cladribine

Summary

Summary: An antineoplastic agent used in the treatment of lymphoproliferative diseases including hairy-cell leukemia.

Top Publications

  1. Huynh E, Sigal D, Saven A. Cladribine in the treatment of hairy cell leukemia: initial and subsequent results. Leuk Lymphoma. 2009;50 Suppl 1:12-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Although interferon alpha and pentostatin were initially found to be effective in this disease, cladribine has emerged as the preferred initial therapy...
  2. Martinez Rodriguez J, Cadavid D, Wolansky L, Pliner L, Cook S. Cladribine in aggressive forms of multiple sclerosis. Eur J Neurol. 2007;14:686-9 pubmed
    b>Cladribine (2-chlorodeoxyadenosine) is an immunosuppressant drug previously evaluated in multiple sclerosis (MS) with variable results...
  3. Jaeger G, Bauer F, Brezinschek R, Beham Schmid C, Mannhalter C, Neumeister P. Hepatosplenic gammadelta T-cell lymphoma successfully treated with a combination of alemtuzumab and cladribine. Ann Oncol. 2008;19:1025-6 pubmed publisher
  4. Gold R. Oral therapies for multiple sclerosis: a review of agents in phase III development or recently approved. CNS Drugs. 2011;25:37-52 pubmed publisher
    ..are in phase III development or have recently been approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting MS: cladribine (approved in Russia and Australia), fingolimod (approved in the US and Russia), BG-12 (phase III), laquinimod (..
  5. Robak T, Smolewski P, Cebula B, Grzybowska Izydorczyk O, Błoński J. Rituximab plus cladribine with or without cyclophosphamide in patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Eur J Haematol. 2007;79:107-13 pubmed
    ..was to determine the feasibility, effectiveness and toxicity of combined regimens consisting of rituximab and cladribine (2-CdA) (RC) and RC plus cyclophosphamide (RCC) in the treatment of patients with recurrent or refractory ..
  6. Kobylinska A, Bednarek J, Blonski J, Hanausek M, Walaszek Z, Robak T, et al. In vitro sensitivity of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia to cladribine and its combinations with mafosfamide and/or mitoxantrone. Oncol Rep. 2006;16:1389-95 pubmed
    We examined in vitro sensitivity of B-CLL cells exposed to cladribine, mafosfamide, mitoxantrone and combinations ofcladribine with mafosfamide and/or mitoxantrone...
  7. Leist T, Vermersch P. The potential role for cladribine in the treatment of multiple sclerosis: clinical experience and development of an oral tablet formulation. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007;23:2667-76 pubmed
    ..A number of oral therapies are in development, including cladribine--a preferential lymphocyte-depleting therapy with a well-established safety profile across other indications...
  8. Wierzbowska A, Robak T, Pluta A, Wawrzyniak E, Cebula B, Hołowiecki J, et al. Cladribine combined with high doses of arabinoside cytosine, mitoxantrone, and G-CSF (CLAG-M) is a highly effective salvage regimen in patients with refractory and relapsed acute myeloid leukemia of the poor risk: a final report of the Polish Adult L. Eur J Haematol. 2008;80:115-26 pubmed
    ..Purine analogs fludarabine (FA) and cladribine (2-CdA) increase cytotoxic effect of Ara-C in leukemic blasts and inhibit DNA repair mechanisms; therefore its ..
  9. Sipe J. Cladribine for multiple sclerosis: review and current status. Expert Rev Neurother. 2005;5:721-7 pubmed
    In the 1990s, cladribine was developed as an adenosine deaminase-resistant nucleoside analog with selective lymphotoxic specificity in the hope that it might become useful in the treatment of some lymphoid neoplasms and autoimmune ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Walker A, Komrokji R, Ifthikharuddin J, Messina P, Mulford D, Becker M, et al. Phase I study of cladribine, cytarabine (Ara-C), granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) (CLAG Regimen) and simultaneous escalating doses of imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) in relapsed/refractory AML. Leuk Res. 2008;32:1830-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with relapsed, refractory AML or CML myeloid blast crisis were eligible to receive Cladribine 5mg/m(2) days 3-7, Cytarabine 2gm/m(2) days 3-7, G-CSF 300mcg days 2-7, and escalating doses of imatinib ..
