Summary: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is an inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal side effect is nephrotoxicity. In vivo, dideoxyadenosine is rapidly metabolized to DIDANOSINE (ddI) by enzymatic deamination; ddI is then converted to dideoxyinosine monophosphate and ultimately to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, the putative active metabolite.

Top Publications

  1. Chen C, Kuhn P, Chaturvedi K, Boyadjieva N, Sarkar D. Ethanol induces apoptotic death of developing beta-endorphin neurons via suppression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate production and activation of transforming growth factor-beta1-linked apoptotic signaling. Mol Pharmacol. 2006;69:706-17 pubmed
    ..The AC inhibitor dideoxyadenosine (DDA) increased cell apoptosis and reduced the number of beta-EP neurons, and it potentiated the apoptotic ..
  2. Sugiura H, Liu X, Togo S, Kobayashi T, Shen L, Kawasaki S, et al. Prostaglandin E(2) protects human lung fibroblasts from cigarette smoke extract-induced apoptosis via EP(2) receptor activation. J Cell Physiol. 2007;210:99-110 pubmed
    ..Through such a mechanism, PGE(2) may alter survival of cells in the smoke-exposed lungs, thus affecting the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke-induced disease. ..
  3. Fujimori H, Pan Hou H. Enhancement of cellular adenosine triphosphate levels in PC12 cells by 2,5-dideoxyadenosine, a P-site inhibitor of adenylate cyclase. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005;28:358-60 pubmed
    To elucidate the biological significance of the P-site inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, the effect of 2,5-dideoxyadenosine (DDA) on cellular levels of adenine compounds in PC12 cells was studied...
  4. Hong J, Oh C. Synthesis and in-vitro activity of 4'-modified analogues of ddA as potent anti-HIV agents. Arch Pharm (Weinheim). 2009;342:600-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The antiviral activities of the synthesized compounds against the HIV-1, HSV-1, HSV-2, and HCMV viruses were evaluated. The 9-deaza-adenine derivatives 10 and 20 showed good anti-HIV activity without exhibiting significant cytotoxicity. ..
  5. Grossini E, Molinari C, Mary D, Uberti F, Ribichini F, Caimmi P, et al. Urocortin II induces nitric oxide production through cAMP and Ca2+ related pathways in endothelial cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2009;23:87-96 pubmed publisher
    ..were examined in absence or presence of the adenylyl cyclase agonist forskolin and antagonist 2'5' dideoxyadenosine, the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, the Ca2+-calmodulin-kinase inhibitor KN93, the CRFR2 blocker astressin 2B and of ..
  6. Chang S, Griesgraber G, Wagner C. Comparison of the antiviral activity of hydrophobic amino acid phosphoramidate monoesters of 2'3'-dideoxyadenosine (DDA) and 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT). Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2001;20:1571-82 pubmed
    A series of hydrophobic, water soluble and non-toxic amino acid phosphoramidate monoesters of dideoxyadenosine (ddA) and 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine were shown to inhibit the replication of HIV-1 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells ..
  7. Haertle T, Carrera C, Wasson D, Sowers L, Richman D, Carson D. Metabolism and anti-human immunodeficiency virus-1 activity of 2-halo-2',3'-dideoxyadenosine derivatives. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:5870-5 pubmed
    Both 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine and 2',3'-dideoxyinosine have been shown (Mitsuya, H., and Broder, S. (1987) Nature 325, 773-778) to have in vitro activity against the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV)...
  8. Balzarini J, Naesens L, Robins M, De Clercq E. Potentiating effect of ribavirin on the in vitro and in vivo antiretrovirus activities of 2',3'-dideoxyinosine and 2',3'-dideoxy-2,6-diaminopurine riboside. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1990;3:1140-7 pubmed
    ..These observations point to the potential role of ribavirin in potentiating the anti-HIV activity of DDI in AIDS patients...
  9. Salvatori D, Volpini R, Vincenzetti S, Vita A, Costanzi S, Lambertucci C, et al. Adenine and deazaadenine nucleoside and deoxynucleoside analogues: inhibition of viral replication of sheep MVV (in vitro model for HIV) and bovine BHV-1. Bioorg Med Chem. 2002;10:2973-80 pubmed
    A series of N(6)-cycloalkyl-2',3'-dideoxyadenosine derivatives has been prepared by coupling of 2,6-dichloropurine to protected 2,3-dideoxyribose, followed by reaction with appropriate cycloalkylamines...

