Summary: A pyrimidine nucleoside formed in the body by the deamination of CYTARABINE.

Top Publications

  1. Niu C, Murakami E, Furman P. Clevudine is efficiently phosphorylated to the active triphosphate form in primary human hepatocytes. Antivir Ther. 2008;13:263-9 pubmed
    ..3 +/- 8.4 pmols/10(6) cells (approximately 10 microM). The initial half-life of CLV triphosphate was approximately 11 h. These results are consistent with once daily CLV dosing currently being used in Phase III clinical studies. ..
  2. Tak W, Park S, Cho C, Jung M, Jeon S, Kweon Y, et al. Clinical, biochemical, and pathological characteristics of clevudine-associated myopathy. J Hepatol. 2010;53:261-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to define the clinical, biochemical, and pathological characteristics of myopathy developed during clevudine therapy...
  3. Yoo B, Kim J, Kim T, Koh K, Um S, Kim Y, et al. Clevudine is highly efficacious in hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B with durable off-therapy viral suppression. Hepatology. 2007;46:1041-8 pubmed
    ..However, treatment for longer than 24 weeks would be needed to achieve durable remission. ..
  4. Lee K, Byun K, Chung Y, Paik S, Han J, Yoo K, et al. Clevudine therapy for 24 weeks further reduced serum hepatitis B virus DNA levels and increased ALT normalization rates without emergence of viral breakthrough than 12 weeks of clevudine therapy. Intervirology. 2007;50:296-302 pubmed
    ..Clevudine 30 mg treatment for 24 weeks was well tolerated and exhibited more potent antiviral activity and a higher ALT normalization rate than 12-week treatment with durable efficacy at week 24 off therapy. ..
  5. Soghomonyan S, Hajitou A, Rangel R, Trepel M, Pasqualini R, Arap W, et al. Molecular PET imaging of HSV1-tk reporter gene expression using [18F]FEAU. Nat Protoc. 2007;2:416-23 pubmed
    ..Production of [18F]FEAU requires approximately 3.5 h from the end of bombardment. PET imaging studies require 2-3 h (depending on the number of animals) after synthesis of [18F]FEAU. ..
  6. Nimmagadda S, Mangner T, Douglas K, Muzik O, Shields A. Biodistribution, PET, and radiation dosimetry estimates of HSV-tk gene expression imaging agent 1-(2'-Deoxy-2'-18F-Fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouracil in normal dogs. J Nucl Med. 2007;48:655-60 pubmed
    ..Studies in humans are needed to determine whether imaging properties differ in patients and are altered as a result of metabolism changes affected by gene therapies. ..
  7. Fu D, Tanhehco Y, Chen J, Foss C, Fox J, Lemas V, et al. Virus-associated tumor imaging by induction of viral gene expression. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:1453-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate the feasibility of imaging chemotherapy-mediated viral lytic induction by radiopharmaceutical-based techniques such as single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography. ..
  8. Nishii R, Volgin A, Mawlawi O, Mukhopadhyay U, Pal A, Bornmann W, et al. Evaluation of 2'-deoxy-2'-[18F]fluoro-5-methyl-1-beta-L: -arabinofuranosyluracil ([18F]-L: -FMAU) as a PET imaging agent for cellular proliferation: comparison with [18F]-D: -FMAU and [18F]FLT. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2008;35:990-8 pubmed
    ..94 +/- 4.38, respectively, and the corresponding values in H3255 cells were 1.62 +/- 0.50, 1.96 +/- 0.74, and 1.50 +/- 0.90. [18F]-L: -FMAU may be a useful agent for imaging tumor proliferation in fast-growing human lung cancers by PET. ..
  9. Kang K, Min J, Chen X, Gambhir S. Comparison of [14C]FMAU, [3H]FEAU, [14C]FIAU, and [3H]PCV for monitoring reporter gene expression of wild type and mutant herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase in cell culture. Mol Imaging Biol. 2005;7:296-303 pubmed
    ..This combination of high accumulation and high selectivity for both HSV1-tk and HSV1-sr39tk makes suitably radiolabeled FEAU a promising candidate as a radiotracer for imaging HSV1-tk/HSV1-sr39tk gene expression in living subjects. ..

