Summary: A cardiac glycoside sometimes used in place of DIGOXIN. It has a longer half-life than digoxin; toxic effects, which are similar to those of digoxin, are longer lasting. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p665)

Top Publications

  1. Al Rajhy D, Alahmed A, Hussein H, Kheir S. Acaricidal effects of cardiac glycosides, azadirachtin and neem oil against the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae). Pest Manag Sci. 2003;59:1250-4 pubmed
    The cardiac glycoside, digitoxin, from Digitalis purpurea L (Scrophulariaceae), a cardiac glycosidal (cardenolide) extract from Calotropis procera (Ait) R Br (Asclepiadaceae), azadirachtin and neem oil from Azadirachta indica A Juss (..
  2. Bocknack B, Wang L, Krische M. Desymmetrization of enone-diones via rhodium-catalyzed diastereo- and enantioselective tandem conjugate addition-aldol cyclization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:5421-4 pubmed
    ..This methodology allows concise entry to optically enriched seco-B ring steroids possessing a 14-hydroxy cis-fused C-D ring junction, as found in naturally occurring cardiotonic steroids derived from digitalis. ..
  3. Haux J, Klepp O, Spigset O, Tretli S. Digitoxin medication and cancer; case control and internal dose-response studies. BMC Cancer. 2001;1:11 pubmed
    b>Digitoxin induces apoptosis in different human malignant cell lines in vitro. In this paper we investigated if patients taking digitoxin for cardiac disease have a different cancer incidence compared to the general population...
  4. Belz G, Breithaupt Grögler K, Osowski U. Treatment of congestive heart failure--current status of use of digitoxin. Eur J Clin Invest. 2001;31 Suppl 2:10-7 pubmed
    ..b>Digitoxin is highly lipophilic and extensively bound to plasma proteins, has a longer half-life, is mainly eliminated in ..
  5. Wang S, Pu H, Kan S, Tseng C, Lo M, Wang P. Inhibitory effects of digoxin and digitoxin on corticosterone production in rat zona fasciculata-reticularis cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2004;142:1123-30 pubmed
    ..fasciculata-reticularis (ZFR) cells in male rats were prepared and then incubated with or without digoxin or digitoxin in the presence or absence of ACTH (10(-9) m), forskolin (10(-7) m), 8-bromo-cyclic 3' : 5'-adenosine ..
  6. Jagielska J, Salguero G, Schieffer B, Bavendiek U. Digitoxin elicits anti-inflammatory and vasoprotective properties in endothelial cells: Therapeutic implications for the treatment of atherosclerosis?. Atherosclerosis. 2009;206:390-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent observations pointed to potential anti-inflammatory properties of the cardiac glycoside digitoxin. Therefore, the present study investigated potential anti-inflammatory and vasoprotective properties of ..
  7. Su C, Hsu J, Hsieh H, Lin P, Chen T, Kao C, et al. Anti-HSV activity of digitoxin and its possible mechanisms. Antiviral Res. 2008;79:62-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we identified an in-use medication, digitoxin, which actively inhibited HSV-1 replication with a 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) of 0.05 microM...
  8. Langenhan J, Engle J, Slevin L, Fay L, Lucker R, Smith K, et al. Modifying the glycosidic linkage in digitoxin analogs provides selective cytotoxins. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008;18:670-3 pubmed
    ..This panel of digitoxin analogs included potent and selective tumor cytotoxins; cytotoxicity was dependent on the structure of the ..
  9. Prassas I, Karagiannis G, Batruch I, Dimitromanolakis A, Datti A, Diamandis E. Digitoxin-induced cytotoxicity in cancer cells is mediated through distinct kinase and interferon signaling networks. Mol Cancer Ther. 2011;10:2083-93 pubmed publisher
    Cardiac glycosides (e.g., digoxin, digitoxin) constitute a diverse family of plant-derived sodium pump inhibitors that have been in clinical use for the treatment of heart-related diseases (congestive heart failure, atrial arrhythmia) ..