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  1. Wang H, Wang Y, Qu Y, Qi R, Lu D, Li C, et al. The cAMP-mediated protein kinase signal transduction pathway is involved in the pyrogenic effect of CRH in rats. Chin Med J (Engl). 2001;114:1064-7 pubmed
    ..Corticotropin releasing hormone, 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine (DDA) and adenosine-3',5'-(cyclic) monophosphorothionate, Rp-Isomer (Rp-cAMPS), were administered ..
  2. Aboul Enein H, Abu Zaid S. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of 9-(2',3'-dideoxy-2'beta-fluoro-D-threo-penta furanosyl) adenine and its metabolite in human plasma using solid-phase extraction on a polyfluorinated reversed stationary phase. Biomed Chromatogr. 2001;15:267-70 pubmed
    ..F-ddA and F-ddI were monitored by UV-visible detector at 258 and 247 nm, respectively. The recoveries of F-ddA and F-ddI from plasma using a C(18) solid-phase extraction cartridge were 99.2% and 99.7%, respectively. ..
  3. Lim G, Wang S, Mao J. cAMP and protein kinase A contribute to the downregulation of spinal glutamate transporters after chronic morphine. Neurosci Lett. 2005;376:9-13 pubmed
    ..morphine (10 microg, twice daily) treatment regimen was prevented by co-administration of morphine with 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (ddA, 1 microg, a broad adenylyl cyclase inhibitor) or H89 (10 microg, a selective protein kinase A inhibitor)..
  4. Ivanov A, Gerzanich V, Ivanova S, Denhaese R, Tsymbalyuk O, Simard J. Adenylate cyclase 5 and KCa1.1 channel are required for EGFR up-regulation of PCNA in native contractile rat basilar artery smooth muscle. J Physiol. 2006;570:73-84 pubmed
    ..protein kinase (cAK) using KT-5720 or Rp-cAMP, or by inhibiting adenylate cyclase type 5 (AC-5) using 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine or knock-down of AC-5 expression by intracisternal AS-ODN...
  5. Hiratsuka K, Reha Krantz L. Identification of Escherichia coli dnaE (polC) mutants with altered sensitivity to 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:3942-7 pubmed
    ..strategy to identify mutations in the dnaE (polC) gene of Escherichia coli that alter sensitivity to 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine (ddA)...
  6. He P, Zeng M, Curry F. Dominant role of cAMP in regulation of microvessel permeability. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2000;278:H1124-33 pubmed
    ..The balance between endothelial concentrations of these two opposing cyclic nucleotides controls microvessel permeability, and cAMP levels play a dominant role...
  7. Whalen M, Odman Ghazi S. Effects of adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A inhibition on signaling enzymes in natural killer cells: comparison to tributyltin. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2006;25:333-40 pubmed
    ..Exposure of NK cells to the AC inhibitor 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (DDA) significantly increased the total level of PLCgamma1 by 67% after 60 min and the level of p44/42 by ..
  8. Liu X, Inomata M, Ogawara T, Saneyoshi M, Yamaguchi T. Telomere shortening in human HL60 cells by treatment with 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxynucleosides and telomerase inhibition by their 5'-triphosphates. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2007;26:1067-71 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that the 2-amino group of the nucleotide purine nucleus is important for the inhibitory activity. Telomere shortening caused by long-term treatment with these nucleosides is also described. ..
  9. Sivets G, Kalinichenko E, Mikhailopulo I. Synthesis of 9-(2,3-dideoxy-2,3-difluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)adenine. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2007;26:1387-9 pubmed
    ..Convergent synthesis of 9-(2,3-dideoxy-2,3-difluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)adenine is described starting from methyl 5-O-benzyl-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-alpha-D-arabinofuranoside. ..
  10. Balzarini J, Baba M, Pauwels R, Herdewijn P, Wood S, Robins M, et al. Potent and selective activity of 3'-azido-2,6-diaminopurine-2',3'-dideoxyriboside, 3'-fluoro-2,6-diaminopurine-2',3'-dideoxyriboside, and 3'-fluoro-2',3'-dideoxyguanosine against human immunodeficiency virus. Mol Pharmacol. 1988;33:243-9 pubmed
    ..96, respectively, as compared to 106 for 2,6-diaminopurine-2',3'-dideoxyriboside (ddDAPR) and 132 for 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine (ddAdo), two other potent anti-HIV agents...
