Summary: 3 beta,12 beta,14-Trihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digoxin. Can be obtained by hydrolysis of digoxin or from Digitalis orientalis L. and Digitalis lanata Ehrh.

Top Publications

  1. Breitschopf H, Suchanek G, Gould R, Colman D, Lassmann H. In situ hybridization with digoxigenin-labeled probes: sensitive and reliable detection method applied to myelinating rat brain. Acta Neuropathol. 1992;84:581-7 pubmed
    A method for in situ hybridization of digoxigenin-labeled cDNA and cRNA probes to myelin protein mRNA is described...
  2. Weagant S, Jagow J, Jinneman K, Omiecinski C, Kaysner C, Hill W. Development of digoxigenin-labeled PCR amplicon probes for use in the detection and identification of enteropathogenic Yersinia and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from foods. J Food Prot. 1999;62:438-43 pubmed
    By including digoxigenin-11-dUTP in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), amplification products were produced that contained nonisotopic markers for use as DNA hybridization probes...
  3. Korndörfer I, Schlehuber S, Skerra A. Structural mechanism of specific ligand recognition by a lipocalin tailored for the complexation of digoxigenin. J Mol Biol. 2003;330:385-96 pubmed
    DigA16 is an artificial digoxigenin-binding protein, which was derived from the bilin-binding protein, a lipocalin of Pieris brassicae, via reshaping of its natural ligand pocket...
  4. Neuert G, Albrecht C, Pamir E, Gaub H. Dynamic force spectroscopy of the digoxigenin-antibody complex. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:505-9 pubmed
    ..One prominent example, the digoxigenin-antibody complex, was often used to immobilize samples for single molecule force measurements by optical trap ..
  5. MacBeath G, Schreiber S. Printing proteins as microarrays for high-throughput function determination. Science. 2000;289:1760-3 pubmed
    ..Three applications for protein microarrays were demonstrated: screening for protein-protein interactions, identifying the substrates of protein kinases, and identifying the protein targets of small molecules. ..
  6. Qian X, Guerrero R, Plummer T, Alves V, Lloyd R. Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections with digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probes. Diagn Mol Pathol. 2004;13:9-14 pubmed
    ..A positive ISH signal for HCV was also detected in some lymphocytes and bile ducts in the liver. These results show that ISH with a highly specific riboprobe is comparable to RT-PCR-SH for detection of HCV infection in liver tissue. ..
  7. Anslinger K, Mack B, Bayer B, Rolf B, Eisenmenger W. Digoxigenin labelling and laser capture microdissection of male cells. Int J Legal Med. 2005;119:374-7 pubmed
    ..In order to label all cells carrying a Y-chromosome we used a digoxigenin labelled chromosome Y hybridisation probe (Q Biogen)...
  8. Ramkissoon S, Mainwaring L, Sloand E, Young N, Kajigaya S. Nonisotopic detection of microRNA using digoxigenin labeled RNA probes. Mol Cell Probes. 2006;20:1-4 pubmed
    ..Here we report a nonisotopic Northern analysis method for miRNA detection using 3'-digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled RNA oligo probes...
  9. Gellen L, Wall Manning G, Sissons C. Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technology using digoxigenin detection. Methods Mol Biol. 2007;353:39-67 pubmed
    ..analysis of 40 microbial species against up to 28 mixed microbiota samples on a single membrane; using digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled, whole-genome DNA probes...

More Information


  1. Kimura J, Sato K, Okano M, Tsukise A. Localization of ZP3 mRNA in mouse ovary by non-radioactive in situ hybridization with digoxigenin-labelled cDNA. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 1994;40:1097-101 pubmed
    In situ hybridization using digoxigenin-labelled cDNA has dual advantages of having high structural resolution and high sensitivity and avoiding problems associated with the handling of radioactive materials...
  2. Moulay S, Zientara S, Sailleau C, Cruciere C. Detection of African horse sickness viruses by dot-blot hybridization using a digoxigenin-labelled probe. Mol Cell Probes. 1995;9:233-7 pubmed
    ..resulting PCR products were denatured, immobilized on nylon membranes and then hybridized to a non-radioactive digoxigenin-labelled probe...
  3. Liu Y, Sun B, Wang X, Zheng C, Zhou G. Three digoxigenin-labeled cDNA probes for specific detection of the natural population of Barley yellow dwarf viruses in China by dot-blot hybridization. J Virol Methods. 2007;145:22-9 pubmed
    Three digoxigenin-labeled cDNA probes complementary to the coat protein (CP) and read-through protein gene sequences of Barley yellow dwarf virus - one each for three species, namely BYDV-GAV, GPV, and PAV - were synthesized for ..