More Information


  1. Beale T, Taylor M. Synthesis of cardiac glycoside analogs by catalyst-controlled, regioselective glycosylation of digitoxin. Org Lett. 2013;15:1358-61 pubmed publisher
    The cardiac glycoside natural product digitoxin was selectively glycosylated at one of its five hydroxyl groups using a borinic acid derived catalyst...
  2. Zhou M, O Doherty G. A stereoselective synthesis of digitoxin and digitoxigen mono- and bisdigitoxoside from digitoxigenin via a palladium-catalyzed glycosylation. Org Lett. 2006;8:4339-42 pubmed
    A convergent and stereocontrolled route to trisaccharide natural product digitoxin has been developed. The route is amenable to the preparation of both the digitoxigen mono- and bisdigitoxoside...
  3. López Lázaro M. Digitoxin as an anticancer agent with selectivity for cancer cells: possible mechanisms involved. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2007;11:1043-53 pubmed
    Accumulating preclinical and clinical data suggest that the cardiac drug digitoxin might be used in cancer therapy...
  4. Ma Y, Li Z, Shi H, Zhang J, Yu B. Assembly of digitoxin by gold(I)-catalyzed glycosidation of glycosyl o-alkynylbenzoates. J Org Chem. 2011;76:9748-56 pubmed publisher
    b>Digitoxin, a clinically important cardiac trisaccharide, was assembled efficiently from digitoxigenin and 3,4-di-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-d-digitoxosyl o-cyclopropylethynylbenzoate in 9 steps and 52% overall yield via alternate ..
  5. Guzman M, Aberturas M, Rodriguez Puyol M, Molpeceres J. Effect of nanoparticles on digitoxin uptake and pharmacologic activity in rat glomerular mesangial cell cultures. Drug Deliv. 2000;7:215-22 pubmed
    Our experiments analyzed the uptake of free and nanoparticles (NP)-associated digitoxin (DGT) by rat glomerular mesangial cells. NP were prepared by the nanoprecipitation method using the biodegradable polyester, polycaprolactone (PCL)...
  6. Haux J. Digitoxin is a potential anticancer agent for several types of cancer. Med Hypotheses. 1999;53:543-8 pubmed
    ..Some new data concerning inhibition and apoptosis in three human glioblastoma cell lines by digitoxin are also presented.
  7. Zhou M, O DOHERTY G. The de novo synthesis of oligosaccharides: application to the medicinal chemistry SAR-study of digitoxin. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8:114-25 pubmed
    ..The utility of this method was demonstrated by the syntheses and biological evaluation of several digitoxin oligosaccharide analogues.
  8. Perne A, Muellner M, Steinrueck M, Craig Mueller N, Mayerhofer J, Schwarzinger I, et al. Cardiac glycosides induce cell death in human cells by inhibiting general protein synthesis. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8292 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding that cardiac glycosides inhibit protein synthesis provides a mechanism for the cytotoxicity of CGs and raises concerns about ongoing clinical trials to test CGs as anti-cancer agents in humans. ..
  9. Pu H, Wang S, Tseng C, Huang H, Lin C, Hsu J, et al. Mechanisms of digoxin and digitoxin on the production of corticosterone in zona fasciculata-reticularis cells of ovariectomized rats. J Cell Biochem. 2006;97:303-13 pubmed
    ..DG and digitoxin (DT), but not ouabain, inhibit the progesterone, pregnenolone, and corticosterone secretion by rat granulosa ..
  10. Oiestad E, Johansen U, Stokke Opdal M, Bergan S, Christophersen A. Determination of digoxin and digitoxin in whole blood. J Anal Toxicol. 2009;33:372-8 pubmed
    ..mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of digoxin and digitoxin in whole blood samples in autopsy cases...
  11. Felth J, Rickardson L, Rosén J, Wickström M, Fryknäs M, Lindskog M, et al. Cytotoxic effects of cardiac glycosides in colon cancer cells, alone and in combination with standard chemotherapeutic drugs. J Nat Prod. 2009;72:1969-74 pubmed publisher
    ..4), and proscillaridin A (5) were identified as the most potent compounds (submicromolar IC50 values), and digitoxin (2) and digoxin (3), which are used in cardiac disease, exhibited somewhat lower activity (IC50 values 0.27-4...
