Summary: A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.

Top Publications

  1. Vercesi A, Bernardes C, Hoffmann M, Gadelha F, Docampo R. Digitonin permeabilization does not affect mitochondrial function and allows the determination of the mitochondrial membrane potential of Trypanosoma cruzi in situ. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:14431-4 pubmed
    b>Digitonin can be used to permeabilize selectively the plasma membrane of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes without significantly affecting the functional integrity of mitochondria...
  2. Duan S, Hajek P, Lin C, Shin S, Attardi G, Chomyn A. Mitochondrial outer membrane permeability change and hypersensitivity to digitonin early in staurosporine-induced apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:1346-53 pubmed
    ..TK(-) cells permeabilized with digitonin at a concentration not affecting the mitochondrial membranes in naive cells, the outer mitochondrial membrane ..
  3. Matsubayashi Y, Iwai L, Kawasaki H. Fluorescent double-labeling with carbocyanine neuronal tracing and immunohistochemistry using a cholesterol-specific detergent digitonin. J Neurosci Methods. 2008;174:71-81 pubmed publisher
    ..searched for detergents that are compatible with DiI labeling, and found that a cholesterol-specific detergent digitonin is useful for fluorescent double-labeling with DiI tracing and immunohistochemistry...
  4. Eid S, El Readi M, Eldin E, Fatani S, Wink M. Influence of combinations of digitonin with selected phenolics, terpenoids, and alkaloids on the expression and activity of P-glycoprotein in leukaemia and colon cancer cells. Phytomedicine. 2013;21:47-61 pubmed publisher
    ..25% and by 244.02% and 290.16%, respectively relative to verapamil (100%). Combination of the saponin digitonin (5?M), which also inhibits P-gp, with SM significantly enhanced the inhibition of P-gp activity...
  5. Rodrigues C, Catisti R, Uyemura S, Vercesi A, Lira R, Rodriguez C, et al. The sterol composition of Trypanosoma cruzi changes after growth in different culture media and results in different sensitivity to digitonin-permeabilization. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2001;48:588-94 pubmed
    ..either in liver infusion-tryptose (LIT) or brain heart infusion (BHI) culture medium were assayed in situ using digitonin to render their plasma membrane permeable to succinate, ADP, safranine O, and other small molecules...
  6. Foucher A, Papadopoulou B, Ouellette M. Prefractionation by digitonin extraction increases representation of the cytosolic and intracellular proteome of Leishmania infantum. J Proteome Res. 2006;5:1741-50 pubmed
    ..have developed a protein prefractionation protocol, based on the differential solubilization of membranes using digitonin, that has allowed an increase in the resolution and depth of comparative proteomic studies...
  7. Akagi K, Nagao T, Urushidani T. Reconstitution of acid secretion in digitonin-permeabilized rabbit gastric glands. Identification of cytosolic regulatory factors. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:28171-8 pubmed
    When isolated rabbit gastric glands were permeabilized with digitonin, they lost their ability to secrete acid, as monitored by [14C]aminopyrine accumulation, and they never recovered by supplement with cytosol prepared from gastric ..
  8. Popov S, Rexach M, Zybarth G, Reiling N, Lee M, Ratner L, et al. Viral protein R regulates nuclear import of the HIV-1 pre-integration complex. EMBO J. 1998;17:909-17 pubmed
    ..An in vitro assay that reconstitutes nuclear import of HIV-1 pre-integration complexes in digitonin-permeabilized cells was used to demonstrate that Vpr is the key regulator of the viral nuclear import process...
  9. Ebaid G, Faine L, Diniz Y, Rodrigues H, Galhardi C, Ribas B, et al. Effects of digitonin on hyperglycaemia and dyslipidemia induced by high-sucrose intake. Food Chem Toxicol. 2006;44:293-9 pubmed
    ..intake effects on lipid profile and oral glucose tolerance may be inhibited by a single administration of digitonin, a saponin from the seeds of Digitalis purpurea Male Wistar 24 rats were initially divided into two groups (n=12)..

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  1. Hide M, Ritleng A, Brizard J, Monte Allegre A, Sereno D. Leishmania infantum: tuning digitonin fractionation for comparative proteomic of the mitochondrial protein content. Parasitol Res. 2008;103:989-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Using both cytosolic and mitochondrial markers, we have improved a protein pre-fractionation protocol using digitonin that allowed us to generate an enriched mitochondrial fraction.
  2. Cockrell D, Beare P, Fischer E, Howe D, Heinzen R. A method for purifying obligate intracellular Coxiella burnetii that employs digitonin lysis of host cells. J Microbiol Methods. 2008;72:321-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe a gentle and safe digitonin lysis procedure to release C. burnetii from infected cells...
