purine nucleosides


Summary: Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.

Top Publications

  1. Riggins J, Daniels J, Rouzer C, Marnett L. Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of the hydrolytic ring-opening of the malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine adduct, 3-(2'-deoxy-beta-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)- pyrimido[1,2-alpha]purin-10(3H)-one. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:8237-43 pubmed
    ..A mechanism is proposed for ring-opening of M1dG under basic conditions and a role is proposed for duplex DNA in accelerating the rate of ring-opening of M1dG at neutral pH. ..
  2. Stafford J, Eoff R, Kozekova A, Rizzo C, Guengerich F, Marnett L. Translesion DNA synthesis by human DNA polymerase eta on templates containing a pyrimidopurinone deoxyguanosine adduct, 3-(2'-deoxy-beta-d-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido-[1,2-a]purin-10(3H)-one. Biochemistry. 2009;48:471-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Human DNA polymerase eta bypass may lead to M(1)dG to dT and frameshift but likely not M(1)dG to dA mutations during DNA replication. ..
  3. Tomaselli B, Nedden S, Podhraski V, Baier Bitterlich G. p42/44 MAPK is an essential effector for purine nucleoside-mediated neuroprotection of hypoxic PC12 cells and primary cerebellar granule neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008;38:559-68 pubmed publisher
    b>Purine nucleosides protect neurons against hypoxic insult, but the signaling mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated...
  4. Katafuchi A, Nakano T, Masaoka A, Terato H, Iwai S, Hanaoka F, et al. Differential specificity of human and Escherichia coli endonuclease III and VIII homologues for oxidative base lesions. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:14464-71 pubmed
    ..However, detailed analysis of the cellular activity suggests that hNEIL1 has a significant role in the repair of 5S-Tg in human cells. ..
  5. Knutson C, Skipper P, Liberman R, Tannenbaum S, Marnett L. Monitoring in vivo metabolism and elimination of the endogenous DNA adduct, M1dG {3-(2-deoxy-beta-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-alpha]purin-10(3H)-one}, by accelerator mass spectrometry. Chem Res Toxicol. 2008;21:1290-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, upon administration of trace amounts of M1dG, a significant percentage of 6-oxo-M1dG was produced, suggesting that 6-oxo-M1dG maybe a useful urinary marker of exposure to endogenous oxidative damage. ..
  6. Otteneder M, Knutson C, Daniels J, Hashim M, Crews B, Remmel R, et al. In vivo oxidative metabolism of a major peroxidation-derived DNA adduct, M1dG. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:6665-9 pubmed
    ..6-Oxo-M1dG may be a useful biomarker of endogenous DNA damage associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, and certain types of cancer chemotherapy. ..
  7. Knutson C, Wang H, Rizzo C, Marnett L. Metabolism and elimination of the endogenous DNA adduct, 3-(2-deoxy-beta-D-erythropentofuranosyl)-pyrimido[1,2-alpha]purine-10(3H)-one, in the rat. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:36257-64 pubmed
    ..Additionally, both M1dG and 6-oxo-M1dG exhibited a long residence time following administration (>48 h), and the major species observed in urine at late collections was 6-oxo-M1dG. ..
  8. Pack S, Nonogawa M, Kodaki T, Makino K. Chemical synthesis and thermodynamic characterization of oxanine-containing oligodeoxynucleotides. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:5771-80 pubmed
    ..The chemical synthesis procedure and thermodynamic characteristics of Oxa-ODNs established here will be helpful for elucidating the biological significance of Oxa in relation to genotoxic and repair mechanisms. ..
  9. Szekely J, Rizzo C, Marnett L. Chemical properties of oxopropenyl adducts of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides and their reactivity toward amino acid cross-link formation. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:2195-201 pubmed publisher
    ..The results define the acidity of oxopropenyl deoxynucleosides and highlight its importance to their reactivity toward nucleophiles. This study also identifies the structures of a potential novel class of DNA-protein cross-links. ..

More Information


  1. Nakano T, Katafuchi A, Shimizu R, Terato H, Suzuki T, Tauchi H, et al. Repair activity of base and nucleotide excision repair enzymes for guanine lesions induced by nitrosative stress. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:2181-91 pubmed
    ..Analyses of the activity of CFEs from NER-proficient and NER-deficient human cells on Oxa-Sp DNA confirmed further the involvement of NER in the repair of nitrosative DNA damage. ..