  2. Ogura M, Morishima Y, Kobayashi Y, Uike N, Sugai S, Chou T, et al. Durable response but prolonged cytopenia after cladribine treatment in relapsed patients with indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: results of a Japanese phase II study. Int J Hematol. 2004;80:267-77 pubmed
    We conducted a phase II study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cladribine (2-chlorodeoxyadenosine [2-CdA]) for patients with refractory or relapsed indolent B-cell lymphoma or mycosis fungoides...
  3. Rajendra B, Duncan A, Parslew R, Pizer B. Successful treatment of central nervous system juvenile xanthogranulomatosis with cladribine. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2009;52:413-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The lesion then failed to respond to vinblastine monotherapy. Treatment with cladribine (2-chlorodeoxyadenosine) was subsequently successful with radiological resolution of the CNS lesion.
  4. Bagley R, Roth S, Kurtzberg L, Rouleau C, Yao M, Crawford J, et al. Bone marrow CFU-GM and human tumor xenograft efficacy of three antitumor nucleoside analogs. Int J Oncol. 2009;34:1329-40 pubmed
    Nucleoside analogs are rationally designed anticancer agents that disrupt DNA and RNA synthesis. Fludarabine and cladribine have important roles in the treatment of hematologic malignancies...
  5. Holowiecki J, Grosicki S, Robak T, Kyrcz Krzemien S, Giebel S, Hellmann A, et al. Addition of cladribine to daunorubicin and cytarabine increases complete remission rate after a single course of induction treatment in acute myeloid leukemia. Multicenter, phase III study. Leukemia. 2004;18:989-97 pubmed
    ..original DAC-7 regimen: daunorubicine (DNR) 60 mg/m2/day, days 1-3; cytarabine (AraC) 200 mg/m2/day, days 1-7; cladribine (2-CdA) 5 mg/m2/day, days 1-5, 400 untreated adult acute myeloid leukemia patients (including 63 with preceding ..
  6. Troch M, Kiesewetter B, Willenbacher W, Willenbacher E, Zebisch A, Linkesch W, et al. Rituximab plus subcutaneous cladribine in patients with extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue: a phase II study by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Medikamentose Tumortherapie. Haematologica. 2013;98:264-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Both rituximab and cladribine have shown some activity in this disease, but the combination has not been tested so far...
  7. Takamatsu Y, Suzumiya J, Ogata K, Katayose K, Sasaki H, Ishitsuka K, et al. Cladribine treatment in two-hour intravenous infusion for previously-treated low grade B-cell lymphoma: a pilot study. J Clin Exp Hematop. 2009;49:69-75 pubmed
    b>Cladribine is approved to be used in 24-hour continuous infusion for the treatment of low-grade lymphoma by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in Japan...
  8. Wolska A, Cebula Obrzut B, Smolewski P, Robak T. Effects of Toll-like receptor 7 and Toll-like receptor 9 signaling stimulators and inhibitors on chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells ex vivo and their interactions with cladribine. Leuk Lymphoma. 2013;54:1268-78 pubmed publisher
    ..954 and IMI induced significant necrosis at all concentrations, and the effect was augmented by the addition of cladribine (2CdA)...
  9. Hartung H, Aktas O, Kieseier B, Giancarlo Comi G. Development of oral cladribine for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. J Neurol. 2010;257:163-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Of all the potential new oral MS agents in development, cladribine is the only therapy with the potential for short-course dosing...
  10. Alharthi M, Calleja A, Panse P, Appleton C, Jaroszewski D, Tazelaar H, et al. Multimodality imaging showing complete cardiovascular involvement by Erdheim-Chester disease. Eur J Echocardiogr. 2010;11:E25 pubmed publisher
    ..Cardiac involvement in ECD carries worst prognosis beside the central nervous system. We report the first case with pan-cardiac involvement diagnosed with multimodality imaging. ..