  3. Jonckheere A, Huigsloot M, Janssen A, Kappen A, Smeitink J, Rodenburg R. High-throughput assay to measure oxygen consumption in digitonin-permeabilized cells of patients with mitochondrial disorders. Clin Chem. 2010;56:424-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed mitochondrial respiration in digitonin-permeabilized cells in the presence of a substrate mix containing pyruvate and malate, using a phosphorescent ..
  4. Hellmann J, Münter S, Wink M, Frischknecht F. Synergistic and additive effects of epigallocatechin gallate and digitonin on Plasmodium sporozoite survival and motility. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8682 pubmed publisher
    ..such effects, we tested the green tea compound epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and the membrane permeabilising digitonin on Plasmodium sporozoite motility and viability. Green fluorescent P...
  5. Geelen M. The use of digitonin-permeabilized mammalian cells for measuring enzyme activities in the course of studies on lipid metabolism. Anal Biochem. 2005;347:1-9 pubmed
  6. Chi N, Adam E, Visser G, Adam S. RanBP1 stabilizes the interaction of Ran with p97 nuclear protein import. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:559-69 pubmed
    ..In a digitonin-permeabilized cell docking assay, RanBP1 stabilizes the receptor complex against temperature-dependent release ..
  7. Eid S, El Readi M, Wink M. Synergism of three-drug combinations of sanguinarine and other plant secondary metabolites with digitonin and doxorubicin in multi-drug resistant cancer cells. Phytomedicine. 2012;19:1288-97 pubmed publisher
    ..menthol, aromadendrene, ?-sitosterol-O-glucoside, and ?-carotene), alone or in combination with the saponin digitonin to reverse the relative multi-drug resistance of Caco-2 and CEM/ADR5000 cells to the chemotherapeutical agent ..
  8. Sarafian T, Aunis D, Bader M. Loss of proteins from digitonin-permeabilized adrenal chromaffin cells essential for exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:16671-6 pubmed
    Cultured chromaffin cells can be permeabilized with digitonin; the cell interior is then accessible to the cytoplasm, and addition of calcium provokes release of catecholamines...
  9. Robinson I, Burgoyne R. Characterisation of distinct inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive and caffeine-sensitive calcium stores in digitonin-permeabilised adrenal chromaffin cells. J Neurochem. 1991;56:1587-93 pubmed
    The effect of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins-(1,4,5)P3] and caffeine on Ca2+ release from digitonin-permeabilised bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was examined by using the Ca2+ indicator fura-2 to monitor [Ca2+]...
  10. Zhang L, Mizumoto K, Sato N, Ogawa T, Kusumoto M, Niiyama H, et al. Quantitative determination of apoptotic death in cultured human pancreatic cancer cells by propidium iodide and digitonin. Cancer Lett. 1999;142:129-37 pubmed
    ..reader, the fluorescence intensity of propidium iodide (PI) corresponding to dead cells and to total cells after digitonin treatment were measured in cultured human pancreatic cancer cells following exposure to etoposide...
  11. Liu Y, Ostrup O, Li J, Vajta G, Lin L, Kragh P, et al. Increased blastocyst formation of cloned porcine embryos produced with donor cells pre-treated with Xenopus egg extract and/or digitonin. Zygote. 2012;20:61-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In Experiment 1, fetal fibroblasts were permeabilized by digitonin, incubated in egg extract and, after re-sealing of cell membranes, cultured for 3 or 5 days before use as donor ..
  12. Morita K, Ishii S, Uda H, Oka M. Requirement of ATP for exocytotic release of catecholamines from digitonin-permeabilized adrenal chromaffin cells. J Neurochem. 1988;50:644-8 pubmed
    Cultured chromaffin cells were preincubated with digitonin to deplete endogenous ATP from the cell cytoplasm...
  13. Tanaka T, Kaneda Y, Li T, Matsuoka T, Zempo N, Esato K. Digitonin enhances the antitumor effect of cisplatin during isolated lung perfusion. Ann Thorac Surg. 2001;72:1173-8 pubmed
    ..To solve this problem, digitonin, a detergent, was chosen to increase cell permeability and enhance intracellular uptake and antitumor effect...
  14. Stoltz D, Lapointe R, Makkay A, Cusson M. Exposure of ichnovirus particles to digitonin leads to enhanced infectivity and induces fusion from without in an in vitro model system. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:2977-84 pubmed
    ..Here, in an attempt to develop an in vitro model system for studying ichnovirus infection, we show that digitonin-induced disruption of the virion outer membrane not only increases infectivity, but also uncovers an activity ..
  15. Miyamoto K, Yamashita T, Tsukiyama T, Kitamura N, Minami N, Yamada M, et al. Reversible membrane permeabilization of mammalian cells treated with digitonin and its use for inducing nuclear reprogramming by Xenopus egg extracts. Cloning Stem Cells. 2008;10:535-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we used a nonionic detergent, digitonin, for permeabilization...
