stavudine

Summary

Summary: A dideoxynucleoside analog that inhibits reverse transcriptase and has in vitro activity against HIV.

Top Publications

  1. Forna F, Liechty C, Solberg P, Asiimwe F, Were W, Mermin J, et al. Clinical toxicity of highly active antiretroviral therapy in a home-based AIDS care program in rural Uganda. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007;44:456-62 pubmed
    ..ART (stavudine plus lamivudine with nevirapine [96%] or efavirenz [4%]) was prescribed for 1029 adults, contributing 11,268 ..
  2. Mateo M, Gutierrez M, Vidal F, Domingo P. Stavudine extended release (once-daily, Bristol-Myers Squibb) for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013;14:1055-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Stavudine extended release (d4T XR) was a formulation which tried to solve the two main problems associated with the use of stavudine immediate release (d4T IR)...
  3. Maskew M, Westreich D, Fox M, Maotoe T, Sanne I. Effectiveness and safety of 30 mg versus 40 mg stavudine regimens: a cohort study among HIV-infected adults initiating HAART in South Africa. J Int AIDS Soc. 2012;15:13 pubmed publisher
    As stavudine remains an important and widely prescribed drug in resource-limited settings, the effect of a reduced dose of stavudine (from 40 mg to 30 mg) on outcomes of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) remains an important ..
  4. Phan V, Thai S, Choun K, Lynen L, van Griensven J. Incidence of treatment-limiting toxicity with stavudine-based antiretroviral therapy in Cambodia: a retrospective cohort study. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30647 pubmed publisher
    Although stavudine (D4T) remains frequently used in low-income countries in Asia, associated long-term toxicity data are scarce...
  5. Gupta R, Ford D, Mulenga V, Walker A, Kabamba D, Kalumbi M, et al. Drug resistance in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infected Zambian children using adult fixed dose combination stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:e57-62 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the rate of TAM accumulation in those with rebound was higher than reported in Western adult cohorts, and there was some indication of a detrimental effect of high level resistance on CD4% change from baseline. ..
  6. Kumarasamy N, Venkatesh K, Devaleenol B, Saghayam S, Manohar D, Poongulali S, et al. Safe substitution to zidovudine among HIV-infected patients initiated on stavudine-containing highly active antiretroviral therapy from a resource-limited setting. Int J Infect Dis. 2009;13:e360-4 pubmed publisher
    ..the safe substitution with zidovudine (AZT) among South Indian HIV-infected patients who were initiated with stavudine (d4T)-containing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) due to anemia...
  7. Nelson M, Azwa A, Sokwala A, Harania R, Stebbing J. Fanconi syndrome and lactic acidosis associated with stavudine and lamivudine therapy. AIDS. 2008;22:1374-6 pubmed publisher
    We report a case of the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, stavudine and lamivudine inducing Fanconi syndrome in a patient...
  8. McComsey G, Lo Re V, O RIORDAN M, Walker U, Lebrecht D, Baron E, et al. Effect of reducing the dose of stavudine on body composition, bone density, and markers of mitochondrial toxicity in HIV-infected subjects: a randomized, controlled study. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:1290-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Stavudine is widely used in developing countries...
  9. Yang G, Wang J, Cheng Y, Dutschman G, Tanaka H, Baba M, et al. Mechanism of inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase by a stavudine analogue, 4'-ethynyl stavudine triphosphate. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:2035-42 pubmed publisher
    ..against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and less cytotoxicity than does its parental compound d4T (stavudine)...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Aurpibul L, Puthanakit T, Lee B, Mangklabruks A, Sirisanthana T, Sirisanthana V. Lipodystrophy and metabolic changes in HIV-infected children on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy. Antivir Ther. 2007;12:1247-54 pubmed
    ..Ninety children who began HAART (either nevirapine or efavirenz, together with lamivudine and stavudine) were prospectively followed. LD was assessed by waist-to-hip ratio and LD checklist...
  2. Marcelin A, Jarrousse B, Derache A, Ba M, Dakouo M, Doumbia A, et al. HIV drug resistance after the use of generic fixed-dose combination stavudine/lamivudine/nevirapine as standard first-line regimen. AIDS. 2007;21:2341-3 pubmed
    Early failures to stavudine/lamivudine/nevirapine used as a generic fixed-dose combination in Mali showed resistance mutations in 50% of cases (mostly M184V and Y181C)...
