Summary: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Mortimer S, Johnson J, Weeks K. Quantitative analysis of RNA solvent accessibility by N-silylation of guanosine. Biochemistry. 2009;48:2109-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that N,N-(dimethylamino)dimethylchlorosilane (DMAS-Cl) reacts at the guanosine N2 position to yield a near-perfect measure (r >or= 0...
  2. Dal Cim T, Martins W, Santos A, Tasca C. Guanosine is neuroprotective against oxygen/glucose deprivation in hippocampal slices via large conductance Ca²+-activated K+ channels, phosphatidilinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase B pathway activation and glutamate uptake. Neuroscience. 2011;183:212-20 pubmed publisher
    ..kinase (PI3K) pathway involvement in the mechanisms related to the neuroprotective role of guanosine in rat hippocampal slices subjected to OGD...
  3. Dal Cim T, Molz S, Egea J, Parada E, Romero A, Budni J, et al. Guanosine protects human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against mitochondrial oxidative stress by inducing heme oxigenase-1 via PI3K/Akt/GSK-3? pathway. Neurochem Int. 2012;61:397-404 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we have investigated the protective mechanism of action of guanosine, the guanine nucleoside, in a human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y, subjected to mitochondrial oxidative ..
  4. Grohman J, Gorelick R, Lickwar C, Lieb J, Bower B, Znosko B, et al. A guanosine-centric mechanism for RNA chaperone function. Science. 2013;340:190-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Both chaperones interacted primarily with guanosine residues...
  5. Haapakoski R, Karisola P, Fyhrquist N, Savinko T, Wolff H, Turjanmaa K, et al. Intradermal cytosine-phosphate-guanosine treatment reduces lung inflammation but induces IFN-?-mediated airway hyperreactivity in a murine model of natural rubber latex allergy. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011;44:639-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunostimulatory cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG)-oligodeoxynucleotide motifs are candidate molecules for immunotherapeutic studies, as they have been shown ..
  6. Fleming A, Orendt A, He Y, Zhu J, Dukor R, Burrows C. Reconciliation of chemical, enzymatic, spectroscopic and computational data to assign the absolute configuration of the DNA base lesion spiroiminodihydantoin. J Am Chem Soc. 2013;135:18191-204 pubmed publisher
    ..These assignments now provide the basis for understanding the biological significance of the stereochemical dependence of enzymes that process this form of DNA damage. ..
  7. Millen A, Sharma P, Wetmore S. C8-linked bulky guanosine DNA adducts: experimental and computational insights into adduct conformational preferences and resulting mutagenicity. Future Med Chem. 2012;4:1981-2007 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the unique role that computer calculations can play in understanding the structural properties of these adducts are highlighted. ..
  8. Basavaraj K, Vasu Devaraju P, Rao K. Studies on serum 8-hydroxy guanosine (8-OHdG) as reliable biomarker for psoriasis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2013;27:655-7 pubmed publisher
    ..No serum biomarker was available for the oxidative DNA damage. To evaluate the 8-OHdG (8-Hydroxy guanosine) as reliable biomarker for the oxidative stress in psoriatic patients with severity...
  9. Rathbone M, Saleh T, Connell B, Chang R, Su C, Worley B, et al. Systemic administration of guanosine promotes functional and histological improvement following an ischemic stroke in rats. Brain Res. 2011;1407:79-89 pubmed publisher
    Previously we have found that extracellular guanosine (Guo) has neuroprotective properties in in vitro and in vivo...

More Information


  1. Zhai Q, Xu L, Ge Y, Tian T, Wu W, Yan S, et al. Site-specific recognition of guanosine by manganese(III) corroles in DNA non-duplex regions through active oxygen transfer. Chemistry. 2011;17:8890-5 pubmed publisher
    ..regions of DNA and generated manganese(III) corroles, which exhibit a highly selective cleavage ability for guanosine units located at non-duplex portions, such as loops and bulges...