More Information


  1. Kwon S, Park Y, Ahn S, Cho E, Choe W, Lee C, et al. Identification and characterization of clevudine-resistant mutants of hepatitis B virus isolated from chronic hepatitis B patients. J Virol. 2010;84:4494-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Drug susceptibility assays reveal that adefovir and tenofovir are the most effective compounds against CLV-resistant mutants. These data may provide additional therapeutic options for CLV-resistant patients...
  2. Bettegowda C, Foss C, Cheong I, Wang Y, Diaz L, Agrawal N, et al. Imaging bacterial infections with radiolabeled 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouracil. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1145-50 pubmed
    ..Such imaging provides a general method for the diagnosis of localized bacterial infections that could be translatable to the clinic. ..
  3. Miyagawa M, Anton M, Haubner R, Simoes M, Städele C, Erhardt W, et al. PET of cardiac transgene expression: comparison of 2 approaches based on herpesviral thymidine kinase reporter gene. J Nucl Med. 2004;45:1917-23 pubmed
    ..The results favor (18)F-FHBG with mutant HSV1-sr39tk because of continuous accumulation over time and higher imaging contrast. ..
  4. Kim H, Park D, Park J, Cho Y, Sohn C, Jeon W, et al. Comparison between clevudine and entecavir treatment for antiviral-naïve patients with chronic hepatitis B. Liver Int. 2010;30:834-40 pubmed publisher
    ..There has been no study comparing the clinical efficacy of clevudine and entecavir in antiviral-naïve patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB)...
  5. Marcellin P, Mommeja Marin H, Sacks S, Lau G, Sereni D, Bronowicki J, et al. A phase II dose-escalating trial of clevudine in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology. 2004;40:140-8 pubmed
    ..The pharmacokinetic profile of clevudine was proportional to the dose. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the tolerability and potent activity of clevudine in HBV-infected patients and support further clinical study. ..
  6. Grignet Debrus C, Cool V, Baudson N, Degreve B, Balzarini J, de Leval L, et al. Comparative in vitro and in vivo cytotoxic activity of (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (BVDU) and its arabinosyl derivative, (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (BVaraU), against tumor cells expressing either the Varicella zoste. Cancer Gene Ther. 2000;7:215-23 pubmed
    ..of (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (BVDU) and its arabinosyl derivative (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (BVaraU) on the growth of both MDA-MB-435 human breast carcinoma and 9L rat gliosarcoma cells expressing ..
  7. Dotti G, Tian M, Savoldo B, Najjar A, Cooper L, Jackson J, et al. Repetitive noninvasive monitoring of HSV1-tk-expressing T cells intravenously infused into nonhuman primates using positron emission tomography and computed tomography with 18F-FEAU. Mol Imaging. 2009;8:230-7 pubmed
    ..Here we report the application of repetitive PET-CT imaging with [18F]fluoro-5-ethyl-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (18F-FEAU) in two nonhuman primates demonstrating that autologous polyclonal macaque T lymphocytes ..
  8. Fleischer R, Lok A. Myopathy and neuropathy associated with nucleos(t)ide analog therapy for hepatitis B. J Hepatol. 2009;51:787-91 pubmed publisher
  9. Menne S, Roneker C, Korba B, Gerin J, Tennant B, Cote P. Immunization with surface antigen vaccine alone and after treatment with 1-(2-fluoro-5-methyl-beta-L-arabinofuranosyl)-uracil (L-FMAU) breaks humoral and cell-mediated immune tolerance in chronic woodchuck hepatitis virus infection. J Virol. 2002;76:5305-14 pubmed
    ..Such combination therapy represents a potentially useful approach to the control of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in humans. ..
  10. Yamamoto T, Litwin S, Zhou T, Zhu Y, Condreay L, Furman P, et al. Mutations of the woodchuck hepatitis virus polymerase gene that confer resistance to lamivudine and 2'-fluoro-5-methyl-beta-L-arabinofuranosyluracil. J Virol. 2002;76:1213-23 pubmed
    Administration of either lamivudine (2'-deoxy-3'-thiacytidine) or L-FMAU (2'-fluoro-5-methyl-beta-L-arabinofuranosyluracil) to woodchucks chronically infected with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) induces a transient decline in virus ..