  2. Dudley E, Lemiere F, Van Dongen W, Tuytten R, El Sharkawi S, Brenton A, et al. Analysis of urinary nucleosides. IV. Identification of urinary purine nucleosides by liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2004;18:2730-8 pubmed
    ..with full scan mass spectrometry (MS), tandem mass spectrometry and MSn analysis in order to identify purine nucleosides purified from urine...
  3. Hitchcock T, Dong L, Connor E, Meira L, Samson L, Wyatt M, et al. Oxanine DNA glycosylase activity from Mammalian alkyladenine glycosylase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:38177-83 pubmed
    ..This study extends the deaminated base glycosylase activities of AAG to oxanine; thus, AAG is a mammalian enzyme that can act on all three purine deamination bases, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and oxanine. ..
  4. Böcklinger K, Tomaselli B, Heftberger V, Podhraski V, Bandtlow C, Baier Bitterlich G. Purine nucleosides support the neurite outgrowth of primary rat cerebellar granule cells after hypoxia. Eur J Cell Biol. 2004;83:51-4 pubmed
    ..4% loss of neurite formation of cerebellar granule cells, which was partially restored by the addition of purine nucleosides adenosine, inosine and guanosine. Inosine had the most striking effect of 37.7 +/- 2...
  5. Andjelkovic T, Pesic M, Bankovic J, Tanic N, Markovic I, Ruzdijic S. Synergistic effects of the purine analog sulfinosine and curcumin on the multidrug resistant human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line (NCI-H460/R). Cancer Biol Ther. 2008;7:1024-32 pubmed
    ..Our results show that sulfinosine and curcumin overcome MDR in non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line (NSCLC), especially in combination despite the presence of a mutated p53 gene. ..
  6. Pesic M, Andjelkovic T, Bankovic J, Markovic I, Rakic L, Ruzdijic S. Sulfinosine enhances doxorubicin efficacy through synergism and by reversing multidrug resistance in the human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line (NCI-H460/R). Invest New Drugs. 2009;27:99-110 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, SF significantly decreased intracellular glutathione (GSH) concentration. These results point to SF as a potential agent of MDR reversal and a valuable drug for improving chemotherapy of NSCLC. ..
  7. Szoleczky P, Módis K, Nagy N, Dóri Tóth Z, DEWITT D, Szabo C, et al. Identification of agents that reduce renal hypoxia-reoxygenation injury using cell-based screening: purine nucleosides are alternative energy sources in LLC-PK1 cells during hypoxia. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2012;517:53-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus purine nucleoside supplementation holds promise in the treatment of acute renal failure. ..
  8. Boussicault F, Kaloudis P, Caminal C, Mulazzani Q, Chatgilialoglu C. The fate of C5' radicals of purine nucleosides under oxidative conditions. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:8377-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Rate constants for the reactions of the 2'-deoxyadenosin-5'-yl with cysteine and glutathione in water were determined by pulse radiolysis to be (2.1 +/- 0.5) x 10(7) and (4.9 +/- 0.6) x 10(7) M(-1) s(-1) at 22 degrees C, respectively. ..
  9. Gao W, Li N, Zong M. Highly regioselective synthesis of undecylenic acid esters of purine nucleosides catalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B. Biotechnol Lett. 2011;33:2233-40 pubmed publisher
    Regioselective undecylenoylation of purine nucleosides as potential dual prodrugs was achieved by Candida antarctica lipase B using adenosine as a model reactant...
  10. Ipata P, Camici M, Micheli V, Tozz M. Metabolic network of nucleosides in the brain. Curr Top Med Chem. 2011;11:909-22 pubmed
  11. Weiner M, Read T, Hanna P. Identification and characterization of the gerH operon of Bacillus anthracis endospores: a differential role for purine nucleosides in germination. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:1462-4 pubmed
    ..Together, the two pathways allow B. anthracis endospores a broader recognition of purines and amino acids that may be important for host-mediated germination. ..
  12. Pack S, Doi A, Choi Y, Kim H, Makino K. Accurate guanine:cytosine discrimination in T4 DNA ligase-based single nucleotide polymorphism analysis using an oxanine-containing ligation fragment. Anal Biochem. 2010;398:257-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This ligation method using an oxanine-containing fragment has strong potentials for the accurate analysis of C/T SNPs. ..