  3. Viengchareun S, Caron M, Auclair M, Kim M, Frachon P, Capeau J, et al. Mitochondrial toxicity of indinavir, stavudine and zidovudine involves multiple cellular targets in white and brown adipocytes. Antivir Ther. 2007;12:919-29 pubmed
    ..3T3-F442A white and T37i brown adipocytes were exposed to stavudine (10 microM), zidovudine (1 microM) and indinavir (10 microM), alone or in combination...
  4. Viganò A, Brambilla P, Cafarelli L, Giacomet V, Borgonovo S, Zamproni I, et al. Normalization of fat accrual in lipoatrophic, HIV-infected children switched from stavudine to tenofovir and from protease inhibitor to efavirenz. Antivir Ther. 2007;12:297-302 pubmed
    An antiretroviral regimen based on lamivudine+stavudine+protease inhibitor impairs peripheral fat accrual in HIV-infected children and adolescents...
  5. Currier J. Sex differences in antiretroviral therapy toxicity: lactic acidosis, stavudine, and women. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:261-2 pubmed
  6. Zhou J, Paton N, Ditangco R, Chen Y, Kamarulzaman A, Kumarasamy N, et al. Experience with the use of a first-line regimen of stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine in patients in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database. HIV Med. 2007;8:8-16 pubmed
    The antiretroviral treatment (ART) combination of stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine (d4T/3TC/NVP) is the most frequently used initial regimen in many Asian countries...
  7. Sacktor N, Nakasujja N, Skolasky R, Robertson K, Musisi S, Ronald A, et al. Benefits and risks of stavudine therapy for HIV-associated neurologic complications in Uganda. Neurology. 2009;72:165-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Coformulated generic drugs, which include stavudine, are the most common regimens to treat HIV infection in Uganda and many other parts of Africa...
  8. Hamers R, Wensing A, Back N, Arcilla M, Frissen J. Multi-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistant HIV type-1 in a patient from Sierra Leone failing stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine. Antivir Ther. 2011;16:115-8 pubmed publisher
    ..multi-NRTI-resistance Q151M complex, K65R, M184I and Y181I, after using standard first-line generic fixed-dose stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine (Triomune™) for 36 months...
  9. Shegokar R, Singh K, Muller R. Production & stability of stavudine solid lipid nanoparticles--from lab to industrial scale. Int J Pharm. 2011;416:461-70 pubmed publisher
    The production of stavudine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) for intravenous injection was scaled up from lab scale (40 g) to medium scale (10 kg) and large scale (20/60 kg)...
  10. Einsiedel L, Cherry C, Sheeran F, Friedhuber A, Wesselingh S, Pepe S. Mitochondrial dysfunction in CD4+ lymphocytes from stavudine-treated HIV patients. Mitochondrion. 2010;10:534-9 pubmed publisher
    HIV therapy with nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) such as stavudine remains in widespread use in resource-limited nations due to potent efficacy, convenience of formulation and lack of practical alternatives...
  11. Kiertiburanakul S, Khongnorasat S, Rattanasiri S, Sungkanuparph S. Efficacy of a generic fixed-dose combination of stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine (GPO-VIR) in Thai HIV-infected patients. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007;90:237-43 pubmed
    GPO-VIR, fixed-dose combination of stavudine 30/40 mg, lamivudine 150 mg, and nevirapine 200 mg are widely used in Thailand. Determine the efficacy and tolerability of GPO-VIR in naive HIV-infected patients...
  12. van Oosterhout J, Kumwenda J, Beadsworth M, Mateyu G, Longwe T, Burger D, et al. Nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy started early in the course of tuberculosis treatment in adult Malawians. Antivir Ther. 2007;12:515-21 pubmed
    ..followed 27 HIV-infected adult Malawians after starting Triomune (a generic fixed drug combination of stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine) in the second week of tuberculosis treatment...