  11. Zhu Y, Yamamoto T, Cullen J, Saputelli J, Aldrich C, Miller D, et al. Kinetics of hepadnavirus loss from the liver during inhibition of viral DNA synthesis. J Virol. 2001;75:311-22 pubmed
    ..This observation was consistent with the possibility that some fraction of cccDNA was distributed to daughter cells in those infected hepatocytes that passed through mitosis...
  12. Brader P, Stritzker J, Riedl C, Zanzonico P, Cai S, Burnazi E, et al. Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 facilitates tumor detection by positron emission tomography and optical imaging. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:2295-302 pubmed publisher
    ..coli thymidine kinase, and this imaging paradigm could be translated to patient studies for the detection of solid tumors. Bioluminescence imaging provides a low-cost alternative to PET imaging in small animals. ..
  13. Bennett J, Tjuvajev J, Johnson P, Doubrovin M, Akhurst T, Malholtra S, et al. Positron emission tomography imaging for herpes virus infection: Implications for oncolytic viral treatments of cancer. Nat Med. 2001;7:859-63 pubmed
    ..5 log increments. Non-invasive imaging might be useful in assessing biologically relevant distribution of virus in therapies using replication-competent HSV. ..
  14. Najjar A, Nishii R, Maxwell D, Volgin A, Mukhopadhyay U, Bornmann W, et al. Molecular-genetic PET imaging using an HSV1-tk mutant reporter gene with enhanced specificity to acycloguanosine nucleoside analogs. J Nucl Med. 2009;50:409-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, HSV1-tk(A168H) may potentially be used as a second reporter gene in combination with wtHSV1-tk to achieve differential PET. ..
  15. Miyagawa T, Gogiberidze G, Serganova I, Cai S, Balatoni J, Thaler H, et al. Imaging of HSV-tk Reporter gene expression: comparison between [18F]FEAU, [18F]FFEAU, and other imaging probes. J Nucl Med. 2008;49:637-48 pubmed publisher
    ..For HSV1-tk reporter systems that require a 1- to 4-h PET paradigm, HSV1-tk-[18F]FEAU is the current top contender. ..
  16. Lee H, Eun J, Lee C, Hwang J, Suh J, Kim B, et al. [Long-term clevudine therapy in nucleos(t)ide-naïve and lamivudine-experienced patients with hepatitis B virus-related chronic liver diseases]. Korean J Hepatol. 2009;15:179-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Clevudine should be avoided in previously lamivudine-exposed patients. In addition, reelevation of serum AST and CPK levels is not a rare occurrence, and close observation and follow-up tests are essential. ..
  17. Diaz L, Foss C, Thornton K, Nimmagadda S, Endres C, Uzuner O, et al. Imaging of musculoskeletal bacterial infections by [124I]FIAU-PET/CT. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1007 pubmed
    ..No adverse reactions with FIAU were observed. [(124)I]FIAU-PET/CT is a promising new method for imaging bacterial infections. ..
  18. Seok J, Lee D, Lee C, Park M, Kim S, Kim H, et al. Long-term therapy with clevudine for chronic hepatitis B can be associated with myopathy characterized by depletion of mitochondrial DNA. Hepatology. 2009;49:2080-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Careful clinical and laboratory attention should be paid to patients on long-term clevudine therapy for this skeletal muscle dysfunction. ..
  19. Jang J, Kim J, Jeong S, Myung H, Kim H, Park Y, et al. Clevudine for chronic hepatitis B: antiviral response, predictors of response, and development of myopathy. J Viral Hepat. 2011;18:84-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we should consider alternative antiviral agents if clevudine resistance or clevudine-induced myopathy is developed in patients on clevudine for the treatment of CHB. ..
  20. Koh K, Kang C, Kim D, Choi Y, Kim M, Cheong J, et al. [Development of clevudine resistance after switching from lamivudine in a patient with chronic hepatitis B]. Korean J Gastroenterol. 2008;52:325-8 pubmed
    ..0chi10(8) copies/mL) as well as biochemical breakthrough, which was associated with the presence of rtM204I plus rtL80I mutant. After switching from clevudine to adefovir, the viral load decreased with biochemical improvement. ..