  12. Elbaz H, Stueckle T, Wang H, O Doherty G, Lowry D, Sargent L, et al. Digitoxin and a synthetic monosaccharide analog inhibit cell viability in lung cancer cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012;258:51-60 pubmed publisher
    Mechanisms of digitoxin-inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer (NCI-H460) cells remain unclear...
  13. Kaiser P, Kramer U, Meissner D, Kress M, Wood W, Reinauer H. Determination of the cardiac glycosides digoxin and digitoxin by liquid chromatography combined with isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (LC-IDMS)--a candidate reference measurement procedure. Clin Lab. 2003;49:329-43 pubmed
    ..a method of high analytical sensitivity, reproducibility and trueness for the determination of digoxin and digitoxin in serum or plasma at therapeutic levels using a combination of high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), ..
  14. Wu S, Li W, Wells A, Dasgupta A. Digoxin-like and digitoxin-like immunoreactive substances in elderly people. Impact on therapeutic drug monitoring of digoxin and digitoxin concentrations. Am J Clin Pathol. 2001;115:600-4 pubmed
    We compared digoxin-like (DLIS) and digitoxin-like (DTLIS) immunoreactive substance concentrations for 30 people older than 65 years with those for 25 people younger than 50...
  15. Ahern T, Lash T, Sørensen H, Pedersen L. Digoxin treatment is associated with an increased incidence of breast cancer: a population-based case-control study. Breast Cancer Res. 2008;10:R102 pubmed publisher
    ..and epidemiologic studies have suggested a modifying effect of cardiac glycosides (for example, digoxin and digitoxin) on cancer risk...
  16. López Lázaro M, Pastor N, Azrak S, Ayuso M, Austin C, Cortés F. Digitoxin inhibits the growth of cancer cell lines at concentrations commonly found in cardiac patients. J Nat Prod. 2005;68:1642-5 pubmed
    The cardiac glycosides digitoxin (1) and digoxin (3) have been used in cardiac diseases for many years. During this time several reports have suggested the possible use of digitalis in medical oncology...
  17. Srivastava M, Eidelman O, Zhang J, Paweletz C, Caohuy H, Yang Q, et al. Digitoxin mimics gene therapy with CFTR and suppresses hypersecretion of IL-8 from cystic fibrosis lung epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:7693-8 pubmed
    ..We show here that digitoxin, at sub nM concentrations, can suppress hypersecretion of IL-8 from cultured CF lung epithelial cells...
  18. Johansson S, Lindholm P, Gullbo J, Larsson R, Bohlin L, Claeson P. Cytotoxicity of digitoxin and related cardiac glycosides in human tumor cells. Anticancer Drugs. 2001;12:475-83 pubmed
    ..Of these seven compounds, proscillaridin A was the most potent (IC(50): 6.4--76 nM), followed by digitoxin, and then ouabain, digoxin, lanatoside C, digitoxigenin and digitonin...
  19. Anderson E, Lin C, Xiao X, Stoilov P, Burge C, Black D. The cardiotonic steroid digitoxin regulates alternative splicing through depletion of the splicing factors SRSF3 and TRA2B. RNA. 2012;18:1041-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the mechanism by which digitoxin, a member of the cardiotonic steroid class of drugs, regulates alternative splicing...
  20. Einbond L, Shimizu M, Ma H, Wu H, Goldsberry S, Sicular S, et al. Actein inhibits the Na+-K+-ATPase and enhances the growth inhibitory effect of digitoxin on human breast cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;375:608-13 pubmed publisher
    The Na+K+-ATPase is a known target of cardiac glycosides such as digitoxin and ouabain. We determined that the enzyme also is a target of the structurally-related triterpene glycoside actein, present in the herb black cohosh...