  11. Bertazzoni P, Rabascio C, Gigli F, Calabrese L, Radice D, Calleri A, et al. Rituximab and subcutaneous cladribine in chronic lymphocytic leukemia for newly diagnosed and relapsed patients. Leuk Lymphoma. 2010;51:1485-93 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of combined treatment with rituximab and subcutaneous cladribine in patients with newly diagnosed and relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)...
  12. Galmarini C, Voorzanger N, Falette N, Jordheim L, Cros E, Puisieux A, et al. Influence of p53 and p21(WAF1) expression on sensitivity of cancer cells to cladribine. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003;65:121-9 pubmed
    ..was performed to gain insight into the role of p53 and p21(WAF1) on the cytotoxicity of the purine analogue cladribine (2-CdA) on cancer cells...
  13. Costello K, Sipe J. Cladribine tablets' potential in multiple: sclerosis treatment. J Neurosci Nurs. 2008;40:275-80 pubmed
    ..b>Cladribine, which is a preferential lymphocyte-depleting therapy, has the potential to be the first oral agent available ..
  14. Forconi F, Sozzi E, Cencini E, Zaja F, Intermesoli T, Stelitano C, et al. Hairy cell leukemias with unmutated IGHV genes define the minor subset refractory to single-agent cladribine and with more aggressive behavior. Blood. 2009;114:4696-702 pubmed publisher
    Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is generally responsive to single-agent cladribine, and only a minority of patients are refractory and with poor prognosis. HCLs generally express mutated (M) and, in a minority, unmutated (UM) IGHV...
  15. Martin M, Welch J, Augustin K, Hladnik L, DiPersio J, Abboud C. Cladribine in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia: a single-institution experience. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma. 2009;9:298-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Through a pharmacy database search we identified all patients with AML treated at Washington University with cladribine-based regimens...
  16. Robak T, Wierzbowska A, Robak E. Recent clinical trials of cladribine in hematological malignancies and autoimmune disorders. Rev Recent Clin Trials. 2006;1:15-34 pubmed
    The purine nucleoside analog - cladribine (2-chlorodeoxyadenosine, 2-CdA) is a cytotoxic agent with high activity in lymphoid and myeloid malignancies. It is also an effective drug in some autoimmune disorders...
  17. Giovannoni G, Comi G, Cook S, Rammohan K, Rieckmann P, Soelberg Sørensen P, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of oral cladribine for relapsing multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:416-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Cladribine provides immunomodulation through selective targeting of lymphocyte subtypes. We report the results of a 96-week phase 3 trial of a short-course oral tablet therapy in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.
  18. Hoffman M. Interferon-alpha is a very effective salvage therapy for patients with hairy cell leukemia relapsing after cladribine: a report of three cases. Med Oncol. 2011;28:1537-41 pubmed publisher
    Therapy with a purine analogue (cladribine or pentostatin, most often cladribine) has revolutionized the care of patients with hairy cell leukemia, resulting in very long-lasting remissions in the majority of cases...
  19. Robak T, Kordek R, Urbanska Rys H, Robak P, Bartkowiak J, Bednarek A, et al. High activity of rituximab combined with cladribine and cyclophosphamide in a patient with pulmonary lymphomatoid granulomatosis and bone marrow involvement. Leuk Lymphoma. 2006;47:1667-9 pubmed
  20. Adam Z, Szturz P, Pour L, Krejci M, Zahradova L, Tomiska M, et al. [Cladribine is highly effective in the treatment of Langerhans cell histiocytosis and rare histiocytic disorders of the juvenile xanthogranuloma group]. Vnitr Lek. 2012;58:455-65 pubmed
    b>Cladribine (2-chlorodeoxyadenosine) is metabolised and phosphorylated in a cell up to 2-chloroadenosine triphosphate which is the actual effective form of the drug...
  21. Penack O, Sotlar K, Noack F, Horny H, Thiel E, Notter M. Cladribine therapy in a patient with an aleukemic subvariant of mast cell leukemia. Ann Hematol. 2005;84:692-3 pubmed
  22. Stine K, Saylors R, Saccente S, McClain K, Becton D. Efficacy of continuous infusion 2-CDA (cladribine) in pediatric patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2004;43:81-4 pubmed
    ..Further studies are needed to determine the role of 2-CDA in this patient population. 2-CDA can be given safely using home therapy, and may effective even in high-risk patients. ..