  21. Lim S, Leung N, Hann H, Lau G, Trepo C, Mommeja Marin H, et al. Clinical trial: a phase II, randomized study evaluating the safety, pharmacokinetics and anti-viral activity of clevudine for 12 weeks in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008;27:1282-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Six patients had genomic changes without viral rebound. Clevudine appears to be a potent and tolerable (over 12 weeks) anti-viral and the optimal dosage appears to be 30 mg once daily. ..
  22. Lee H, Chung Y, Lee K, Byun K, Paik S, Han J, et al. A 12-week clevudine therapy showed potent and durable antiviral activity in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology. 2006;43:982-8 pubmed
  23. Kim M, Kim K, Lee J, Lee H, Kim H, Yun S, et al. [Efficacy of 48-week clevudine therapy for chronic hepatitis B]. Korean J Hepatol. 2009;15:331-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A 48-week course of clevudine therapy was highly effective in patients with CHB. The risk of development of resistance to clevudine was increased in patients with previous exposure to lamivudine and cirrhosis. ..
  24. Yoo B, Kim J, Chung Y, Lee K, Paik S, Ryu S, et al. Twenty-four-week clevudine therapy showed potent and sustained antiviral activity in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology. 2007;45:1172-8 pubmed
    ..A 24-week clevudine therapy was well tolerated and showed potent and sustained antiviral effect without evidence of viral resistance during treatment period in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. ..
  25. Alauddin M, Shahinian A, Park R, Tohme M, Fissekis J, Conti P. In vivo evaluation of 2'-deoxy-2'-[(18)F]fluoro-5-iodo-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil ([18F]FIAU) and 2'-deoxy-2'-[18F]fluoro-5-ethyl-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil ([18F]FEAU) as markers for suicide gene expression. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2007;34:822-9 pubmed
    ..0-fold higher (p<0.001) than in wild type tumors. Micro-PET images using [18F]FIAU and [18F]FEAU also showed very high uptake in HSV-tk tumors. [18F]FIAU and [18F]FEAU appear to be potential PET imaging agents for gene expression. ..
  26. Choi S, Zhuang Z, Chacko A, Acton P, Tjuvajev Gelovani J, Doubrovin M, et al. SPECT imaging of herpes simplex virus type1 thymidine kinase gene expression by [(123)I]FIAU(1). Acad Radiol. 2005;12:798-805 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that only the D-isomer of [(123)I]FIAU is useful for imaging HSV1-tk gene expression in mice by high-resolution SPECT imaging. ..
  27. Serganova I, Doubrovin M, Vider J, Ponomarev V, Soghomonyan S, Beresten T, et al. Molecular imaging of temporal dynamics and spatial heterogeneity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 signal transduction activity in tumors in living mice. Cancer Res. 2004;64:6101-8 pubmed
  28. Koehne G, Doubrovin M, Doubrovina E, Zanzonico P, Gallardo H, Ivanova A, et al. Serial in vivo imaging of the targeted migration of human HSV-TK-transduced antigen-specific lymphocytes. Nat Biotechnol. 2003;21:405-13 pubmed
    ..This technique for imaging the migration of ex vivo-transduced antigen-specific T cells in vivo is informative, nontoxic, and potentially applicable to humans. ..
  29. Chin R, Shaw T, Torresi J, Sozzi V, Trautwein C, Bock T, et al. In vitro susceptibilities of wild-type or drug-resistant hepatitis B virus to (-)-beta-D-2,6-diaminopurine dioxolane and 2'-fluoro-5-methyl-beta-L-arabinofuranosyluracil. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001;45:2495-501 pubmed
    ..and the nucleoside analogues (-)-beta-D-2, 6-diaminopurine dioxolane (DAPD) and 2'-fluoro-5-methyl-beta-L-arabinofuranosyluracil (L-FMAU). The drug-resistant mutants contained amino acid substitutions in the polymerase protein...
  30. Jacobs A, Bräunlich I, Graf R, Lercher M, Sakaki T, Voges J, et al. Quantitative kinetics of [124I]FIAU in cat and man. J Nucl Med. 2001;42:467-75 pubmed
    ..No-carrier-added [(124)I]FIAU was synthesized by reacting the precursor 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (FAU) with carrier-free [(124)I]NaI...