  2. Molz S, Dal Cim T, Budni J, Martín de Saavedra M, Egea J, Romero A, et al. Neuroprotective effect of guanosine against glutamate-induced cell death in rat hippocampal slices is mediated by the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt/ glycogen synthase kinase 3? pathway activation and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition. J Neurosci Res. 2011;89:1400-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Guanosine, an endogenous guanine nucleoside, prevents excitotoxicity by its ability to modulate glutamate transport...
  3. Zhang G, Deng A, Xu Q, Liang Y, Chen N, Wen T. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TA208, a strain for industrial production of guanosine and ribavirin. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:3142-3 pubmed publisher the complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TA208, a strain for industrial production of guanosine and synthesis of ribavirin by assimilation of formamide...
  4. Jiao X, Xiang S, Oh C, Martin C, Tong L, Kiledjian M. Identification of a quality-control mechanism for mRNA 5'-end capping. Nature. 2010;467:608-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Rai1 is involved in an as yet uncharacterized quality control process that ensures mRNA 5'-end integrity by an aberrant-cap-mediated mRNA decay mechanism. ..
  5. Yin H, Zhou Y, Ma Q, Ai S, Chen Q, Zhu L. Electrocatalytic oxidation behavior of guanosine at graphene, chitosan and Fe3O4 nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode and its determination. Talanta. 2010;82:1193-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The electrochemical oxidation behavior of guanosine was investigated in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solution by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry...
  6. Wang Z, Rhee D, Lu J, Bohr C, Zhou F, Vallabhaneni H, et al. Characterization of oxidative guanine damage and repair in mammalian telomeres. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000951 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies demonstrate that BER pathway is required in repairing oxidative guanine damage in telomeres and maintaining telomere integrity in mammals. ..
  7. Pitterl F, Chervet J, Oberacher H. Electrochemical simulation of oxidation processes involving nucleic acids monitored with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2010;397:1203-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Mass voltammograms were acquired for guanosine, adenosine, cytidine, and uridine...
  8. Schmidt A, Böhmer A, Schallenberger C, Antunes C, Tavares R, Wofchuk S, et al. Mechanisms involved in the antinociception induced by systemic administration of guanosine in mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;159:1247-63 pubmed publisher
    ..p.) and oral (p.o.) administration of guanosine on mice pain models...
  9. Ochi A, Makabe K, Kuwajima K, Hori H. Flexible recognition of the tRNA G18 methylation target site by TrmH methyltransferase through first binding and induced fit processes. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:9018-29 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the recognition mechanism of Thermus thermophilus TrmH for its guanosine target...
  10. Benarroch D, Jankowska Anyszka M, Stepinski J, Darzynkiewicz E, Shuman S. Cap analog substrates reveal three clades of cap guanine-N2 methyltransferases with distinct methyl acceptor specificities. RNA. 2010;16:211-20 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins are structurally homologous AdoMet-dependent eukaryal enzymes that methylate the N2 atom of 7-methyl guanosine nucleotides. They have an imputed role in the synthesis of the 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine (TMG) RNA cap...
  11. Moretto M, Boff B, Lavinsky D, Netto C, Rocha J, Souza D, et al. Importance of schedule of administration in the therapeutic efficacy of guanosine: early intervention after injury enhances glutamate uptake in model of hypoxia-ischemia. J Mol Neurosci. 2009;38:216-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In previous work, we demonstrated that guanosine (Guo) prevented the decrease of glutamate uptake by hippocampal slices of neonatal rats exposed to a hypoxic-..
  12. Roos D, Puntel R, Santos M, Souza D, Farina M, Nogueira C, et al. Guanosine and synthetic organoselenium compounds modulate methylmercury-induced oxidative stress in rat brain cortical slices: involvement of oxidative stress and glutamatergic system. Toxicol In Vitro. 2009;23:302-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of glutamatergic system in methylmercury (MeHg) neurotoxicity and whether diphenyl diselenide, ebselen and guanosine could protect cortical rat brain slices from MeHg-induced ROS generation...