  23. Goodman G, Burian C, Koziol J, Saven A. Extended follow-up of patients with hairy cell leukemia after treatment with cladribine. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:891-6 pubmed
    ..Therapy for HCL includes splenectomy, interferon alfa-2a and alfa-2b, pentostatin, and cladribine. The purpose of this article was to report the extended follow-up of HCL patients treated with cladribine.
  24. Nabhan C, Gartenhaus R, Tallman M. Purine nucleoside analogues and combination therapies in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: dawn of a new era. Leuk Res. 2004;28:429-42 pubmed
    ..Such strategies are associated with higher remission rates than have been previously achieved and in some cases, molecular remission, suggesting an important step towards cure. ..
  25. Robak T, Blonski J, Gora Tybor J, Kasznicki M, Konopka L, Ceglarek B, et al. Second malignancies and Richter's syndrome in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia treated with cladribine. Eur J Cancer. 2004;40:383-9 pubmed
    ..In this study, we analysed whether treatment with cladribine (2-chlorodeoxyadenosine, 2-CdA) during the course of CLL had an impact on the subsequent occurrence of either ..
  26. Bartosik Psujek H, Belniak E, Mitosek Szewczyk K, Dobosz B, Stelmasiak Z. Interleukin-8 and RANTES levels in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) treated with cladribine. Acta Neurol Scand. 2004;109:390-2 pubmed
    ..Twenty-five patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis were treated with 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (Cladribine), administered subcutaneously in 6 cycles repeated every 5 weeks...
  27. Mansson E, Flordal E, Liliemark J, Spasokoukotskaja T, Elford H, Lagercrantz S, et al. Down-regulation of deoxycytidine kinase in human leukemic cell lines resistant to cladribine and clofarabine and increased ribonucleotide reductase activity contributes to fludarabine resistance. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003;65:237-47 pubmed
    Mechanisms of acquired resistance to three purine analogues, 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine (cladribine, CdA), 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-2-fluoroadenine (fludarabine, Fara-A), and 2-chloro-2'-arabino-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (clofarabine, ..
  28. Leupin N, Schuller J, Solenthaler M, Heim D, Rovo A, Beretta K, et al. Efficacy of rituximab and cladribine in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and feasibility of stem cell mobilization: a prospective multicenter phase II trial (protocol SAKK 34/02). Leuk Lymphoma. 2010;51:613-9 pubmed publisher
    This phase II trial investigated rituximab and cladribine in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Four induction cycles, comprising cladribine (0...
  29. Janeba Z, Francom P, Robins M. Efficient syntheses of 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine (cladribine) from 2'-deoxyguanosine(1). J Org Chem. 2003;68:989-92 pubmed
    We report efficient syntheses of the clinical agent cladribine (2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine, CldAdo), which is the drug of choice against hairy-cell leukemia and other neoplasms, from 2'-deoxyguanosine...
  30. Sigal D, Sharpe R, Burian C, Saven A. Very long-term eradication of minimal residual disease in patients with hairy cell leukemia after a single course of cladribine. Blood. 2010;115:1893-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Cladribine induces protracted remissions in patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL). However, many long-term responders ultimately relapse...
  31. Hayes C, Dey D, Palavicini J, Wang H, Araki W, Lakshmana M. Chronic cladribine administration increases amyloid beta peptide generation and plaque burden in mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45841 pubmed publisher
    The clinical uses of 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine (2-CDA) or cladribine which was initially prescribed to patients with hematological and lymphoid cancers is now extended to treat patients with multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  32. Hartman W, Hentosh P. The antileukemia drug 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine: an intrinsic transcriptional antagonist. Mol Pharmacol. 2004;65:227-34 pubmed
    The nucleoside analog 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine (CldAdo; cladribine) is effective in the treatment of hairy cell leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia...
  33. Spurgeon S, Yu M, Phillips J, Epner E. Cladribine: not just another purine analogue?. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2009;18:1169-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Cladribine was synthesized as a purine analogue drug that inhibited adenosine deaminase. It received FDA approval in the 1980s for treatment of hairy cell leukemia...