  4. Shanks J, Hill C, Lappin T, Maxwell A. Localization of erythropoietin gene expression in proximal renal tubular cells detected by digoxigenin-labelled oligonucleotide probes. J Pathol. 1996;179:283-7 pubmed
    ..Kidneys from hypoxic and control normoxic mice were obtained. Six digoxigenin-labelled oligonucleotide probes complementary to EPO exon sequences were utilized for in situ hybridization for ..
  5. Decarie A, Drapeau G, Closset J, Couture R, Adam A. Development of digoxigenin-labeled peptide: application to chemiluminoenzyme immunoassay of bradykinin in inflamed tissues. Peptides. 1994;15:511-8 pubmed
    A new ultrasensitive chemiluminoenzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) using digoxigenin-labeled bradykinin (BK) as a tracer is proposed to quantify kinins in tissue samples...
  6. Sharma S, Ferreira J, Eblen B, Whiting R. Detection of type A, B, E, and F Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins in foods by using an amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with digoxigenin-labeled antibodies. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:1231-8 pubmed
    ..The assay appears to be an effective tool for large-scale screening of the food supply in the event of a botulinum neurotoxin contamination event...
  7. O Neill J, Bier E. Double-label in situ hybridization using biotin and digoxigenin-tagged RNA probes. Biotechniques. 1994;17:870, 874-5 pubmed
    ..Biotin-labeled probes are used in conjunction with digoxigenin-labeled probes to simultaneously visualize two different transcripts...
  8. Woo T, Walsh J, Benes F. Density of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 messenger RNA-containing neurons that express the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR2A in the anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61:649-57 pubmed
    ..67-kDa isoform of the gamma-aminobutyric acid synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD(67)) with digoxigenin. Postmortem human brain studies...
  9. Woodbury E, Ilott M, Brown C, Salt J. Optimization of an in situ hybridization technique for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus in bovine tissues using the digoxigenin system. J Virol Methods. 1995;51:89-93 pubmed
    ..an RNA probe corresponding to a region of the 3D gene which codes for the RNA polymerase, and labelled with digoxigenin. Consistent, reproducible signal was detected within the epithelial layers of the palatine tonsil, soft palate ..
  10. Burton J, McCormick J, Cadieux P, Reid G. Digoxigenin-labelled peptide nucleic acid to detect lactobacilli PCR amplicons immobilized on membranes from denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2003;36:145-9 pubmed
    To develop a digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe for the detection of Lactobacillus-related genera amongst eubacterial amplicons obtained from vaginal samples using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) ..
  11. Lee C, Brown C, Jackwood M. Tissue distribution of avian infectious bronchitis virus following in ovo inoculation of chicken embryos examined by in situ hybridization with antisense digoxigenin-labeled universal riboprobe. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2002;14:377-81 pubmed
    ..At 2 and 5 days postinfection (dpi), tissues were collected for in situ hybridization using an antisense digoxigenin-labeled riboprobe corresponding to the sequence of the mRNA coding for the membrane protein...
  12. Zhou Y, Calciano M, Hamann S, Leamon J, Strugnell T, Christian M, et al. In situ detection of messenger RNA using digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotides and rolling circle amplification. Exp Mol Pathol. 2001;70:281-8 pubmed
    ..With some modifications, this method may be adaptable to the simultaneous detection of several RNA species, including low-copy-number mRNA. ..
  13. Lacarelle B, Rahmani R, de Sousa G, Durand A, Placidi M, Cano J. Metabolism of digoxin, digoxigenin digitoxosides and digoxigenin in human hepatocytes and liver microsomes. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 1991;5:567-82 pubmed
    ..On these models, digoxin (DG3) and digoxigenin bisdigitoxoside (DG2) were not shown to be significantly metabolized in vitro in man...
  14. Jalabi W, Cerghet M, Skoff R, Ghandour M. Detection of oligodendrocytes in tissue sections using PCR synthesis of digoxigenin-labeled probes. J Histochem Cytochem. 2003;51:913-9 pubmed
    ..b>Digoxigenin (Dig)-tagged probes were synthesized and efficiently labeled by PCR...
  15. Broketa M, Vince A, Drazenovic V, Sim R, Mlinaric Galinovic G. Non-radioactive digoxigenin DNA labeling and immunologic detection of HSV PCR products. J Clin Virol. 2001;23:17-23 pubmed
    ..The aim of our study was (1) to introduce non-radioactive labeling of HSV DNA probe by digoxigenin-labeled dUTP; (2) to establish a rapid and reliable laboratory method for rapid HSV diagnostics; (3) to compare ..