  13. Galano A, Alvarez Idaboy J. Guanosine + OH radical reaction in aqueous solution: a reinterpretation of the UV-vis data based on thermodynamic and kinetic calculations. Org Lett. 2009;11:5114-7 pubmed publisher
    ..and kinetic calculations have been used to reinterpret the UV-vis data related to the OH radical oxidation of guanosine. The main channel of reaction (70-75%) is proposed to be the formation of a guanosine radical cation followed by ..
  14. Ding S, Jia L, Durandin A, Crean C, Kolbanovskiy A, Shafirovich V, et al. Absolute configurations of spiroiminodihydantoin and allantoin stereoisomers: comparison of computed and measured electronic circular dichroism spectra. Chem Res Toxicol. 2009;22:1189-93 pubmed publisher
  15. Lech C, Li Z, Heddi B, Phan A. 2'-F-ANA-guanosine and 2'-F-guanosine as powerful tools for structural manipulation of G-quadruplexes. Chem Commun (Camb). 2012;48:11425-7 pubmed publisher
    Here we demonstrate the applicability of 2'-F-ANA-guanosine and 2'-F-guanosine as powerful tools for manipulating G-quadruplex folding by anti-position-favoring substitutions...
  16. Sakaguchi R, Giessing A, Dai Q, Lahoud G, Liutkeviciute Z, Klimasauskas S, et al. Recognition of guanosine by dissimilar tRNA methyltransferases. RNA. 2012;18:1687-701 pubmed publisher
    ..This raises the question of how dissimilar proteins recognize the same guanosine. Here we probe the mechanism of discrimination among functional groups of guanosine by TrmD and Trm5...
  17. Giuliani P, Romano S, Ballerini P, Ciccarelli R, Petragnani N, Cicchitti S, et al. Protective activity of guanosine in an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease. Panminerva Med. 2012;54:43-51 pubmed
    ..Guanine-based purines, exert neuroprotective effects and we previously reported that guanosine activates cell survival pathways including PI3K/Akt/PKB signaling in different kinds of cells including glia and ..
  18. Petronilho F, Périco S, Vuolo F, Mina F, Constantino L, Comim C, et al. Protective effects of guanosine against sepsis-induced damage in rat brain and cognitive impairment. Brain Behav Immun. 2012;26:904-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We have assessed the effects of acute and extended administration of guanosine (GUA) on brain oxidative stress parameters and cognitive impairment in rats submitted to sepsis by cecal ..
  19. Erb R, Plattner S, Pitterl F, Brouwer H, Oberacher H. An optimized electrochemistry-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for studying guanosine oxidation. Electrophoresis. 2012;33:614-21 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Guanosine was selected as test compound...
  20. Jöckel S, Nees G, Sommer R, Zhao Y, Cherkasov D, Hori H, et al. The 2'-O-methylation status of a single guanosine controls transfer RNA-mediated Toll-like receptor 7 activation or inhibition. J Exp Med. 2012;209:235-41 pubmed publisher
    ..thermophilus abolished its IFN-? inducing potential. More importantly, Gm18-modified tRNA acted as TLR7 antagonist and blocked IFN-? induction of influenza A virus-infected PBMCs. ..
  21. Albrecht P, Henke N, Tien M, Issberner A, Bouchachia I, Maher P, et al. Extracellular cyclic GMP and its derivatives GMP and guanosine protect from oxidative glutamate toxicity. Neurochem Int. 2013;62:610-9 pubmed publisher
    ..extracellular peptide or small molecule ligands for effects on cell death and identified extracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) as a protective substance...
  22. Guarnieri S, Pilla R, Morabito C, Sacchetti S, Mancinelli R, Fano G, et al. Extracellular guanosine and GTP promote expression of differentiation markers and induce S-phase cell-cycle arrest in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2009;27:135-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Using this system, we asked whether guanosine (Guo) or guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) are able to drive differentiation towards one particular phenotype...