  11. Johnson M, Johns D, Fridland A. 2',3'-Dideoxynucleoside phosphorylation by deoxycytidine kinase from normal human thymus extracts: activation of potential drugs for AIDS therapy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1987;148:1252-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, dideoxynucleosides are activated by deoxycytidine kinase through a different catalytic interaction than occurs in 5'-activation of 3'-hydroxynucleosides by this enzyme. ..
  12. Ganser A, Greher J, Völkers B, Staszewski S, Hoelzer D. Inhibitory effect of azidothymidine, 2'-3'-dideoxyadenosine, and 2'-3'-dideoxycytidine on in vitro growth of hematopoietic progenitor cells from normal persons and from patients with AIDS. Exp Hematol. 1989;17:321-5 pubmed
    ..We therefore tested the effect of AZT, ddC, and an additional 2'-3'-dideoxynucleoside analogue, 2'-3'-dideoxyadenosine (ddA), on the hematopoietic progenitor cells derived from the bone marrow of normal persons and patients with ..
  13. Emery A, Eiden M, Eiden L. A new site and mechanism of action for the widely used adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22,536. Mol Pharmacol. 2013;83:95-105 pubmed publisher
    ..SQ22,536 [9-(tetrahydrofuryl)-adenine] and 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (ddAd) are effective and potent AC inhibitors in HEK293 cells expressing a cAMP response element (CRE) ..
  14. Lova P, Paganini S, Hirsch E, Barberis L, Wymann M, Sinigaglia F, et al. A selective role for phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate in the Gi-dependent activation of platelet Rap1B. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:131-8 pubmed
    ..In this work, we found that inhibition of platelet adenylyl cyclase by dideoxyadenosine or SQ22536 did not cause activation of Rap1B and did not restore Rap1B activation in platelets stimulated by ..
  15. Wu J, Lin J, Jiang F, Zhang J, Liang K. [Inhibition of the replication of hepatitis B virus in vitro by a novel nucleoside analogue (beta-L-D4A)]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2003;11:446 pubmed
  16. Coulson R, Johnson R, Olsson R, Cooper D, Scheinman S. Adenosine stimulates phosphate and glucose transport in opossum kidney epithelial cells. Am J Physiol. 1991;260:F921-8 pubmed
    ..It is likely that both protein kinases A and C are involved in these actions of adenosine...
  17. Becher F, Pruvost A, Gale J, Couerbe P, Goujard C, Boutet V, et al. A strategy for liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric assays of intracellular drugs: application to the validation of the triphosphorylated anabolite of antiretrovirals in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Mass Spectrom. 2003;38:879-90 pubmed
    ..to the simultaneous intracellular determination of the triphosphorylated anabolites of didanosine (2',3'-dideoxyadenosine triphosphate or ddA-TP) and stavudine (2',3'-didehydro-3'-deoxythymidine triphosphate or d4T-TP), two ..
  18. Wang X, Gao L, Hu Z, Wang H, Deng F, Jin J. Inhibition of reverse transcriptase activity of hepatitis B virus polymerase by ?-l-D4A-TP. Acta Virol. 2008;52:47-52 pubmed
    L-enantiomer of 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxyadenosine-5'-triphosphate (?-L-D4A-TP) has previously been proven to inhibit the replication of viral DNA in the Hep G2 2.2.15 cells and in transgenic mouse harboring 1...
  19. Nevzorova J, Evans B, Bengtsson T, Summers R. Multiple signalling pathways involved in beta2-adrenoceptor-mediated glucose uptake in rat skeletal muscle cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2006;147:446-54 pubmed
    ..8+/-13.5 and 196.4+/-17.3%). 2. The adenylate cyclase inhibitor, 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (50 microM), significantly reduced cAMP accumulation to zinterol (100 nM) (109.7+35.0 to 21.6+4...
  20. Weber T, Kerr B. Butyrate differentially regulates cytokines and proliferation in porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2006;113:139-47 pubmed
    ..Mechanistically, pretreatment with the adenyl cyclase inhibitor 2,5-dideoxyadenosine abolished (P<0.05) the inhibitory effect of 2...
  21. Azzam R, Kedzierska K, Leeansyah E, Chan H, Doischer D, Gorry P, et al. Impaired complement-mediated phagocytosis by HIV type-1-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages involves a cAMP-dependent mechanism. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2006;22:619-29 pubmed
    ..Using the adenylate cyclase inhibitors 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine and MDL-12,330A, we show that phagocytosis by HIV-1- infected MDM can be restored by inhibition of cAMP ..