  13. Li H, Wang S, Liu H, Bu S, Li J, Han D, et al. Separation and identification of purine nucleosides in the urine of patients with malignant cancer by reverse phase liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrom. 2009;44:641-51 pubmed publisher
    ..with full-scan mass spectrometry, MS/MS analysis and accurate mass measurements in order to identify purine nucleosides purified from urine...
  14. Press C, Milbrandt J. The purine nucleosides adenosine and guanosine delay axonal degeneration in vitro. J Neurochem. 2009;109:595-602 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that the purine nucleosides adenosine and guanosine, but not inosine, inhibit injury-induced axonal degeneration in cultured dorsal root ..
  15. Pesic M, Podolski A, Rakic L, Ruzdijic S. Purine analogs sensitize the multidrug resistant cell line (NCI-H460/R) to doxorubicin and stimulate the cell growth inhibitory effect of verapamil. Invest New Drugs. 2010;28:482-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This feature, together with their ability to reverse MDR, renders the purine analogs (in combination with VER) as potential candidates for improving the clinical activity of existing lung cancer therapeutics. ..
  16. Pack S, Doi A, Choi Y, Kodaki T, Makino K. Biomolecular response of oxanine in DNA strands to T4 polynucleotide kinase, T4 DNA ligase, and restriction enzymes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;391:118-22 pubmed publisher
  17. Hitchcock T, Gao H, Cao W. Cleavage of deoxyoxanosine-containing oligodeoxyribonucleotides by bacterial endonuclease V. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:4071-80 pubmed
    ..Hypothetic models of oxanine-containing base pairs and deaminated base recognition mechanism are presented. ..
  18. Zhou X, Taghizadeh K, Dedon P. Chemical and biological evidence for base propenals as the major source of the endogenous M1dG adduct in cellular DNA. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:25377-82 pubmed
    ..Parallel studies with gamma-radiation revealed levels of MDA similar to those produced by ONOO- but no detectable M1dG. These results are consistent with base propenals as the major source of M1dG in this model cell system. ..
  19. Nakano T, Asagoshi K, Terato H, Suzuki T, Ide H. Assessment of the genotoxic potential of nitric oxide-induced guanine lesions by in vitro reactions with Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I. Mutagenesis. 2005;20:209-16 pubmed
  20. Tomaselli B, Podhraski V, Heftberger V, Böck G, Baier Bitterlich G. Purine nucleoside-mediated protection of chemical hypoxia-induced neuronal injuries involves p42/44 MAPK activation. Neurochem Int. 2005;46:513-21 pubmed
    Hypoxia in brain may lead to cell death by apoptosis and necrosis. Concomitant is the formation of purine nucleosides, e.g. adenosine, a powerful endogenous neuroprotectant...
  21. zur Nedden S, Tomaselli B, Baier Bitterlich G. HIF-1 alpha is an essential effector for purine nucleoside-mediated neuroprotection against hypoxia in PC12 cells and primary cerebellar granule neurons. J Neurochem. 2008;105:1901-14 pubmed publisher
    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) and purine nucleosides adenosine and inosine are critical mediators of physiological responses to acute and chronic hypoxia...
  22. Nakano T, Terato H, Asagoshi K, Masaoka A, Mukuta M, Ohyama Y, et al. DNA-protein cross-link formation mediated by oxanine. A novel genotoxic mechanism of nitric oxide-induced DNA damage. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:25264-72 pubmed
  23. Kohgo S, Yamada K, Kitano K, Iwai Y, Sakata S, Ashida N, et al. Design, efficient synthesis, and anti-HIV activity of 4'-C-cyano- and 4'-C-ethynyl-2'-deoxy purine nucleosides. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2004;23:671-90 pubmed
    Some 4'-C-ethynyl-2'-deoxy purine nucleosides showed the most potent anti-HIV activity among the series of 4'-C-substituted 2'-deoxynucleosides whose 4'-C-substituents were methyl, ethyl, ethynyl and so on...