  31. Tjuvajev J, Doubrovin M, Akhurst T, Cai S, Balatoni J, Alauddin M, et al. Comparison of radiolabeled nucleoside probes (FIAU, FHBG, and FHPG) for PET imaging of HSV1-tk gene expression. J Nucl Med. 2002;43:1072-83 pubmed
  32. Kim Y, Moon J, Kim E, Lee S, Kang S, Kim S, et al. Efficient targeting and tumor retardation effect of pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF)-specific RNA replacement in pancreatic cancer mouse model. Cancer Lett. 2014;344:223-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results imply that PAUF-targeting TSR can contribute to successful targeted gene therapy for pancreatic cancer. ..
  33. Mehellou Y, Valente R, Mottram H, Walsby E, Mills K, Balzarini J, et al. Phosphoramidates of 2'-beta-D-arabinouridine (AraU) as phosphate prodrugs; design, synthesis, in vitro activity and metabolism. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010;18:2439-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may explain the poor antiviral/cytostatic potential of the prodrugs. ..
  34. Tang J, Xie X, Zhang X, Qiao X, Jiang S, Shi W, et al. Long term cultured HL-60 cells are intrinsically resistant to Ara-C through high CDA activity. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2012;17:569-74 pubmed
    ..All the factors in HL-60R cells did not change by the incubation of ara-C. In conclusion, the long term cultured cells are intrinsically resistant to ara-C through high CDA activity, but not low DCK activity. ..
  35. Park J, Lee T, Son J, Chun K, Song I, Park Y, et al. Comparison of cell-labeling methods with ¹²?I-FIAU and ??Cu-PTSM for cell tracking using chronic myelogenous leukemia cells expressing HSV1-tk and firefly luciferase. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2012;27:719-28 pubmed publisher
  36. Sk U, Kambhampati S, Mishra M, Lesniak W, Zhang F, Kannan R. Enhancing the efficacy of Ara-C through conjugation with PAMAM dendrimer and linear PEG: a comparative study. Biomacromolecules. 2013;14:801-10 pubmed publisher cytidine deaminase leading to the formation of a biologically inactive metabolite, Ara-U (1?-d-arabinofuranosyluracil), a low lipophilicity, and fast clearance from the body...
  37. Kim B, Oh J, Kwon S, Choe W, Ko S, Rhee K, et al. Clevudine myopathy in patients with chronic hepatitis B. J Hepatol. 2009;51:829-34 pubmed publisher
    ..No severe adverse event occurred during clinical trials. We describe two cases of drug-induced myopathy during long-term treatment of chronic hepatitis B with clevudine. ..
  38. Uchiyama M, Takamatsu Y, Ogata K, Matsumoto T, Jimi S, Tamura K, et al. Simultaneous determination of cytosine arabinoside and its metabolite, uracil arabinoside, in human plasma using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with UV detection. Biomed Chromatogr. 2013;27:818-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This method was used to determine the plasma concentrations of Ara-C and Ara-U in a patient treated with high-dose Ara-C therapy for end-stage renal failure. ..
  39. Colacino J. Mechanisms for the anti-hepatitis B virus activity and mitochondrial toxicity of fialuridine (FIAU). Antiviral Res. 1996;29:125-39 pubmed
    ..In addition to describing the anti-HBV activity of FIAU, this review discusses results from in vitro experiments carried out by various laboratories in an effort to evaluate and understand more fully the mitochondrial toxicity of FIAU. ..
  40. Chacko A, Blankemeyer E, Lieberman B, Qu W, Kung H. 5-[18F]Fluoroalkyl pyrimidine nucleosides: probes for positron emission tomography imaging of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene expression. Nucl Med Biol. 2009;36:29-38 pubmed publisher
  41. Yonekura S, Nakamura N, Yonei S, Zhang Akiyama Q. Generation, biological consequences and repair mechanisms of cytosine deamination in DNA. J Radiat Res. 2009;50:19-26 pubmed
    ..In this review, we will focus on central and recent findings on the generation, biological consequences and repair mechanisms of uracil in DNA and on the biological significance of uracil-DNA glycosylase. ..