  13. Hemanth Kumar A, Ramachandran G, Rajasekaran S, Padmapriyadarsini C, Narendran G, Anitha S, et al. Pharmacokinetics of lamivudine & stavudine in generic fixed-dose combinations in HIV-1 infected adults in India. Indian J Med Res. 2009;130:451-7 pubmed
    ..of immunological status, sex and body mass index on the steady state pharmacokinetics of lamivudine (3TC) and stavudine (d4T) in HIV-infected adults, who were undergoing treatment with generic fixed dose combinations (FDC) of these ..
  14. Geng E, Hunt P, Diero L, Kimaiyo S, Somi G, Okong P, et al. Trends in the clinical characteristics of HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania between 2002 and 2009. J Int AIDS Soc. 2011;14:46 pubmed publisher
    ..cell count level of less than 50 cells/mm3 or a WHO Stage 4 condition) at the time of ART initiation and use of stavudine (D4T) or nevirapine (NVP) were identified using a log-link Poisson model with robust standard errors...
  15. N Da D, Breytenbach J, Legoabe L, Breytenbach J. Synthesis and in vitro transdermal penetration of methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) carbonate derivatives of stavudine. Med Chem. 2009;5:497-506 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to synthesize derivatives of the anti-HIV drug stavudine (d4T) with more favourable physicochemical properties for transdermal delivery in an effort to increase transdermal penetration of stavudine and ..
  16. Desakorn V, Karmacharya B, Thanachartwet V, Kyaw N, Tansuphaswadikul S, Sahassananda D, et al. Effectiveness of fixed-dose combination stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine (GPO-VIR) for treatment of naïve HIV patients in Thailand: a 3-year follow-up. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2011;42:1414-22 pubmed
    Generic fixed dose combination stavudine (d4T), lamivudine (3TC) and nevirapine (NVP), named GPO-VIR is recommended in the HIV treatment guidelines for Thailand...
  17. Manosuthi W, Kiertiburanakul S, Chaovavanich A, Sungkanuparph S. Plasma nevirapine levels and 24-week efficacy of a fixed-dose combination of stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine (GPO-VIR) among Thai HIV-infected patients. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007;90:244-50 pubmed
    A fixed-dose combination of stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine (GPO-VIR) is the most affordable antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen in Thailand...
  18. McComsey G, Rightmire A, Wirtz V, Yang R, Mathew M, McGrath D. Changes in body composition with ritonavir-boosted and unboosted atazanavir treatment in combination with Lamivudine and Stavudine: a 96-week randomized, controlled study. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:1323-6 pubmed publisher
    ..virus type 1 who were treated with either atazanavir or ritonavir-boosted atazanavir, in combination with stavudine and lamivudine...
  19. Laurent C, Kouanfack C, Koulla Shiro S, Njoume M, Nkene Y, Ciaffi L, et al. Long-term safety, effectiveness and quality of a generic fixed-dose combination of nevirapine, stavudine and lamivudine. AIDS. 2007;21:768-71 pubmed
    We assessed the long-term safety, effectiveness and quality of a fixed-dose combination of nevirapine, stavudine and lamivudine (triomune)...
  20. Kampira E, Kumwenda J, van Oosterhout J, Dandara C. Mitochondrial subhaplogroups and differential risk of stavudine-induced lipodystrophy in Malawian HIV/AIDS patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2013;14:1999-2004 pubmed publisher
    ..in HIV/AIDS patients, especially those on regimens containing either protease inhibitors or thymidine analogs (stavudine or zidovudine). Many of the manifestations of lipodystrophy have been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction...
  21. Setzer B, Lebrecht D, Walker U. Pyrimidine nucleoside depletion sensitizes to the mitochondrial hepatotoxicity of the reverse transcriptase inhibitor stavudine. Am J Pathol. 2008;172:681-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Stavudine is a hepatotoxic antiretroviral nucleoside analogue that also inhibits the replication of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)...
  22. Pahuja M, Grobler A, Glesby M, Karim F, Parker G, Gumede S, et al. Effects of a reduced dose of stavudine on the incidence and severity of peripheral neuropathy in HIV-infected adults in South Africa. Antivir Ther. 2012;17:737-43 pubmed publisher
    Although recent World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend withdrawing stavudine (d4T) from first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART), it remains commonly used in resource-limited settings...