  24. Brumovská E, Sychrovsky V, Vokacova Z, Sponer J, Schneider B, Trantirek L. Effect of local sugar and base geometry on 13C and 15N magnetic shielding anisotropy in DNA nucleosides. J Biomol NMR. 2008;42:209-23 pubmed publisher
  25. Sun X, Nair J, Bartsch H. A modified immuno-enriched 32P-postlabeling method for analyzing the malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine adduct, 3-(2-deoxy-beta-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)- pyrimido[1,2-alpha]purin-10(3H)one in human tissue samples. Chem Res Toxicol. 2004;17:268-72 pubmed
    ..This ultrasensitive detection method is thus suitable for applications in human biomonitoring and molecular epidemiology studies. ..
  26. Kopka M, Lavelle L, Han G, NG H, Dickerson R. An unusual sugar conformation in the structure of an RNA/DNA decamer of the polypurine tract may affect recognition by RNase H. J Mol Biol. 2003;334:653-65 pubmed
    ..Disruption could cause the enzyme to pause at the 5'-end of the PPT, leaving it intact. Pyrimidine-purine (YR) steps are most deformable and the T-A step especially can undergo A-to-B transitions readily. ..
  27. Benowitz L, Jing Y, Tabibiazar R, Jo S, Petrausch B, Stuermer C, et al. Axon outgrowth is regulated by an intracellular purine-sensitive mechanism in retinal ganglion cells. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:29626-34 pubmed
    ..In support of this, the effects of the purine nucleosides were blocked with purine transport inhibitors and were inhibited competitively with the purine analog 6-..
  28. Jurkowitz M, Litsky M, Browning M, Hohl C. Adenosine, inosine, and guanosine protect glial cells during glucose deprivation and mitochondrial inhibition: correlation between protection and ATP preservation. J Neurochem. 1998;71:535-48 pubmed
  29. Ritzel M, Yao S, Ng A, Mackey J, Cass C, Young J. Molecular cloning, functional expression and chromosomal localization of a cDNA encoding a human Na+/nucleoside cotransporter (hCNT2) selective for purine nucleosides and uridine. Mol Membr Biol. 1998;15:203-11 pubmed
    ..selective for pyrimidine nucleosides but also transports adenosine; CNT2 (also termed SPNT) is selective for purine nucleosides but also transports uridine...
  30. Sauer U, Cameron D, Bailey J. Metabolic capacity of Bacillus subtilis for the production of purine nucleosides, riboflavin, and folic acid. Biotechnol Bioeng. 1998;59:227-38 pubmed
    ..subtilis on glucose were estimated to be 0.343, 0.160, and 0.161 (mol product/mol glucose) for purine nucleosides, riboflavin, and folic acid, respectively...
  31. Jacobson K, Ji X, Li A, Melman N, Siddiqui M, Shin K, et al. Methanocarba analogues of purine nucleosides as potent and selective adenosine receptor agonists. J Med Chem. 2000;43:2196-203 pubmed
    ..Partial agonism combined with high functional potency at A(3) receptors (EC(50) < 1 nM) may produce tissue selectivity. In conclusion, as for P2Y(1) receptors, at least three adenosine receptors favor the ribose (N)-conformation. ..
  32. Yoshimura Y, Kitano K, Yamada K, Sakata S, Miura S, Ashida N, et al. Synthesis and biological activities of 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-4'-thioarabinofuranosylpyrimidine and -purine nucleosides. Bioorg Med Chem. 2000;8:1545-58 pubmed
    ..2'-modified-4'-thionucleosides, we synthesized 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-4'-thioarabinofuranosylpyrimidine and -purine nucleosides, and evaluated their antiviral and antitumor activities...
  33. Di Iorio P, Kleywegt S, Ciccarelli R, Traversa U, Andrew C, Crocker C, et al. Mechanisms of apoptosis induced by purine nucleosides in astrocytes. Glia. 2002;38:179-90 pubmed
    ..Guanosine induces apoptosis by accumulating extracellular adenosine, which then acts solely via A(3) adenosine receptors. ..
  34. Terato H, Masaoka A, Asagoshi K, Honsho A, Ohyama Y, Suzuki T, et al. Novel repair activities of AlkA (3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II) and endonuclease VIII for xanthine and oxanine, guanine lesions induced by nitric oxide and nitrous acid. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:4975-84 pubmed
    ..AlkA and Endo VIII also exhibited excision activity for Oxa, but the activity was much lower than that for Xan...