  16. Metz S, Haas A, Daub K, Croasdale R, Stracke J, Lau W, et al. Bispecific digoxigenin-binding antibodies for targeted payload delivery. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:8194-9 pubmed publisher
    Bispecific antibodies that bind cell-surface targets as well as digoxigenin (Dig) were generated for targeted payload delivery. Targeting moieties are IgGs that bind the tumor antigens Her2, IGF1R, CD22, or LeY...
  17. Larochelle R, Mardassi H, Dea S, Magar R. Detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in cell cultures and formalin-fixed tissues by in situ hybridization using a digoxigenin-labeled probe. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1996;8:3-10 pubmed
    ..The cDNA probe was labeled by random priming with digoxigenin-dUTP using a commercially available kit...
  18. Kessler C. The digoxigenin:anti-digoxigenin (DIG) technology--a survey on the concept and realization of a novel bioanalytical indicator system. Mol Cell Probes. 1991;5:161-205 pubmed
    A review is given on the novel non-radioactive digoxigenin:anti-digoxigenin (DIG) bioanalytical indicator system...
  19. Tian Q, Wong W, Xu Y, Chan Y, Ho H, Pastorin G, et al. Immobilisation of quantum dots by bio-orthogonal PCR amplification and labelling for direct gene detection and quantitation. Chem Commun (Camb). 2012;48:5467-9 pubmed publisher
  20. Wang K, Guo Y, Sun S, Shi K, Zhang S, Wang K, et al. 16S rRNA gene probe quantitates residual host cell DNA in pharmaceutical-grade plasmid DNA. Vaccine. 2006;24:2656-61 pubmed
    ..The assay utilizes PCR amplified and digoxigenin-labeled Escherichia coli 16S rRNA gene as probe. The sensitivity of the dot-blot hybridization assay with E...
  21. Weber A, Pontiggia L, Biedermann T, Schiestl C, Meuli M, Reichmann E. Determining the origin of cells in tissue engineered skin substitutes: a pilot study employing in situ hybridization. Pediatr Surg Int. 2011;27:255-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We used digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes corresponding to human-specific Alu repeats in order to identify human keratinocytes grown ..
  22. Ghadam P, Gharavi S, Yarian F, Soudi M, Kazemi B, Bandehpour M. Non-radioactive labeled probe preparation for hbs gene detection. Pak J Biol Sci. 2009;12:914-8 pubmed
    ..The PCR product in Bacillus subtilis with ATCC 6633 was labeled using non-radioactive DIG-labeled nucleotides and conditions of probe preparation and hybridization were optimized and checked it by Southern blotting. ..
  23. Baumgart E, Schad A, Volkl A, Fahimi H. Detection of mRNAs encoding peroxisomal proteins by non-radioactive in situ hybridization with digoxigenin-labelled cRNAs. Histochem Cell Biol. 1997;108:371-9 pubmed
    ..instead of frozen sections, (c) specific proteinase K-digestion time for each tissue, and (d) the use of digoxigenin-labelled cRNA probes (hydrolyzed to a length of about 200 bases) for detection...
  24. Wada Y, Yagihashi A, Kameshima H, Matsuura A, Sato N, Kikuchi K, et al. Nonradioisotopic telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) using digoxigenin labeled probe. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1997;19:451-7 pubmed
    We have attempted to detect telomerase activity by Southern blot analysis using a digoxigenin labeled probe (5'-(CCCTTA)6CCCTAA-3') Telomerase activity was detected in all cancer cell lines that were tested, and:the lower limit for ..
  25. Roche P. Preparation of template DNA and labeling techniques. Methods Mol Biol. 2006;326:9-16 pubmed
    ..Both radioactive and nonradioactive labeling procedures are described and the latest nonradioactive detection methods are outlined. ..
  26. Hombach Klonisch S, Abd Elnaeim M, Skidmore J, Leiser R, Fischer B, Klonisch T. Ruminant relaxin in the pregnant one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Biol Reprod. 2000;62:839-46 pubmed
    ..Weak expression of immunoreactive relaxin, but not relaxin mRNA, was observed in villous trophoblast cells. Pseudostratified trophoblast cells at the base of the placental villi and multinucleate giant cells did not express relaxin. ..
  27. Junker K, Kania K, Fiedler W, Hartmann A, Schubert J, Werner W. Molecular genetic evaluation of fluorescence diagnosis in bladder cancer. Int J Oncol. 2002;20:647-53 pubmed
    ..Tumor and normal (control) DNAs were amplified by DOP-PCR and labeled with biotin-dUTP and digoxigenin-dUTP, respectively. Hybridization and detection were carried out according to standard protocols...