  23. Kikaire B, Khoo S, Walker A, Ssali F, Munderi P, Namale L, et al. Nevirapine clearance from plasma in African adults stopping therapy: a pharmacokinetic substudy. AIDS. 2007;21:733-7 pubmed
    ..All patients continued lamivudine plus zidovudine/stavudine for a further 7 days. Two patients with no or low plasma nevirapine concentration at baseline were excluded...
  24. Huang W, Calvo M, Karu K, Olausen H, Bathgate G, Okuse K, et al. A clinically relevant rodent model of the HIV antiretroviral drug stavudine induced painful peripheral neuropathy. Pain. 2013;154:560-75 pubmed publisher
    ..and is consistently associated with previous exposure to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors including stavudine (d4T), which is widely used in resource-limited settings...
  25. Hill A, Ruxrungtham K, Hanvanich M, Katlama C, Wolf E, Soriano V, et al. Systematic review of clinical trials evaluating low doses of stavudine as part of antiretroviral treatment. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2007;8:679-88 pubmed
    b>Stavudine is a nucleoside analogue used for the treatment of HIV-1 infection, as part of highly active antiretroviral treatment...
  26. Fogel J, Taha T, Sun J, Hoover D, Parsons T, Kumwenda J, et al. Stavudine concentrations in women receiving postpartum antiretroviral treatment and their breastfeeding infants. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012;60:462-5 pubmed
    ..antiretroviral treatment regimens in resource-limited settings used in breastfeeding mothers often include stavudine (d4T). Limited data describing d4T concentrations in breast milk are available...
  27. Claas G, Julg B, Goebel F, Bogner J. Metabolic and anthropometric changes one year after switching from didanosine/stavudine to tenofovir in HIV-infected patients. Eur J Med Res. 2007;12:54-60 pubmed
    Nucleoside analogues such as Didanosine and Stavudine are known to cause metabolic and body habitus changes during antiretroviral therapy...
  28. Moyle G, Sabin C, Cartledge J, Johnson M, Wilkins E, Churchill D, et al. A randomized comparative trial of tenofovir DF or abacavir as replacement for a thymidine analogue in persons with lipoatrophy. AIDS. 2006;20:2043-50 pubmed
    ..Peripheral fat loss, lipoatrophy, appears most associated with prolonged therapy with thymidine nucleoside analogues...
  29. Mateo M, Gutierrez M, Vidal F, Domingo P. Drug safety evaluation profile of stavudine plus lamivudine for HIV-1/AIDS infection. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2012;11:473-85 pubmed publisher
    The lamivudine (3TC) + stavudine (d4T) combination is still widely used as part of first-line therapy for HIV-1-infected patients in low-resource countries...
  30. Phe T, Thai S, Veng C, Sok S, Lynen L, van Griensven J. Risk factors of treatment-limiting anemia after substitution of zidovudine for stavudine in HIV-infected adult patients on antiretroviral treatment. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60206 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed the risk factors associated with AZT-induced anemia in a cohort using AZT as substitution for stavudine (D4T)...
  31. Tang M, Rhee S, Bertagnolio S, Ford N, Holmes S, Sigaloff K, et al. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations associated with first-line stavudine-containing antiretroviral therapy: programmatic implications for countries phasing out stavudine. J Infect Dis. 2013;207 Suppl 2:S70-7 pubmed publisher
    The World Health Organization Antiretroviral Treatment Guidelines recommend phasing-out stavudine because of its risk of long-term toxicity...
  32. Velen K, Lewis J, Charalambous S, Grant A, Churchyard G, Hoffmann C. Comparison of tenofovir, zidovudine, or stavudine as part of first-line antiretroviral therapy in a resource-limited-setting: a cohort study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64459 pubmed publisher
    ..single drug substitution, HIV RNA suppression, CD4 count increase, loss-from-care, and mortality between TDF, stavudine (d4T) 30 mg dose, and zidovudine (AZT)...
  33. Menezes C, Maskew M, Sanne I, Crowther N, Raal F. A longitudinal study of stavudine-associated toxicities in a large cohort of South African HIV infected subjects. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:244 pubmed publisher
    ..This has brought new challenges which include the effects of stavudine-related toxicities...