  42. He F, Deng X, Wen B, Liu Y, Sun X, Xing L, et al. Noninvasive molecular imaging of hypoxia in human xenografts: comparing hypoxia-induced gene expression with endogenous and exogenous hypoxia markers. Cancer Res. 2008;68:8597-606 pubmed publisher
  43. Fu D, Tanhehco Y, Chen J, Foss C, Fox J, Chong J, et al. Bortezomib-induced enzyme-targeted radiation therapy in herpesvirus-associated tumors. Nat Med. 2008;14:1118-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Bortezomib-induced enzyme-targeted radiation therapy illustrates the possibility of pharmacologically modulating tumor gene expression to result in targeted radiotherapy. ..
  44. Palumbo E. New drugs for chronic hepatitis B: a review. Am J Ther. 2008;15:167-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent preliminary results show that clevudine, telbivudine, and emtricitabine may be potent analogs available for the treatment of HBV. Further studies are being conducted to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of these drugs. ..
  45. Tai J, Nguyen B, Wells R, Kovacs M, McGirr R, Prato F, et al. Imaging of gene expression in live pancreatic islet cell lines using dual-isotope SPECT. J Nucl Med. 2008;49:94-102 pubmed
    ..Dual-isotope SPECT is a promising method to detect gene expression in and location of transplanted pancreatic cells in vivo. ..
  46. Lee J, Yoo B, Lee H, Yoo H, Yoo H, Kang M, et al. Rapid quantitative determination of L-FMAU-TP from human peripheral-blood mononuclear cells of hepatitis B virus-infected patients treated with L-FMAU by ion-pairing, reverse-phase, liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Ther Drug Monit. 2006;28:131-7 pubmed
    ..The terminal half-life of L-FMAU-TP in PBMCs after drug cessation was estimated to be 15.6 days. ..
  47. Remond C, Plantier Royon R, Aubry N, Maes E, Bliard C, O Donohue M. Synthesis of pentose-containing disaccharides using a thermostable alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase. Carbohydr Res. 2004;339:2019-25 pubmed
    ..Importantly, this latter compound is synthesised in a highly regiospecific reaction, which leads to the production of a single disaccharide. ..
  48. Li A, Kong F. Syntheses of arabinogalactans consisting of beta-(1-->6)-linked D-galactopyranosyl backbone and alpha-(1-->3)-linked L-arabinofuranosyl side chains. Carbohydr Res. 2004;339:1847-56 pubmed
  49. Sun H, Collins J, Mangner T, Muzik O, Shields A. Imaging [18F]FAU [1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl) uracil] in dogs. Nucl Med Biol. 2003;30:25-30 pubmed
    ..The results showed that [(18)F]FAU evenly distributed to most of organs. In sharp contrast to our prior experience with thymidine and its analogs, marrow had less retention of [(18)F]FAU than the non-proliferating tissues. ..
  50. Lu L, Samuelsson L, Bergstrom M, Sato K, Fasth K, Langstrom B. Rat studies comparing 11C-FMAU, 18F-FLT, and 76Br-BFU as proliferation markers. J Nucl Med. 2002;43:1688-98 pubmed
    ..The goal of the investigation was to evaluate the efficiency of the 3 nucleoside tracers as potential tracers for measuring proliferation...
  51. Watabe T, Ogura K, Nishiyama T. [Molecular toxicological mechanism of the lethal interactions of the new antiviral drug, sorivudine, with 5-fluorouracil prodrugs and genetic deficiency of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2002;122:527-35 pubmed
    ..Administration of a clinical dose of 5-FU or its prodrug to poor 5-FU metabolizers may cause death unless DPD activity is determined using their peripheral blood mononuclear cells prior to the administration of the anticancer drug. ..
  52. Balzarinia J, Degreve B, Zhu C, Durini E, Porcu L, De Clercq E, et al. 2'-O-Acyl/alkyl-substituted arabinosyl nucleosides as inhibitors of human mitochondrial thymidine kinase. Biochem Pharmacol. 2001;61:727-32 pubmed the 2'-OH position of both 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylthymine (araT) and (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (BVaraU), consistently resulted in a marked ( approximately 10-fold) increase in the inhibitory activity ..
  53. Vivian J, Klein W, Hasty P. Temporal, spatial and tissue-specific expression of a myogenin-lacZ transgene targeted to the Hprt locus in mice. Biotechniques. 1999;27:154-62 pubmed
    ..This strategy, called targeted transgenesis, provides control for analyzing promoter sequences and for comparing various transgenes expressed by the same promoter. ..