  35. Hernandez S, Ford H, Marquez V. Is the anomeric effect an important factor in the rate of adenosine deaminase catalyzed hydrolysis of purine nucleosides? A direct comparison of nucleoside analogues constructed on ribose and carbocyclic templates with equivalent heterocyclic bases s. Bioorg Med Chem. 2002;10:2723-30 pubmed
    ..These results argue in favor of the critical role of the O(4') oxygen atom and its associated anomeric effect in assisting hydrolysis by ADA. ..
  36. Volpini R, Costanzi S, Lambertucci C, Vittori S, Cristalli G. Purine nucleosides bearing 1-alkynyl chains as adenosine receptor agonists. Curr Pharm Des. 2002;8:2285-98 pubmed
    ..These nucleosides behave as adenosine antagonists, since they do not stimulate basal [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding, but inhibit NECA-stimulated binding. ..
  37. Munzarová M, Sklenář V. Three-bond sugar-base couplings in purine versus pyrimidine nucleosides: a DFT study of Karplus relationships for (3)J(C2/4-H1') and (3)J(C6/8-H1') in DNA. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124:10666-7 pubmed
    ..the contrary, (3)J(C6/8-H1') follows the usual trans to cis ratio ((3)J(C-H(cis)) < (3)J(C-H(trans))) for purine nucleosides, but reveals the opposite relation ((3)J(C-H(cis)) > (3)J(C-H(trans))) for pyrimidine nucleosides...
  38. Shin C, Jang E, Choi J, Ryu J, Kim W, Kim H, et al. Adenosine and purine nucleosides protect rat primary astrocytes from peroxynitrite-potentiated, glucose deprivation-induced death: preservation of intracellular ATP level. Exp Neurol. 2002;176:175-82 pubmed
    ..The present results suggest that adenosine and their metabolites may protect astrocytes from peroxynitrite-potentiated, glucose deprivation-induced death by serving as substrates for intracellular ATP generation. ..
  39. Kita K, Shiota M, Tanaka M, Otsuka A, Matsumoto M, Kato M, et al. Heat shock protein 70 inhibitors suppress androgen receptor expression in LNCaP95 prostate cancer cells. Cancer Sci. 2017;108:1820-1827 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results suggest that Hsp70 inhibitors have potential anti-tumor activity against CRPC by decreasing AR-FL and AR-V7 expression through YB-1 suppression...
  40. Balakrishnan K, Ravandi F, Bantia S, Franklin A, Gandhi V. Preclinical and clinical evaluation of forodesine in pediatric and adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2013;13:458-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Our preclinical and clinical investigations suggest that forodesine has activity in B-ALL. However, it needs to be either infused with dGuo or combined with established chemotherapeutic agents based on mechanistic rationale. ..
  41. Chen Z, Zeng W, Cheng A, Luo Q, Li Z, Peng X, et al. Six-month repeated dose toxicity of orally administered metacavir in rhesus monkeys. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2011;63:379-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The main target organs of the toxic effects of metacavir are gastrointestinal tract, liver, blood, and kidneys. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) of metacavir for rhesus monkey were considered to be 50 mg/kg/day. ..
  42. Prichard M, Hartline C, Harden E, Daily S, Beadle J, Valiaeva N, et al. Inhibition of herpesvirus replication by hexadecyloxypropyl esters of purine- and pyrimidine-based phosphonomethoxyethyl nucleoside phosphonates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:4326-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The results presented here indicate that HDP-esterified acyclic nucleoside phosphonates with antiviral activity against HIV also inhibit the replication of some herpesviruses and can extend the spectrum of activity for these compounds. ..
  43. Sugimura H, Koizumi A, Kiyohara W. Synthetic studies on guanofosfocin: glycosylation of 8-oxo-purine nucleosides via Mitsunobu reaction. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2003;22:727-9 pubmed
    In model studies directed to the total synthesis of guanofosfocins, a unique glycosidic bond formation between the 8-oxo-purine nucleosides and mannopyranose derivatives under Mistunobu conditions is described.