  22. Moon H, Lee H, Seo J, Guo D, Kim I, Chung C, et al. Lipolysis is stimulated by PEGylated conjugated linoleic acid through the cyclic adenosine monophosphate-independent signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 cells: activation of MEK/ERK MAPK signaling pathway and hyper-secretion of adipo-cytokines. J Cell Physiol. 2008;214:283-94 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, adenylyl cyclase inhibitor, 2', 5'-dideoxyadenosine (DDA), pre-treatment did not prevent PCLA-stimulated lipolysis...
  23. Johnson R, Desaubry L, Bianchi G, Shoshani I, Lyons E, Taussig R, et al. Isozyme-dependent sensitivity of adenylyl cyclases to P-site-mediated inhibition by adenine nucleosides and nucleoside 3'-polyphosphates. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:8962-6 pubmed
    ..For the nucleoside derivatives potency typically followed the order 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (2',5'-ddAdo) > beta-adenosine > 9-(cyclopentyl)-adenine (9-CP-Ade) >/= 9-(tetrahydrofuryl)-adenine (..
  24. Magnusson O, Frey P. Interactions of diol dehydrase and 3',4'-anhydroadenosylcobalamin: suicide inactivation by electron transfer. Biochemistry. 2002;41:1695-702 pubmed
    ..This hypothesis is supported by the stoichiometric formation of 3',5'-dideoxyadenosine-4',5'-ene as the nucleoside cleavage product, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, mass ..
  25. Jongsma J, Oomen M, Noordzij M, Romijn J, Van der Kwast T, Schroder F, et al. Androgen-independent growth is induced by neuropeptides in human prostate cancer cell lines. Prostate. 2000;42:34-44 pubmed
    ..With some exceptions, cAMP induction paralleled growth stimulation. Dideoxyadenosine (DDA) inhibited the GRP-induced growth effect in DU-145 and PC-346C, whereas oxadiazoloquinoxaline-1-one (ODQ)..
  26. Takamatsu S, Maruyama T, Katayama S, Hirose N, Naito M, Izawa K. Synthesis of 9-(2,3-dideoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-threo-pentofuranosyl)adenine (FddA) via a purine 3'-deoxynucleoside. J Org Chem. 2001;66:7469-77 pubmed
    ..The influence of the sugar ring conformation and 6-chloro group on the rate of the nucleophilic reaction against elimination are also discussed. ..
  27. Lake Bakaar G, Mazzoccoli V, Dickman K, Lyubsky S. Differential effects of nucleoside analogs on oxidative phosphorylation in human pancreatic cells. Dig Dis Sci. 2001;46:1853-63 pubmed
    ..We compared the effects of ddI [and its intracellular metabolite dideoxyadenosine (ddA)], with other nucleoside analogs ddC, Azidothymidine (AZT) and didehydrodeoxythymidine (d4T) on mtDNA ..
  28. Knecht W, Munch Petersen B, Piskur J. Identification of residues involved in the specificity and regulation of the highly efficient multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase from Drosophila melanogaster. J Mol Biol. 2000;301:827-37 pubmed
    ..AraC, Cytarabine), 3'-azido-2', 3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT, Zidovudine, Retrovir, 2', 3'-dideoxyadenosine (ddA) and 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC, Zalcitabine, Hivid...
  29. Price G, Chrobak K, Tien J. Effect of cyclic AMP on barrier function of human lymphatic microvascular tubes. Microvasc Res. 2008;76:46-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposure to 1 mM 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, did not increase permeabilities...
  30. Chen Z, Suntres Z, Palmer J, Guzman J, Javed A, Xue J, et al. Cyclic AMP signaling contributes to neural plasticity and hyperexcitability in AH sensory neurons following intestinal Trichinella spiralis-induced inflammation. Int J Parasitol. 2007;37:743-61 pubmed
    ..spiralis-induced neuronal plasticity and AH-cell hyperexcitability. This may be relevant in gut nematode infections and inflammatory bowel diseases, and is a potential therapeutic target. ..
  31. Wu C, Ko F, Kuo S, Lee F, Teng C. YC-1 inhibited human platelet aggregation through NO-independent activation of soluble guanylate cyclase. Br J Pharmacol. 1995;116:1973-8 pubmed
    ..The adenylate cyclase inhibitor, 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (DDA) did not affect YC-1-induced inhibition of platelet aggregation. 6...