  23. Gudkov S, Gudkova O, Chernikov A, Bruskov V. Protection of mice against X-ray injuries by the post-irradiation administration of guanosine and inosine. Int J Radiat Biol. 2009;85:116-25 pubmed publisher
    To examine the radioprotective action of guanosine (Guo) and inosine (Ino) administered to mice after irradiation with X-rays. Survival of mice exposed to lethal and sublethal doses of X-rays was studied...
  24. Henn A, Joachimi A, Gonçalves D, Monchaud D, Teulade Fichou M, Sanders J, et al. Inhibition of dicing of guanosine-rich shRNAs by quadruplex-binding compounds. Chembiochem. 2008;9:2722-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present a first step in this direction by augmenting shRNAs with guanosine-rich sequences that are prone to fold into four-stranded structures...
  25. Tarozzi A, Merlicco A, Morroni F, Bolondi C, Di Iorio P, Ciccarelli R, et al. Guanosine protects human neuroblastoma cells from oxidative stress and toxicity induced by Amyloid-beta peptide oligomers. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2010;24:297-306 pubmed
    ..We therefore investigated the effect of guanosine (GUO), a guanine based purine, that exerts neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects...
  26. Li Y, Dong M, Otzen D, Yao Y, Liu B, Besenbacher F, et al. Influence of tunable external stimuli on the self-assembly of guanosine supramolecular nanostructures studied by atomic force microscope. Langmuir. 2009;25:13432-7 pubmed publisher
    The self-assembly of guanosine (G) molecules on solid surfaces is investigated by tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) upon controlling and introducing external factors (stimuli) to the G stock solution such as incubation time, ..
  27. Hausmann S, Zheng S, Costanzo M, Brost R, Garcin D, Boone C, et al. Genetic and biochemical analysis of yeast and human cap trimethylguanosine synthase: functional overlap of 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine caps, small nuclear ribonucleoprotein components, pre-mRNA splicing factors, and RNA decay pathways. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:31706-18 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a biochemical characterization of the human Tgs1 guanine-N2 methyltransferase reaction and identify individual amino acids required for methyltransferase activity in vitro and in vivo. ..
  28. Burger P, Korsten H, de Korte D, Rombout E, van Bruggen R, Verhoeven A. An improved red blood cell additive solution maintains 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and adenosine triphosphate levels by an enhancing effect on phosphofructokinase activity during cold storage. Transfusion. 2010;50:2386-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that with a new AS called phosphate-adenine-glucose-guanosine-gluconate-mannitol (PAGGGM), both 2,3-DPG and ATP could be maintained throughout storage for 35 days...
  29. Zhou J, Liu M, Fleming A, Burrows C, Wallace S. Neil3 and NEIL1 DNA glycosylases remove oxidative damages from quadruplex DNA and exhibit preferences for lesions in the telomeric sequence context. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:27263-72 pubmed publisher
  30. Er Y, Barnes T, Fornasiero D, Prestidge C. The encapsulation and release of guanosine from PEGylated liposomes. J Liposome Res. 2009;19:29-36 pubmed publisher
    The encapsulation and release kinetics of guanosine from liposomes and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified liposomes are reported...
  31. Liu W, Shin D, Tor Y, Cooperman B. Monitoring translation with modified mRNAs strategically labeled with isomorphic fluorescent guanosine mimetics. ACS Chem Biol. 2013;8:2017-23 pubmed publisher
    ..mRNAs, site-specifically modified at codon positions 4, 5, and 6 with a new emissive and responsive isosteric guanosine mimetic ((th)G), with the goal of developing real time assays for monitoring translation-related events at ..
  32. Reinhold W, Mergny J, Liu H, Ryan M, Pfister T, Kinders R, et al. Exon array analyses across the NCI-60 reveal potential regulation of TOP1 by transcription pausing at guanosine quartets in the first intron. Cancer Res. 2010;70:2191-203 pubmed publisher
    ..The observations reported here suggest the hypothesis that there is a conserved negative transcription regulator within intron 1 of the TOP1 gene associated with a quadruplex-prone region. ..