  34. Sigal D, Miller H, Schram E, Saven A. Beyond hairy cell: the activity of cladribine in other hematologic malignancies. Blood. 2010;116:2884-96 pubmed publisher
    Before the contemporary development of rationally designed antineoplastic therapies, cladribine was identified as a lymphocyte-specific agent...
  35. Marczak A, Łubgan D, Robak T, Jozwiak Z. Influence of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (cladribine) on human erythrocytes. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004;36:1645-54 pubmed
    2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA, cladribine) is one of the newest chemotherapy drugs which has been around and in use for a few years...
  36. Myra C, Sloper L, Tighe P, McIntosh R, Stevens S, Gregson R, et al. Treatment of Erdheim-Chester disease with cladribine: a rational approach. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004;88:844-7 pubmed
  37. Inwards D, Fishkin P, Hillman D, Brown D, Ansell S, Kurtin P, et al. Long-term results of the treatment of patients with mantle cell lymphoma with cladribine (2-CDA) alone (95-80-53) or 2-CDA and rituximab (N0189) in the North Central Cancer Treatment Group. Cancer. 2008;113:108-16 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to test cladribine (2-CDA) alone and in combination with rituximab in patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL).
  38. Adam Z, Sprláková A, Rehák Z, Koukalová R, Szturz P, Krejci M, et al. [Partial regression of CNS lesions of Erdheim-Chester disease after treatment with 2-chlorodeoxadenosine and their full remission following treatment with lenalidomide]. Klin Onkol. 2011;24:367-81 pubmed
    ..Further testing of lenalidomide in the treatment of this disease is required to support further use of this perspective treatment option. ..
  39. Robak T, Blonski J, Gora Tybor J, Jamroziak K, Dwilewicz Trojaczek J, Tomaszewska A, et al. Cladribine alone and in combination with cyclophosphamide or cyclophosphamide plus mitoxantrone in the treatment of progressive chronic lymphocytic leukemia: report of a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial of the Polish Adult Leukemia Group (P. Blood. 2006;108:473-9 pubmed
    In this prospective randomized trial, we compared the efficacy and toxicity of cladribine (2-CdA) alone to 2-CdA combined with cyclophosphamide (CC) or cyclophosphamide and mitoxantrone (CMC) in untreated progressive chronic lymphocytic ..
  40. Tack G, Verbeek W, Al Toma A, Kuik D, Schreurs M, Visser O, et al. Evaluation of Cladribine treatment in refractory celiac disease type II. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:506-13 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate cladribine [2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA)] therapy in refractory celiac disease (RCD) II. An open-label cohort-study of RCD II patients treated with 2-CdA was performed between 2000 and 2010...
  41. Cook S, Vermersch P, Comi G, Giovannoni G, Rammohan K, Rieckmann P, et al. Safety and tolerability of cladribine tablets in multiple sclerosis: the CLARITY (CLAdRIbine Tablets treating multiple sclerosis orallY) study. Mult Scler. 2011;17:578-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Cladribine is a synthetic deoxyadenosine analogue in development as an oral multiple sclerosis (MS) therapy...
  42. Comi G, Cook S, Giovannoni G, Rammohan K, Rieckmann P, Sørensen P, et al. MRI outcomes with cladribine tablets for multiple sclerosis in the CLARITY study. J Neurol. 2013;260:1136-46 pubmed publisher
    ..clinical and MRI improvements in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) treated with cladribine tablets...
  43. Stelmasiak Z, Solski J, Nowicki J, Jakubowska B, Ryba M, Grieb P. Effect of parenteral cladribine on relapse rates in patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis: results of a 2-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Mult Scler. 2009;15:767-70 pubmed publisher
    This randomized, 2-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluated cladribine for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis...
  44. Else M, Dearden C, Matutes E, Garcia Talavera J, Rohatiner A, Johnson S, et al. Long-term follow-up of 233 patients with hairy cell leukaemia, treated initially with pentostatin or cladribine, at a median of 16 years from diagnosis. Br J Haematol. 2009;145:733-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We reviewed data retrospectively from 233 patients, treated with pentostatin (n = 188) or cladribine (n = 45), to investigate the current long-term outlook. Median follow-up was 16 years...