  32. Liu X, Takahashi H, Harada Y, Ogawara T, Ogimura Y, Mizushina Y, et al. 3'-Azido-2',3'-dideoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphates inhibit telomerase activity in vitro, and the corresponding nucleosides cause telomere shortening in human HL60 cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:7140-9 pubmed
    ..AZddGTP), 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxy-6-thioguanosine (AZddSG) 5'-triphosphate (AZddSGTP), 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxyadenosine (AZddA) 5'-triphosphate (AZddATP) and 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxy-2-aminoadenosine (AZddAA) 5'-triphosphate (..
  33. Hove Jensen B. Chromosomal location of the gene encoding phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1983;154:177-84 pubmed
    ..The contribution of each mutation to the phenotype of the mutant has been evaluated. ..
  34. Pauwels R, Baba M, Balzarini J, Herdewijn P, Desmyter J, Robins M, et al. Investigations on the anti-HIV activity of 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine analogues with modifications in either the pentose or purine moiety. Potent and selective anti-HIV activity of 2,6-diaminopurine 2',3'-dideoxyriboside. Biochem Pharmacol. 1988;37:1317-25 pubmed
    Several 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine analogues with modifications in either the ribose or purine moiety were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in MT-4 cell cultures...
  35. He X, Lin J, Chang Y, Zhang Y, Li Y, Wang X, et al. Effects of two novel nucleoside analogues on different hepatitis B virus promoters. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:1836-41 pubmed
    ..These findings may explain the mechanisms of action by which these two novel compounds inhibit HBV DNA replication. ..
  36. Guo Z, Longhurst J. Role of cAMP in activation of ischemically sensitive abdominal visceral afferents. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2000;278:H843-52 pubmed
    ..84 +/- 0.08 impulses/s (P < 0.05, n = 11 C fibers). Conversely, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, 2', 5'-dideoxyadenosine (DDA; 0.1 mg/kg iv), attenuated ischemia-induced increase in activity of afferents from 0.66 +/- 0.10 to 0...
  37. Balzarini J, Herdewijn P, De Clercq E. Potentiating effect of ribavirin on the anti-retrovirus activity of 3'-azido-2,6-diaminopurine-2',3'-dideoxyriboside in vitro and in vivo. Antiviral Res. 1989;11:161-71 pubmed
    ..A slight increase in the in vivo toxicity of AzddDAPR was noted when combined with ribavirin...
  38. Kowalska M, Rao A, Disa J. High concentrations of exogenous arachidonate inhibit calcium mobilization in platelets by stimulation of adenylate cyclase. Biochem J. 1988;253:255-62 pubmed
    ..3. The adenylate cyclase inhibitor 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine attenuated the inhibitory effect of arachidonate, suggesting that it is mediated by increased platelet cyclic ..
  39. Tubbs C, Tan W, Shi B, Thomas P. Identification of 17,20?,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20?-S) receptor binding and membrane progestin receptor alpha on southern flounder sperm (Paralichthys lethostigma) and their likely role in 20?-S stimulation of sperm hypermotility. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2011;170:629-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The membrane adenylyl cyclase inhibitor 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine blocked 20?-S-induced sperm hypermotility, indicating 20?-S activates stimulatory G proteins...
  40. Fujitani B, Wakitani K. Studies on antiplatelet effects of OP-41483, a prostaglandin I2 analog, in experimental animals. II. Mechanism of its antiplatelet effect. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1990;53:25-33 pubmed
    ..inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation was not fully antagonized by an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (DDA), at a concentration completely inhibiting the increase of cyclic AMP...
  41. Balzarini J, Kruining J, Wedgwood O, Pannecouque C, Aquaro S, Perno C, et al. Conversion of 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine (ddA) and 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxyadenosine (d4A) to their corresponding aryloxyphosphoramidate derivatives markedly potentiates their activity against human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus. FEBS Lett. 1997;410:324-8 pubmed
    2',3'-Dideoxyadenosine (ddA), 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxyadenosine (d4A) and their lipophilic 5'-monophosphate triester (aryloxyphosphoramidate) prodrugs were evaluated for their anti-retrovirus and anti-hepatitis B virus activity in ..