  33. Hou X, Wang G, Gaffney B, Jones R. Synthesis of guanosine and deoxyguanosine phosphoramidites with cross-linkable thioalkyl tethers for direct incorporation into RNA and DNA. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2009;28:1076-94 pubmed publisher
    We describe the synthesis of protected phosphoramidites of deoxyriboguanosine and guanosine derivatives containing a thiopropyl tether at the guanine N2 (7a,b) for site-specific crosslinking from the minor groove of either DNA or RNA to ..
  34. Kuryavyi V, Patel D. Solution structure of a unique G-quadruplex scaffold adopted by a guanosine-rich human intronic sequence. Structure. 2010;18:73-82 pubmed publisher
    We report on the solution structure of an unprecedented intramolecular G-quadruplex formed by the guanosine-rich human chl1 intronic d(G(3)-N-G(4)-N(2)-G(4)-N-G(3)-N) 19-mer sequence in K(+)-containing solution...
  35. Shen W, Gao L, Balakrishnan M, Bambara R. A recombination hot spot in HIV-1 contains guanosine runs that can form a G-quartet structure and promote strand transfer in vitro. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:33883-93 pubmed publisher
    ..transfer assays in vitro revealed that three pause bands in the gag hot spot each corresponded to a run of guanosine (G) residues...
  36. Zhao X, Krishnamurthy N, Burrows C, David S. Mutation versus repair: NEIL1 removal of hydantoin lesions in single-stranded, bulge, bubble, and duplex DNA contexts. Biochemistry. 2010;49:1658-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Depending on the context, the glycosylase activity of NEIL1 may stall replication and prevent mutations or lead to inappropriate removal that may contribute to the mutational spectrum of these unusual lesions. ..
  37. Connell B, Di Iorio P, Sayeed I, Ballerini P, Saleh M, Giuliani P, et al. Guanosine protects against reperfusion injury in rat brains after ischemic stroke. J Neurosci Res. 2013;91:262-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a collaborative approach, our groups examined the effects of guanosine (Guo) in response to ischemic reperfusion injury in vitro and in vivo...
  38. Lv S, Wang J, Dou S, Yang X, Ni X, Sun R, et al. Nanoparticles encapsulating hepatitis B virus cytosine-phosphate-guanosine induce therapeutic immunity against HBV infection. Hepatology. 2014;59:385-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) from the HBV genome (HBV-CpG) induced robust expression of IFN-? by ..
  39. Pabis M, Neufeld N, Steiner M, Bojic T, Shav Tal Y, Neugebauer K. The nuclear cap-binding complex interacts with the U4/U6·U5 tri-snRNP and promotes spliceosome assembly in mammalian cells. RNA. 2013;19:1054-63 pubmed publisher
    The nuclear cap-binding complex (CBC) binds to the 7-methyl guanosine cap present on every RNA polymerase II transcript...
  40. Dal Cim T, Ludka F, Martins W, Reginato C, Parada E, Egea J, et al. Guanosine controls inflammatory pathways to afford neuroprotection of hippocampal slices under oxygen and glucose deprivation conditions. J Neurochem. 2013;126:437-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Guanosine (GUO) is an endogenous modulator of glutamatergic excitotoxicity and has been shown to promote neuroprotection in in vivo and in vitro models of neurotoxicity...
  41. Osborne M, Volpon L, Kornblatt J, Culjkovic Kraljacic B, Baguet A, Borden K. eIF4E3 acts as a tumor suppressor by utilizing an atypical mode of methyl-7-guanosine cap recognition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:3877-82 pubmed publisher
    Recognition of the methyl-7-guanosine (m(7)G) cap structure on mRNA is an essential feature of mRNA metabolism and thus gene expression...
  42. Piton J, Larue V, Thillier Y, Dorleans A, Pellegrini O, Li de la Sierra Gallay I, et al. Bacillus subtilis RNA deprotection enzyme RppH recognizes guanosine in the second position of its substrates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:8858-63 pubmed publisher
    ..subtilis enzyme has a binding pocket that prefers guanosine residues in the second position of its substrates...