  44. Wnuk S, Lewandowska E, Companioni D, Garcia P, Secrist J. Synthesis and cytotoxicity of 9-(2-deoxy-2-alkyldithio-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)purine nucleosides which are stable precursors to potential mechanistic probes of ribonucleotide reductases. Org Biomol Chem. 2004;2:120-6 pubmed
    ..Analogously, 2[prime or minute]-deoxy-2[prime or minute]-propyldithioadenosine was prepared from 9-([small beta]-d-arabinofuranosyl)adenine. The nucleoside disulfides show modest cytotoxicity in a panel of human tumor cell lines. ..
  45. Santos A, Llamas P, Gadea I, Román A, Subira D, Prieto E, et al. Aspergillus fumigatus: a rare cause of vertebral osteomyelitis. Haematologica. 2004;89:ECR10 pubmed
  46. Silhár P, Hocek M, Pohl R, Votruba I, Shih I, Mabery E, et al. Synthesis, cytostatic and anti-HCV activity of 6-(N-substituted aminomethyl)-, 6-(O-substituted hydroxymethyl)- and 6-(S-substituted sulfanylmethyl)purine nucleosides. Bioorg Med Chem. 2008;16:2329-66 pubmed
    ..diverse 6-(N-substituted aminomethyl)-, 6-(O-substituted hydroxymethyl)- and 6-(S-substituted sulfanylmethyl)purine nucleosides (55 examples of both ribo- and 2'-deoxyribonucleosides), aimed at identifying novel homologues of natural ..
  47. Chun B, Vadakkan J, Nair V. Ring-expanded analogues of natural oxetanocin: (+) and (-) hydroxymethyl isodideoxyadenosine. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2005;24:725-8 pubmed
    ..Stability studies with respect to purine nucleoside phosphorylase and adenosine deaminase show that these compounds are not substrates. Antiviral results are discussed. ..
  48. Cristalli G, Costanzi S, Lambertucci C, Taffi S, Vittori S, Volpini R. Purine and deazapurine nucleosides: synthetic approaches, molecular modelling and biological activity. Farmaco. 2003;58:193-204 pubmed
  49. Zhang P, Zhang L, Jiang Z, Xiong Y, Chen H, Tao Y, et al. Evaluation of mitochondrial toxicity in Marmota himalayana treated with metacavir, a novel 2',3'-dideoxyguanosine prodrug for treatment of hepatitis B Virus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:1930-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, long-term hepatotoxic effects of PNA were observed, and this indicates a need for continued monitoring of PNA-associated hepatotoxicity in clinical trials. ..
  50. Bharara S, Sorscher E, Gillespie G, Lindsey J, Hong J, Curlee K, et al. Antibiotic-mediated chemoprotection enhances adaptation of E. coli PNP for herpes simplex virus-based glioma therapy. Hum Gene Ther. 2005;16:339-47 pubmed
    ..Bystander killing of the magnitude described here has been difficult to accomplish with other suicide genes, such as HSV-tk or cytosine deaminase. The results establish a model for applying E. coli PNP to HSV treatment of glioma. ..
  51. Dal Ben D, Buccioni M, Lambertucci C, Marucci G, Volpini R, Cristalli G. The importance of alkynyl chain presence for the activity of adenine nucleosides/nucleotides on purinergic receptors. Curr Med Chem. 2011;18:1444-63 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the contribution of chemistry, molecular modelling, and pharmacology to the development of structure-activity relationships in this class of purinergic receptor ligands will be outlined. ..
  52. Robak T, Korycka A, Kasznicki M, Wrzesien Kus A, Smolewski P. Purine nucleoside analogues for the treatment of hematological malignancies: pharmacology and clinical applications. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2005;5:421-44 pubmed
    ..Three other compounds: clofarabine, nelarabine and immucillin-H are currently being evaluated clinically. ..
  53. Narayanasamy J, Pullagurla M, Sharon A, Wang J, Schinazi R, Chu C. Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of (-)-beta-D-(2R,4R)-1,3-dioxolane-2,6-diamino purine (DAPD) (amdoxovir) and (-)-beta-D-(2R,4R)-1,3-dioxolane guanosine (DXG) prodrugs. Antiviral Res. 2007;75:198-209 pubmed
    ..5'-L-Valyl DAPD 20 and organic acid salts 21-24 also exhibited enhanced anti-HIV activity in comparison to DAPD, while DXG prodrugs 16 and 17 exhibited lower potency than that of DXG or DAPD. ..