  28. Wang R, Kim S, Robertson L, Cerniglia C. Development of a membrane-array method for the detection of human intestinal bacteria in fecal samples. Mol Cell Probes. 2002;16:341-50 pubmed
    ..b>Digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled 16S rDNAs were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from human fecal samples or pure ..
  29. Steerenberg P, Dormans J, van Doorn C, Middendorp S, Vos J, van Loveren H. A pollen model in the rat for testing adjuvant activity of air pollution components. Inhal Toxicol. 1999;11:1109-22 pubmed
    ..Immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgG(1) responses against pollen grains were measured by digoxigenin (DIG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
  30. Tasara T, Angerer B, Damond M, Winter H, Dörhöfer S, Hubscher U, et al. Incorporation of reporter molecule-labeled nucleotides by DNA polymerases. II. High-density labeling of natural DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:2636-46 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we present systematic testing of various combinations of fluorescent dye-modified dNTPs enabling the simultaneous labeling of DNA with up to four differently modified dNTPs. ..
  31. Papapanou P, Madianos P, Dahlen G, Sandros J. "Checkerboard" versus culture: a comparison between two methods for identification of subgingival microbiota. Eur J Oral Sci. 1997;105:389-96 pubmed
    ..Species identification and quantification was performed by (i) the checkerboard method, using whole genomic, digoxigenin labeled DNA probes; and (ii) culture, including non-selective and selective media in combination with routine ..
  32. Hauptmann G. One-, two-, and three-color whole-mount in situ hybridization to Drosophila embryos. Methods. 2001;23:359-72 pubmed
    ..The procedures are based on the use of digoxigenin-, fluorescein-, and biotin-labeled antisense RNA probes for nonradioactive detection of transcripts...
  33. Gabellec M, Griffais R, Fillion G, Haour F. Analysis of brain mRNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and hybridization with digoxigenin-labeled DNA probe. Brain Res Brain Res Protoc. 1997;1:145-51 pubmed
    ..We have previously described a method of synthesis of non-radioactive probe labeled with digoxigenin by nested PCR...
  34. Diep D, Hoen N, Backman M, Machon O, Krauss S. Characterisation of the Wnt antagonists and their response to conditionally activated Wnt signalling in the developing mouse forebrain. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2004;153:261-70 pubmed
  35. Razzaque M, Koji T, Harada T, Taguchi T. Identification of type VI collagen synthesizing cells in human diabetic glomerulosclerosis using renal biopsy sections. Anal Cell Pathol. 1997;15:175-81 pubmed
    ..of type VI collagen mRNA, paraffin-embedded renal sections of the control and DN were hybridized in situ with digoxigenin (Dig)-labeled antisense oligo-DNA probe complementary to a part of alpha 1 (VI) mRNA...
  36. Gallien P. Detection and subtyping of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Methods Mol Biol. 2003;216:163-84 pubmed
  37. Hoevel T, Holz H, Kubbies M. Cisplatin-digoxigenin mRNA labeling for nonradioactive detection of mRNA hybridized onto nucleic acid cDNA arrays. Biotechniques. 1999;27:1064-7 pubmed
    We optimized a novel nonradioactive hybridization technique using a cis-platin coupled digoxigenin derivative for direct labeling of mRNA...
  38. Kyryachenko S, Kyrylkova K, Leid M, Kioussi C. Determination of gene expression patterns by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;887:15-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This chapter describes a sensitive method for WISH on mouse embryos using digoxigenin-labeled RNA probes...
  39. Hart S, Basu C. Optimization of a digoxigenin-based immunoassay system for gene detection in Arabidopsis thaliana. J Biomol Tech. 2009;20:96-100 pubmed
    b>Digoxigenin is derived from a plant steroid hormone digoxin found in the plants Digitalis sp. Digoxigenin has been used successfully in labeling nucleic acids...
  40. Sirinarumitr T, Sorden S, Morozov I, Paul P. Double in situ hybridization for simultaneous detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus (PCV). J Vet Diagn Invest. 2001;13:68-71 pubmed
    ..Paraffin-embedded tissue sections were simultaneously hybridized with a digoxigenin-labeled antisense RNA probe for PRRSV and a fluorescein-labeled antisense RNA probe for PCV, and hybridization ..
  41. Gresoviac S, Baxa D, Vivares C, Hedrick R. Detection of the intranuclear microsporidium Nucleospora salmonis in naturally and experimentally exposed Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha by in situ hybridization. Parasitol Res. 2007;101:1257-64 pubmed
    ..Probes derived from the small subunit ribosomal DNA (ssu-rDNA) sequence of the microsporidium were labeled with digoxigenin deoxyuridine triphosphate (DIG-dUTP) and hybridized to parasite DNA present in infected tissues...