  43. Michalowski D, Chitima Matsiga R, Held D, Burke D. Novel bimodular DNA aptamers with guanosine quadruplexes inhibit phylogenetically diverse HIV-1 reverse transcriptases. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:7124-35 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibitory structure is identified here as bimodular, with a 5' stem-loop module physically connected to a 3'-guanosine quadruplex module. The stem-loop tolerates considerable sequence plasticity...
  44. Albrecht Buehler G. Properties and distribution of pure GA-sequences of mammalian genomes. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3818 pubmed publisher
  45. Volpini R, Marucci G, Buccioni M, Dal Ben D, Lambertucci C, Lammi C, et al. Evidence for the existence of a specific g?protein-coupled receptor activated by guanosine. ChemMedChem. 2011;6:1074-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Guanosine, released extracellularly from neurons and glial cells, plays important roles in the central nervous system, including neuroprotection...
  46. Sexton A, Collins K. The 5' guanosine tracts of human telomerase RNA are recognized by the G-quadruplex binding domain of the RNA helicase DHX36 and function to increase RNA accumulation. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:736-43 pubmed publisher
    ..a motif of human telomerase RNA (hTR), not previously characterized in a cellular context, comprised of several guanosine tracts near the RNA 5' end. These guanosine tracts together are recognized by the DEXH box RNA helicase DHX36...
  47. Henriksen T, Hillestrøm P, Poulsen H, Weimann A. Automated method for the direct analysis of 8-oxo-guanosine and 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine in human urine using ultraperformance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009;47:629-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Accuracy and precision were documented, showing average recoveries of 106.2% (8-oxoGuo) and 106.9% (8-oxodG), and overall precision (within-day and between-days) of 6.1 and 4.4%, respectively. ..
  48. Su C, Picard P, Rathbone M, Jiang S. Guanosine-induced decrease in side population of lung cancer cells: lack of correlation with ABCG2 expression. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2010;24:19-25 pubmed
    ..b>Guanosine is an important intercellular signalling molecule; it stimulates stem cell proliferation in vivo and affects ..
  49. Chapman M, Fraser R, Matthews G, Russo A, Bellon M, Besanko L, et al. Glucose absorption and gastric emptying in critical illness. Crit Care. 2009;13:R140 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to quantify glucose absorption and the relationships between GE, glucose absorption and glycaemia in critically ill patients...
  50. Salon J, Sheng J, Gan J, Huang Z. Synthesis and crystal structure of 2'-se-modified guanosine containing DNA. J Org Chem. 2010;75:637-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we describe a convenient synthesis of a new building block, the 2'-SeMe-modified guanosine (G(Se)) phosphoramidite, and report the first incorporation of the 2'-Se-G moiety into DNA...
  51. Cowling V. Regulation of mRNA cap methylation. Biochem J. 2009;425:295-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Methylation of the guanosine cap is necessary for the translation of most cellular mRNAs in all eukaryotic organisms in which it has been ..
  52. Gu J, Wang J, Leszczynski J. Comprehensive analysis of DNA strand breaks at the guanosine site induced by low-energy electron attachment. Chemphyschem. 2010;11:175-81 pubmed publisher
    To elucidate the role of guanosine in DNA strand breaks caused by low-energy electrons (LEEs), theoretical investigations of the LEE attachment-induced C-O sigma-bonds and N-glycosidic bond breaking of 2'-deoxyguanosine-3',5'-diphosphate ..
  53. Cao Q, Padmanabhan K, Richter J. Pumilio 2 controls translation by competing with eIF4E for 7-methyl guanosine cap recognition. RNA. 2010;16:221-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to its suggested role in regulating poly(A) tail length and mRNA stability, our results suggest that vertebrate Pumilio can repress translation by blocking the assembly of the essential initiation complex on the cap...