  42. Jang E, Azzam J, Dickinson N, Davidson M, Haslam R. Roles for both cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP in the inhibition of collagen-induced platelet aggregation by nitroprusside. Br J Haematol. 2002;117:664-75 pubmed
    ..ADP released from the platelets by collagen tended to restrict this cAMP accumulation. Addition of 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (DDA), an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase, decreased both the inhibition of collagen-induced platelet ..
  43. Wnuk S, Valdez C, Khan J, Moutinho P, Robins M, Yang X, et al. Doubly homologated dihalovinyl and acetylene analogues of adenosine: synthesis, interaction with S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase, and antiviral and cytostatic effects. J Med Chem. 2000;43:1180-6 pubmed
    ..These viruses typically fall within the activity spectrum of AdoHcy hydrolase inhibitors. ..
  44. Gueorguiev V, Frenz C, Ronald K, Sabban E. Nicotine and epibatidine triggered prolonged rise in calcium and TH gene transcription in PC12 cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;506:37-46 pubmed
    ..by 1,2-bis(o-Aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic Acid Tetra (acetoxymethyl ester) (BAPTA-AM) or 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (DDA)...
  45. Nair V, Mickle T, Bera S. Cyclopropyl and related analogs of the anti-HIV compound, isodideoxyadenosine. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2003;22:239-47 pubmed
    ..The key synthetic step involved coupling between the dideoxygenated sugar derivatives, 10 and 14, and adenine under Mitsunobu conditions. Anti-HIV data are mentioned. ..
  46. Tu Y, Budelmann B. Inhibitory effect of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) on the afferent resting activity in the cephalopod statocyst. Brain Res. 2000;880:65-9 pubmed
    ..ODQ) or cystamine (CYS); (ii) the adenylate cyclase inhibitors nicotinic acid (NIC-A), 2',3'dideoxyadenosine (DDA), or MDL-12330A (MDL); (iii) the guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue (M-BLU) and the adenylate ..
  47. Jeannot F, Mathe C, Gosselin G. Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of 3'-C-trifluoromethyl nucleoside derivatives bearing adenine as the base. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2001;20:755-8 pubmed
    ..The prepared compounds were tested for their activity against HIV, but they did not show an antiviral effect. ..
  48. Gudmundsson K, Daluge S, Johnson L, Jansen R, Hazen R, Condreay L, et al. Phosphoramidate protides of 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-fluoroadenosine and related nucleosides with potent activity against HIV and HBV. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2003;22:1953-61 pubmed
    ..Especially marked was the improvement in potency of phosphoramidate protides of 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-fluoroadenosine against both HIV and HBV. ..
  49. Soldano K, Jivan A, Nicchitta C, Gewirth D. Structure of the N-terminal domain of GRP94. Basis for ligand specificity and regulation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:48330-8 pubmed
    ..This continuation of the beta sheet past the charged domain suggests a structural basis for the association of the N-terminal and middle domains of the full-length chaperone. ..
  50. Baxendale R, Fraser L. Evidence for multiple distinctly localized adenylyl cyclase isoforms in mammalian spermatozoa. Mol Reprod Dev. 2003;66:181-9 pubmed
    ..Specifically, forskolin significantly enhanced cAMP production and capacitation, while inclusion of 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine significantly blocked these responses...
  51. Wu J, Lin J, Xie N, Jiang F, Liang K. [Effect and mechanism of beta-L-D4A (a novel nucleoside analog) against hepatitis B virus]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2003;11:268-70 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of inhibiting HBV replication by beta-L-D4A may be in that either the DNA replication priming is blocked or the elongation of DNA chain is terminated irreversibly. ..
  52. Kwaaitaal M, Huisman R, Maintz J, Reinstädler A, Panstruga R. Ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR)-like channels mediate MAMP-induced calcium influx in Arabidopsis thaliana. Biochem J. 2011;440:355-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the initiation of innate immune responses upon flg22, elf18 and chitin recognition involves apoplastic Ca2+ influx via iGluR-like channels. ..
  53. Santana L, Teijeira M, Uriarte E, Balzarini J, De Clercq E. Synthesis, conformational analysis and antiviral and antitumoral activity of new 1,2-disubstituted carbocyclic nucleosides. Eur J Med Chem. 2002;37:755-60 pubmed
    ..antiviral and antitumoral activities were evaluated; and their structures were compared with that of 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine (ddA) on the basis of AM1 calculations. No new compound had antiviral activity...