  45. Kopadze T, Döbert M, Leussink V, Dehmel T, Kieseier B. Cladribine impedes in vitro migration of mononuclear cells: a possible implication for treating multiple sclerosis. Eur J Neurol. 2009;16:409-12 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cladribine is an immunosuppressive drug currently investigated in a phase-III clinical trial for relapsing-remitting MS...
  46. Aichberger K, Sperr W, Gleixner K, Kretschmer A, Valent P. Treatment responses to cladribine and dasatinib in rapidly progressing aggressive mastocytosis. Eur J Clin Invest. 2008;38:869-73 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cladribine (2CdA) and dasatinib are two drugs that counteract the in vitro growth of neoplastic mast cells in SM...
  47. Van den Neste E, Robin V, Francart J, Hagemeijer A, Stul M, Vandenberghe P, et al. Chromosomal translocations independently predict treatment failure, treatment-free survival and overall survival in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients treated with cladribine. Leukemia. 2007;21:1715-22 pubmed
    ..IgV(H) mutational status was independently associated with risk of failure and TFS, but not OS. In B-CLL patients treated with CdA, translocations are strong predictors of outcome. ..
  48. King K, Damaraju V, Vickers M, Yao S, Lang T, Tackaberry T, et al. A comparison of the transportability, and its role in cytotoxicity, of clofarabine, cladribine, and fludarabine by recombinant human nucleoside transporters produced in three model expression systems. Mol Pharmacol. 2006;69:346-53 pubmed
    ..clofarabine), a purine nucleoside analog with structural similarity to 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine (Cl-dAdo, cladribine) and 9-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl-2-fluoroadenine (F-ara-A, fludarabine), has activity in adult and pediatric ..
  49. Robak T, Błoński J, Kasznicki M, Gora Tybor J, Dmoszynska A, Wojtaszko M, et al. Comparison of cladribine plus prednisone with chlorambucil plus prednisone in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Final report of the Polish Adult Leukemia Group (PALG CLL1). Med Sci Monit. 2005;11:PI71-9 pubmed
    We previously published an early report of a randomized, multicenter trial on the efficacy and toxicity of cladribine (2-CdA) + prednisone (P) compared with chlorambucil (Chl) + P in previously untreated patients with progressive or ..
  50. Juliusson G, Höglund M, Karlsson K, Löfgren C, Mollgard L, Paul C, et al. Increased remissions from one course for intermediate-dose cytosine arabinoside and idarubicin in elderly acute myeloid leukaemia when combined with cladribine. A randomized population-based phase II study. Br J Haematol. 2003;123:810-8 pubmed
    b>Cladribine has single-drug activity in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), and may enhance the formation of the active metabolite (ara-CTP) of cytosine arabinoside (ara-C)...
  51. Kluin Nelemans H, Oldhoff J, van Doormaal J, van t Wout J, Verhoef G, Gerrits W, et al. Cladribine therapy for systemic mastocytosis. Blood. 2003;102:4270-6 pubmed
    ..In the present absence of any curative therapy, a recent case report describing the efficacy of cladribine showed promising results. In a pilot study, the efficacy of cladribine (0.10-0...
  52. Ceruti S, Beltrami E, Matarrese P, Mazzola A, Cattabeni F, Malorni W, et al. A key role for caspase-2 and caspase-3 in the apoptosis induced by 2-chloro-2'-deoxy-adenosine (cladribine) and 2-chloro-adenosine in human astrocytoma cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2003;63:1437-47 pubmed
    Both the anticancer agent 2-chloro-2'-deoxy-adenosine (Cladribine) and its derivative 2-chloro-adenosine induce apoptosis of human astrocytoma cells (J Neurosci Res 60:388-400, 2000)...
  53. Montillo M, Tedeschi A, O Brien S, Di Raimondo F, Lerner S, Ferrajoli A, et al. Phase II study of cladribine and cyclophosphamide in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and prolymphocytic leukemia. Cancer. 2003;97:114-20 pubmed
    One of the mechanisms of action of cladribine is the inhibition of DNA repair of damage caused by radiation, alkylating agents, or other drugs...