  21. Pauli Magnus C, Murdter T, Godel A, Mettang T, Eichelbaum M, Klotz U, et al. P-glycoprotein-mediated transport of digitoxin, alpha-methyldigoxin and beta-acetyldigoxin. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2001;363:337-43 pubmed
    ..glycosides, little is known about P-glycoprotein transport characteristics of digitalis glycosides such as digitoxin, alpha-methyldigoxin, beta-acetyldigoxin and ouabain...
  22. López Lázaro M, Pastor N, Azrak S, Ayuso M, Cortés F, Austin C. Digitoxin, at concentrations commonly found in the plasma of cardiac patients, antagonizes etoposide and idarubicin activity in K562 leukemia cells. Leuk Res. 2006;30:895-8 pubmed
    b>Digitoxin is used in the treatment of cardiac congestion and some types of cardiac arrhythmias. The mechanism of action of this cardiac glycoside suggested that it might antagonize the anticancer activity of topoisomerase II poisons...
  23. Balsevich J, Bishop G, Deibert L. Use of digitoxin and digoxin as internal standards in HPLC analysis of triterpene saponin-containing extracts. Phytochem Anal. 2009;20:38-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Determination of total saponin content can be problematic, often relying on non-specific methods based on butanol solubility, haemolytic activity or formation of coloured derivatives...
  24. Niikura K, Nishio T, Akita H, Matsuo Y, Kamitani R, Kogure K, et al. Accumulation of O-GlcNAc-displaying CdTe quantum dots in cells in the presence of ATP. Chembiochem. 2007;8:379-84 pubmed
  25. Moxnes J, Hausken K. Predicting the concentration level of an anti-cancer drug during treatment of a living organism. Med Hypotheses. 2003;60:498-500 pubmed
    ..The model is tested in a clinical situation where digitoxin is used as the therapeutic drug. The agreement with this experiment is good.
  26. Dasgupta A, Galvao Neto A, Wells A, Olsen M, Actor J. Digitoxin-like immunoreactivity in sera of mice after feeding with chinese medicine Chan Su: study of protein binding of Chan Su in normal sera, uremic sera and sera from patients with liver disease. Clin Chim Acta. 2001;305:175-9 pubmed
    ..report rapid detection of the presence of Chan Su in blood using the fluorescence polarization immunoassay for digitoxin. In our study mice were fed with a dose of 75 mg/kg of Chan Su and blood was drawn before, and 1 and 2 h after ..
  27. Lapostolle F, Borron S, Verdier C, Taboulet P, Guerrier G, Adnet F, et al. Digoxin-specific Fab fragments as single first-line therapy in digitalis poisoning. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:3014-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Their median age was 74 years (25th to 75th percentiles: 51-83); 76% were women. Half were intoxicated by digitoxin and half by digoxin. Median serum concentration was 168 (108-205) ng/mL for digitoxin and 6.2 (4.3-13...
  28. Haustein K, Schmidt C. Differences in color discrimination between three cardioactive glycosides. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1988;26:517-20 pubmed
    Color discrimination ability of 100 in-patients suffering from congestive heart failure and treated with digitoxin (D), pengitoxin (P), or digoxin (Dg) was determined with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue test (FM 100) and compared with ..
  29. Schmoldt A, Herzfeldt B, von Meyerinck L, Benthe H. Evidence for a digitoxin conjugating UDP-glucuronosyltransferase in the dog. Biochem Pharmacol. 1987;36:3951-5 pubmed
    Liver microsomes of male Beagle dogs contain a form of UDP-glucuronyltransferase which is capable of conjugating digitoxin and its cleavage products digitoxigenin-bisdigitoxoside and digitoxigenin-monodigitoxoside...
  30. Chen J, Wang P, Chien E, Wang S. Direct inhibitory effect of digitalis on progesterone release from rat granulosa cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2001;132:1761-8 pubmed
    Digoxin (10(-7) - 10(-5) M) or digitoxin (10(-7) - 10(-5) M) decreased the basal and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated release of progesterone from rat granulosa cells...
  31. Matsuda R, Anguizola J, Joseph K, Hage D. Analysis of drug interactions with modified proteins by high-performance affinity chromatography: binding of glibenclamide to normal and glycated human serum albumin. J Chromatogr A. 2012;1265:114-22 pubmed publisher
    ..A slight decrease in affinity may have occurred at the digitoxin site, but this change was not significant for any individual glycated HSA sample...