  42. Raff J, Whitfield W, Glover D. Two distinct mechanisms localise cyclin B transcripts in syncytial Drosophila embryos. Development. 1990;110:1249-61 pubmed
    ..The distribution pattern of the transcript at the posterior pole throughout embryogenesis and in a variety of mutant embryos suggests that this component is associated with polar granules. ..
  43. Lamar J, Petz M. Development of a receptor-based microplate assay for the detection of beta-lactam antibiotics in different food matrices. Anal Chim Acta. 2007;586:296-303 pubmed
    ..To each sample a bifunctional reagent is added, with ampicillin and digoxigenin as functional groups (DIG-AMPI)...
  44. Bouniol Baly C, Nguyen E, Besombes D, Debey P. Dynamic organization of DNA replication in one-cell mouse embryos: relationship to transcriptional activation. Exp Cell Res. 1997;236:201-11 pubmed
    ..Moreover, studies on aphidicolin-treated embryos demonstrated that inhibition of DNA replication does not hinder transcriptional activation at the 1-cell stage. ..
  45. Subbotina I, Chernykh N, Sokolova T, Kublanov I, Bonch Osmolovskaia E, Lebedinskiĭ A. [Oligonucleotide probes for the detection of Thermoanaerobacter]. Mikrobiologiia. 2003;72:374-82 pubmed
  46. Mitchell V, Bouret S, Prevot V, Jennes L, Beauvillain J. Evidence for expression of galanin receptor Gal-R1 mRNA in certain gonadotropin releasing hormone neurones of the rostral preoptic area. J Neuroendocrinol. 1999;11:805-12 pubmed
    ..Dual in-situ hybridization experiments were carried out with digoxigenin-labelled cRNA probes encoding GnRH in combination with 35S-labelled riboprobe encoding the galanin receptor Gal-..
  47. Hercík K, Melter O, Janecek J, Branny P. In situ detection of Bartonella henselae cells. Mol Cell Probes. 2002;16:49-56 pubmed
    ..Use of highly specific probes labeled with either fluorescein or digoxigenin allows discrimination between B. henselae and closely related B. quintana cells...
  48. Qi X, Chai X, Chai T. An improved primer extension method for detection of mRNA start-points using non-radioactive digoxigenin-labeling primers. Biotechnol Lett. 2007;29:1125-8 pubmed
    An improved primer extension method using non-radioactive digoxigenin (DIG)-labeling primers is described which uses a commercially-available DIG-labeling and detection system to perform alternative hybridization-based "labeling&..
  49. Morris C, Benson E, White Cooper H. Determination of gene expression patterns using in situ hybridization to Drosophila testes. Nat Protoc. 2009;4:1807-19 pubmed publisher
    ..We have used this protocol, which is similar to other RNA ISH protocols, but optimized for whole-mount Drosophila testes, to document the expression of about 1,000 genes in Drosophila melanogaster male genital tract. ..
  50. Klenke S, Tan S, Hahn S, Mann K, Hauner H, Manthey I, et al. A functional GNAQ promoter haplotype is associated with altered Gq expression and with insulin resistance and obesity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2010;20:476-84 pubmed publisher
    ..33.9+/-1.3 kg/m2, P=0.002). No association with BMI was found in healthy women. G(-168)A is functionally relevant and in linkage with TT(-695/-694)GC. GNAQ promoter diplotypes are associated with insulin resistance and obesity in PCOS. ..
  51. Ge Y, Ohmori J, Tsuyama S, Yang D, Kato K, Miyauchi M, et al. Immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization studies of pepsinogen C-producing cells in developing rat fundic glands. Cell Tissue Res. 1998;293:121-31 pubmed
    ..of rat pepsinogen C messenger RNA (mRNA) in the fundic gland was also examined by in situ hybridization using a digoxigenin-labeled RNA probe...
  52. Gregory C, Rigg G, Illidge C, Matthews R. Quantification of Escherichia coli genomic DNA contamination in recombinant protein preparations by polymerase chain reaction and affinity-based collection. Anal Biochem. 2001;296:114-21 pubmed
    ..The assay described in this report is a safer and less expensive alternative to radioactive techniques employed for DNA quantification, utilizing readily available reagents and apparatus. ..
  53. Takahata T, Miyashita M, Tanaka S, Kaas J. Identification of ocular dominance domains in New World owl monkeys by immediate-early gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:4297-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide insights into the structure and variability of ODCs in primates and revive debate over the functions and development of ODCs. ..