  34. Kim H, Scott J, Cent A, Cook L, Morrow R, Richardson B, et al. HBV lamivudine resistance among hepatitis B and HIV coinfected patients starting lamivudine, stavudine and nevirapine in Kenya. J Viral Hepat. 2011;18:e447-52 pubmed publisher
    ..389 Kenyan HIV-infected adults before and for 18 months after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy with stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine. Twenty-seven (6...
  35. Wangsomboonsiri W, Mahasirimongkol S, Chantarangsu S, Kiertiburanakul S, Charoenyingwattana A, Komindr S, et al. Association between HLA-B*4001 and lipodystrophy among HIV-infected patients from Thailand who received a stavudine-containing antiretroviral regimen. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:597-604 pubmed publisher
    b>Stavudine-containing antiretroviral regimens are widely used in developing countries...
  36. Franchi L, Pentiado N, Silva R, Guimarães N, Jesuíno R, de Andrade H, et al. Mutagenic and recombinagenic effects of lamivudine and stavudine antiretrovirals in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:578-82 pubmed publisher
    Lamivudine (3TC) and stavudine (d4T) are nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors employed in antiretroviral therapies...
  37. Pensi T. Fixed dose combination of lamivudine, stavudine and nevirapine in the treatment of pediatric HIV infection: a preliminary report. Indian Pediatr. 2007;44:519-21 pubmed
    To assess efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combination (FDC) of lamivudine, stavudine and nevirapine in the treatment of pediatric HIV- infection, it was administered in the form of oral suspension (Group-A) or dispersible tablet (Group-..
  38. Pedrol E, Martín T, del Pozo M, Flores J, Sanz J, Carton J, et al. [Efficacy and safety of a reduced-dose of stavudine in HIV-infected patients under immunological and virological stable conditions]. Med Clin (Barc). 2007;129:361-5 pubmed
    b>Stavudine (d4T) has shown a favourable short and long-term tolerability profile. Nevertheless, its usage is currently decreasing due to some safety concerns. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of d4T low-dose-based regimens...
  39. Smith C, Olsen C, Mocroft A, Viard J, Staszewski S, Panos G, et al. The role of antiretroviral therapy in the incidence of pancreatitis in HIV-positive individuals in the EuroSIDA study. AIDS. 2008;22:47-56 pubmed
    ..investigated the incidence of pancreatitis and its association with antiretroviral therapy (ART), focussing on stavudine and didanosine. EuroSIDA has collected information on pancreatitis since Summer 2001...
  40. Ellis J, L homme R, Ewings F, Mulenga V, Bell F, Chileshe R, et al. Nevirapine concentrations in HIV-infected children treated with divided fixed-dose combination antiretroviral tablets in Malawi and Zambia. Antivir Ther. 2007;12:253-60 pubmed
    To investigate nevirapine concentrations in African HIV-infected children receiving divided Triomune tablets (stavudine+lamivudine+nevirapine). Cross-sectional study...
  41. Saillan Barreau C, Tabbakh O, Chavoin J, Casteilla L, Penicaud L. Drug-specific effect of nelfinavir and stavudine on primary culture of human preadipocytes. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008;48:20-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Only stavudine and nelfinavir, both at 10 microM, altered human adipose cell differentiation, as shown by reduced triglyceride ..
  42. Boyle B, Jayaweera D, Witt M, Grimm K, Maa J, Seekins D. Randomization to once-daily stavudine extended release/lamivudine/efavirenz versus a more frequent regimen improves adherence while maintaining viral suppression. HIV Clin Trials. 2008;9:164-76 pubmed publisher
    ..or more frequent ARV regimen were either switched to a once-daily regimen of efavirenz, extended-release stavudine, and lamivudine (QD arm) or continued on existing therapy (BID+ arm)...
  43. Isaakidis P, Raguenaud M, Phe T, Khim S, Kuoch S, Khem S, et al. Evaluation of a systematic substitution of zidovudine for stavudine-based HAART in a program setting in rural Cambodia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008;49:48-54 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate a treatment strategy of substituting zidovudine (ZDV) for stavudine (d4T)-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), aimed at preventing d4T-associated toxicity, in a programmatic setting in rural Cambodia...