  32. Templeton J, Setiloane P, Kumar V, Yan Y, Zeglam T, LaBella F. Pregnanes that bind to the digitalis receptor: synthesis of 14-hydroxy-5 beta,14 beta-pregnane glycosides from digitoxin and digitoxigenin. J Med Chem. 1991;34:2778-82 pubmed
    ..beta,14 beta-pregnane by two routes, based on the conversion of the alpha,beta-unsaturated gamma-lactone in digitoxin to the 20-ketone and 20 beta-alcohol by ozonolysis and zinc-acetic acid treatment followed by lithium tri-tert-..
  33. Adamczyk M, Chen Y, Grote J, Mattingly P. O-(fluoresceinylmethyl)hydroxylamine (OFMHA): a reagent for the preparation of fluorescent O-(fluoresceinylmethyl)oxime (FMO)-steroid conjugates. Steroids. 1999;64:283-90 pubmed
    ..a representative sample of oxo-steroids (6-oxoestradiol, estrone, norethindrone, cortisol, progesterone, and digitoxin-dialdehyde) to produce O-(fluoresceinylmethyl)oxime conjugates in a single step in 24-84% yield after ..
  34. Hallböök H, Felth J, Eriksson A, Fryknäs M, Bohlin L, Larsson R, et al. Ex vivo activity of cardiac glycosides in acute leukaemia. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e15718 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Digitoxin appeared most potent and IC(50) values for several patient samples were at concentrations that may be achieved ..
  35. Nokhodian A, Santos S, Kirch W. Digitoxin and its metabolites in patients with liver cirrhosis. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1993;18:207-13 pubmed
    Pharmacokinetic profile and urinary excretion of digitoxin and 4 metabolites were investigated in 9 patients with biopsy confirmed liver cirrhosis (median antipyrine clearance 20.0 +/- 5...
  36. Petralia S, Jahagirdar V, Frye C. Inhibiting biosynthesis and/or metabolism of progestins in the ventral tegmental area attenuates lordosis of rats in behavioural oestrus. J Neuroendocrinol. 2005;17:545-52 pubmed
    ..In Experiment 1, naturally-receptive rats received bilateral VTA infusions of a P450scc inhibitor, digitoxin (1 microg/side); a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride (10 microg/side); digitoxin (1 microg/side)+..
  37. Arispe N, Diaz J, Simakova O, Pollard H. Heart failure drug digitoxin induces calcium uptake into cells by forming transmembrane calcium channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:2610-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Digitoxin and other cardiac glycosides are important, centuries-old drugs for treating congestive heart failure. However, the mechanism of action of these compounds is still being elucidated...
  38. Diogene E, Pérez P, Figueras A, Furones J, Debesa F, Laporte J. The Cuban experience in focusing pharmaceuticals policy to health population needs: initial results of the National Pharmacoepidemiology Network (1996-2001). Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2003;12:405-7 pubmed
    ..Cuba keeps good health standards in spite of a short health budget. ..
  39. Dasgupta A, Paul A, Wells A. Uremic sera contain inhibitors that block digitoxin-valproic acid interaction. Am J Med Sci. 2001;322:204-8 pubmed
    b>Digitoxin and valproic acid show strong binding to serum albumin. Thus, when present simultaneously in serum, digitoxin and valproic acid compete for binding sites. We studied digitoxin-valproic acid interaction in normal and uremic sera.
  40. Kolkhof P, Geerts A, Schafer S, Torzewski J. Cardiac glycosides potently inhibit C-reactive protein synthesis in human hepatocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;394:233-9 pubmed publisher
    ..e. the cardiac glycosides ouabain and digitoxin, inhibit IL-1beta- and IL-6-induced APP expression in human hepatoma cells and primary human hepatocytes (PHH) ..
