inhibitors of RNA virus replication. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2007;18:225-42 pubmed
    ..Thus, the 2'-methyl branching of natural pyrimidine ribonucleosides transforms physiological molecules into potent, broad-spectrum antiviral agents that merit further development. ..
  38. Hikishima S, Minakawa N, Kuramoto K, Fujisawa Y, Ogawa M, Matsuda A. Synthesis of 1,8-naphthyridine C-nucleosides and their base-pairing properties in oligodeoxynucleotides: thermally stable naphthyridine:imidazopyridopyrimidine base-pairing motifs. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2005;44:596-8 pubmed
  39. Yan L, Xiao Lan C, Juan H, Jian Bo H, Ling Bo Q, Yu Fen Z. Characterization of novel nucleoside analogs by electrospray ionization mass spectra. Eur J Mass Spectrom (Chichester). 2004;10:699-703 pubmed
    ..Hence, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry combined with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) provides a convenient method to recognize the substituted and unsubstituted nucleosides. ..
  40. Smith F, Javed R, Elzey M, Welch S, Selley D, Sim Selley L, et al. Prolonged reversal of morphine tolerance with no reversal of dependence by protein kinase C inhibitors. Brain Res. 2002;958:28-35 pubmed
    ..Finally, the use of persistent PKC inhibitors that lasted for 24 h demonstrated that the neuronal systems in these animals did not adapt by increasing the activity of other protein kinase cascades to re-establish morphine tolerance. ..
  41. Chacko A, Blankemeyer E, Lieberman B, Qu W, Kung H. 5-[18F]Fluoroalkyl pyrimidine nucleosides: probes for positron emission tomography imaging of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene expression. Nucl Med Biol. 2009;36:29-38 pubmed publisher
  42. Morchio R, Traverso S. [Prebiotic phosphate: a problem insoluble in water ? ]. Riv Biol. 2005;98:18-23 pubmed
    ..1996]) that, in an anhydrous organic medium (pyridine), dialkilphosphite reacts with amino acids to form phosphoamino acids, which interact with pyrimidine nucleosides to give nucleotides, short oligonucleotides and phosphoryl peptides.
  43. Brunelle M, Lucifora J, Neyts J, Villet S, Holy A, Trepo C, et al. In vitro activity of 2,4-diamino-6-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethoxy]-pyrimidine against multidrug-resistant hepatitis B virus mutants. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:2240-3 pubmed
    ..Most drug-resistant mutants, including multidrug-resistant strains, remained sensitive to tenofovir and PMEO-DAPym. Therefore, the latter molecule deserves further evaluation for the treatment of HBV infection. ..
  44. Liu Young G, Kozal M. Hepatitis C protease and polymerase inhibitors in development. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2008;22:449-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Of these aforementioned agents, telaprevir is the most advanced in clinical development. Early trial results on efficacy, safety, and HCV drug-resistance profiles of these novel agents will be discussed in this review paper. ..
  45. Pentikis H, Matson M, Atiee G, Boehlecke B, Hutchins J, Patti J, et al. Pharmacokinetics and safety of FV-100, a novel oral anti-herpes zoster nucleoside analogue, administered in single and multiple doses to healthy young adult and elderly adult volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:2847-54 pubmed publisher
  46. Amsailale R, Van Den Neste E, Arts A, Starczewska E, Bontemps F, Smal C. Phosphorylation of deoxycytidine kinase on Ser-74: impact on kinetic properties and nucleoside analog activation in cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2012;84:43-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that increasing phosphorylation of dCK on Ser-74 might constitute a valuable strategy to enhance the clinical efficacy of some NA, like dFdC, but not of CdA or F-Ara-A. ..
  47. Knutson C, Rubinson E, Akingbade D, Anderson C, Stec D, Petrova K, et al. Oxidation and glycolytic cleavage of etheno and propano DNA base adducts. Biochemistry. 2009;48:800-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These multiple pathways of biotransformation produce an array of products. Thus, the biotransformation of exocyclic adducts may lead to an additional class of biomarkers suitable for use in animal and human studies. ..
  48. Galmarini C, Jordheim L, Dumontet C. Pyrimidine nucleoside analogs in cancer treatment. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2003;3:717-28 pubmed
    ..These agents act as antimetabolites, compete with physiologic pyrimidine nucleosides and, consequently, interact with a large number of intracellular targets to induce cytotoxicity...
  49. Zimmermann S, Sadler J, O Daniel P, Kim N, Seley Radtke K. "Reverse" carbocyclic fleximers: synthesis of a new class of adenosine deaminase inhibitors. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2013;32:137-54 pubmed publisher
    A series of flexible carbocyclic pyrimidine nucleosides has been designed and synthesized...
  50. Shmalenyuk E, Chernousova L, Karpenko I, Kochetkov S, Smirnova T, Andreevskaya S, et al. Inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains H37Rv and MDR MS-115 by a new set of C5 modified pyrimidine nucleosides. Bioorg Med Chem. 2013;21:4874-84 pubmed publisher
  51. Ozaki H, Mine M, Shinozuka K, Sawai H. Effect of imino group of a linker arm at the C5 position of a pyrimidine nucleoside on the thermal stabilities of DNA/DNA and DNA/RNA duplexes. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2004;23:339-46 pubmed
    ..The effect of the C5-substituent on the duplex formation with complementary DNA or RNA differed with the position of an imino group in the linker-arms. ..
  52. Leung K, de Castro S, Savery D, Copp A, Greene N. Nucleotide precursors prevent folic acid-resistant neural tube defects in the mouse. Brain. 2013;136:2836-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may provide an impetus for future investigations of supplemental nucleotides as a means to prevent a greater proportion of human neural tube defects than can be achieved by folic acid alone. ..
  53. García González A, Ritter A, Shrestha S, Andersen E, Yilmaz L, Walhout A. Bacterial Metabolism Affects the C. elegans Response to Cancer Chemotherapeutics. Cell. 2017;169:431-441.e8 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans rather than by thymineless death or DNA damage. Our study provides a blueprint for characterizing the role of bacteria in the host response to chemotherapeutics. ..