  44. Zhang M, Huang Q, Huang Y, Wood O, Yuan W, Chancey C, et al. beta-Estradiol attenuates the anti-HIV-1 efficacy of Stavudine (D4T) in primary PBL. Retrovirology. 2008;5:82 pubmed publisher
    ..hormone beta-estradiol affects the replication of HIV-1 or the efficacy of a common anti-retroviral drug, Stavudine (D4T)...
  45. Hurwitz S, Schinazi R. In silico study supports the efficacy of a reduced dose regimen for stavudine. Antiviral Res. 2011;92:372-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Stavudine (d4T) is used extensively as part of HAART in resource poor settings, despite its toxicities...
  46. Dorsey S, Leitch C, Renn C, Lessans S, Smith B, Wang X, et al. Genome-wide screen identifies drug-induced regulation of the gene giant axonal neuropathy (Gan) in a mouse model of antiretroviral-induced painful peripheral neuropathy. Biol Res Nurs. 2009;11:7-16 pubmed publisher
  47. Cherry C, Affandi J, Imran D, Yunihastuti E, Smyth K, Vanar S, et al. Age and height predict neuropathy risk in patients with HIV prescribed stavudine. Neurology. 2009;73:315-20 pubmed publisher
    Sensory neuropathy is a common problem in HIV-infected patients and is the dose-limiting toxicity of stavudine. Affordable methods of predicting neuropathy risk are needed to guide prescribing in countries where some use of stavudine ..
  48. van Griensven J, Zachariah R, Rasschaert F, Mugabo J, Atté E, Reid T. Stavudine- and nevirapine-related drug toxicity while on generic fixed-dose antiretroviral treatment: incidence, timing and risk factors in a three-year cohort in Kigali, Rwanda. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2010;104:148-53 pubmed publisher
    This cohort study was conducted to report on the incidence, timing and risk factors for stavudine (d4T)- and nevirapine (NVP)-related severe drug toxicity (requiring substitution) with a generic fixed-dose combination under program ..
  49. Castelnuovo B, Kiragga A, Kamya M, MANABE Y. Stavudine toxicity in women is the main reason for treatment change in a 3-year prospective cohort of adult patients started on first-line antiretroviral treatment in Uganda. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011;56:59-63 pubmed publisher
    ..4 (5.0-5.8). 413 (74%) patients were started on stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine, and 146 (36%) on zidovudine, lamivudine and efavirenz. One hundred Forty-eight (26...
  50. Ribera E, Paradiñeiro J, Curran A, Sauleda S, Garcia Arumi E, Castella E, et al. Improvements in subcutaneous fat, lipid profile, and parameters of mitochondrial toxicity in patients with peripheral lipoatrophy when stavudine is switched to tenofovir (LIPOTEST study). HIV Clin Trials. 2008;9:407-17 pubmed publisher
    Lipoatrophy is the most stigmatizing side effect of stavudine therapy. We assessed the long-term effects of replacing stavudine with tenofovir in HIV-infected patients with lipoatrophy. Prospective switch study...
  51. Wallis C, Papathanasopolous M, Fox M, Conradie F, Ive P, Orrell C, et al. Low rates of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance in a well-monitored cohort in South Africa on antiretroviral therapy. Antivir Ther. 2012;17:313-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Regimens prescribed were in line with the South African roll-out programme (stavudine, lamivudine, efavirenz or nevirapine)...
  52. Rajesh R, Vidyasagar S, Varma D, Mohiuddin S, Noorunnisa -. Evaluation of incidence of zidovudine induced anemia in Indian human immunodeficiency virus positive patients in comparison with stavudine based highly active antiretroviral therapy. Int J Risk Saf Med. 2011;23:171-80 pubmed publisher
    ..and to identify risk factors for zidovudine induced anemia in Indian HIV positive patients in comparision with stavudine based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  53. Shewiyo D, Kaale E, Ugullum C, Sigonda M, Risha P, Dejaegher B, et al. Development and validation of a normal-phase HPTLC method for the simultaneous analysis of lamivudine, stavudine and nevirapine in fixed-dose combination tablets. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2011;54:445-50 pubmed publisher
    ..presents the development and validation of an improved method for the simultaneous analysis of lamivudine (LVD), stavudine (STV) and nevirapine (NVP) using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with densitometric detection...