  41. Grossmann M, Jamieson M, Kirch W. Effects of digoxin and digitoxin on circadian blood pressure profile in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Invest. 1998;28:701-6 pubmed
    The aim of the study was to investigate the potential effects of chronic digoxin or digitoxin treatment or circadian blood pressure profile in normotensive subjects...
  42. Dos Santos A, Helber I, Antonio E, Franco M, Tucci P. Severity of the cardiac impairment determines whether digitalis prolongs or reduces survival of rats with heart failure due to myocardial infarction. Int J Cardiol. 2013;167:357-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to evaluate if the influence of digitalis on survival depends on the severity of cardiac dysfunction in heart failure (HF)...
  43. Newman L, Feinberg M, LeWine H. Clinical problem-solving. A bitter tale. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:594-9 pubmed
  44. Barbehenn R. Non-absorption of ingested lipophilic and amphiphilic allelochemicals by generalist grasshoppers: the role of extractive ultrafiltration by the peritrophic envelope. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 1999;42:130-7 pubmed
    ..Each of three allelochemicals (digitoxin, ouabain, and xanthotoxin) were solubilized in a lysolecithin suspension and injected separately into the midgut ..
  45. Lee D, Lee C, Kim D, Ae J, Lee T. Digitoxin sensitizes glioma cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis by upregulation of death receptor 5 and downregulation of survivin. Anticancer Drugs. 2014;25:44-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have shown that digitoxin (DT), a clinically approved cardiac glycoside for heart failure, can induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of ..
  46. Lin J, deLuna F, Ulm E, Tocco D. Species-dependent enantioselective plasma protein binding of MK-571, a potent leukotriene D4 antagonist. Drug Metab Dispos. 1990;18:484-7 pubmed
    ..Displacement studies with [14C] diazepam, [14C]warfarin, and [3H]digitoxin indicated that the enantioselective differences in protein binding are most likely due to the differences in ..
  47. Keller K, Lemberg L. Iatrogenic sick sinus syndrome. Am J Crit Care. 2007;16:294-7 pubmed
  48. Hazlett T, Ruan Q, Tetin S. Application of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to hapten-antibody binding. Methods Mol Biol. 2005;305:415-38 pubmed
    ..data on two antibody-hapten pairs: antidigoxin IgG with fluorescein-digoxin and antidigitoxin IgG with Alexa488-digitoxin. Digoxin and digitoxin are important cardio glycoside drugs, toxic at higher levels, and their blood ..
  49. Moxnes J, Haux J, Hausken K. The dynamics of cell proliferation. Med Hypotheses. 2004;62:556-63 pubmed
    ..A comparison is made by in vitro experiments with cancer cells exposed to digitoxin, a new promising anti-cancer drug...
  50. Hirai S. [Dementia induced by cardiokinetic and anti-hypertensive drugs]. Nihon Rinsho. 2004;62 Suppl:494-7 pubmed
  51. Hippius M, Humaid B, Sicker T, Hoffmann A, Göttler M, Hasford J. Adverse drug reaction monitoring--digitoxin overdosage in the elderly. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2001;39:336-43 pubmed
    ..our results, including clinical and demographic data, concerning intoxications and especially those involving digitoxin in 210 patients with ADR. Forty patients with digitoxin toxicity had an average age of 81 years (81.1+/-6...
  52. Nägele H, Behrens S, Hashagen S, Azizi M. Rhabdomyolysis after addition of digitoxin to chronic simvastatin and amiodarone therapy. Drug Metabol Drug Interact. 2007;22:195-200 pubmed
    ..caused by a drug interaction between chronic statin therapy (simvastatin), amiodarone and newly administrated digitoxin. The patient recovered fully after cessation of simvastatin therapy, the other drugs were given continuously...
  53. Cuccarese M, Singh A, Amiji M, O Doherty G. A novel use of gentamicin in the ROS-mediated sensitization of NCI-H460 lung cancer cells to various anticancer agents. ACS Chem Biol. 2013;8:2771-7 pubmed publisher
    ..be implemented as a sensitizing agent for the NSCLC cell line NCI-H460, increasing the efficacy of camptothecin, digitoxin, and vinblastine in vitro...