  16. Plutner H, Davidson H, Saraste J, Balch W. Morphological analysis of protein transport from the ER to Golgi membranes in digitonin-permeabilized cells: role of the P58 containing compartment. J Cell Biol. 1992;119:1097-116 pubmed
    The glycoside digitonin was used to selectively permeabilize the plasma membrane exposing functionally and morphologically intact ER and Golgi compartments...
  17. Frizzo J, Tramontina A, Tramontina F, Gottfried C, Leal R, Donato R, et al. Involvement of the S100B in cAMP-induced cytoskeleton remodeling in astrocytes: a study using TRTK-12 in digitonin-permeabilized cells. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2004;24:833-40 pubmed
    ..3. We used digitonin-permeabilized astrocytes to introduce TRTK-12, a peptide that binds to the C-terminal of S100B and blocks its ..
  18. Kehlenbach R. In vitro analysis of nuclear mRNA export using molecular beacons for target detection. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:e64 pubmed
    ..To this end, an mRNA export assay has been developed using digitonin-permeabilized HeLa cells and 2'-O-methyl oligoribonucleotide molecular beacons for target detection...
  19. Terbush D, Holz R. Barium and calcium stimulate secretion from digitonin-permeabilized bovine adrenal chromaffin cells by similar pathways. J Neurochem. 1992;58:680-7 pubmed
    ..compared the characteristics of secretion stimulated by EGTA-buffered Ba(2+)- and Ca(2+)-containing solutions in digitonin-permeabilized bovine adrenal chromaffin cells...
  20. Matsubayashi Y, Iwai L, Toda T, Lu Q, Kawasaki H. Immunostaining for oligodendrocyte-specific galactosphingolipids in fixed brain sections using the cholesterol-selective detergent digitonin. J Neurosci Methods. 2009;178:87-98 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that treating brain sections with the cholesterol-specific detergent digitonin instead of Triton X-100 or methanol leads to efficient antibody penetration into tissue sections without ..
  21. Alt A, McFadyen I, Fan C, Woods J, Traynor J. Stimulation of guanosine-5'-o-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate binding in digitonin-permeabilized C6 rat glioma cells: evidence for an organized association of mu-opioid receptors and G protein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001;298:116-21 pubmed
    ..assay for the determination of relative opioid efficacy has been adapted to measure G protein activation in digitonin-permeabilized C6 rat glioma cells expressing a cloned mu-opioid receptor...
  22. Goldstein J, Waterhouse N, Juin P, Evan G, Green D. The coordinate release of cytochrome c during apoptosis is rapid, complete and kinetically invariant. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:156-62 pubmed
    ..Further, we find that the electron-transport chain can maintain the mitochondrial transmembrane potential even after cytochrome c has been released. ..
  23. Ferella M, Li Z, Andersson B, Docampo R. Farnesyl diphosphate synthase localizes to the cytoplasm of Trypanosoma cruzi and T. brucei. Exp Parasitol. 2008;119:308-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We here report that FPPS localizes to the cytoplasm of both Trypanosoma cruzi and T. brucei, and is not present in other organelles such as the mitochondria and glycosomes. ..
  24. Jimenez A, Maiuri P, Lafaurie Janvore J, Divoux S, Piel M, Perez F. ESCRT machinery is required for plasma membrane repair. Science. 2014;343:1247136 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the repair of certain wounds is ensured by ESCRT-mediated extracellular shedding of wounded portions. ..
  25. Bijleveld C, Vaartjes W, Geelen M. Time course of hormonal effects on acetyl-CoA carboxylase as measured in digitonin-permeabilized rat hepatocytes. Horm Metab Res. 1989;21:602-5 pubmed
    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity was measured in digitonin-permeabilized rat hepatocytes by coupling the carboxylase reaction to the fatty acid synthase reaction...
  26. Parker H, Hill T, Alexander K, Murphy N, Fish W, Parsons M. Three genes and two isozymes: gene conversion and the compartmentalization and expression of the phosphoglycerate kinases of Trypanosoma (Nannomonas) congolense. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1995;69:269-79 pubmed
    ..congolense and that these are constitutively expressed. Differential digitonin solubilization of the trypanosomes indicated that 56PGK is primarily localized to the glycosome, as expected, ..
  27. Elzagallaai A, Rose S, Brandan N, Trifaro J. Myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate phosphorylation is involved in thrombin-induced serotonin release from platelets. Br J Haematol. 2001;112:593-602 pubmed
    ..of the myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) and serotonin release in intact and digitonin-permeabilized platelets...
  28. Takahashi H, Yamaguchi M. Activatory effect of regucalcin on GTPase activity in rat liver plasma membranes. Mol Cell Biochem. 2001;224:117-22 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the effect of regucalcin was not seen in the presence of digitonin (0.01%), a solubilizing reagent of membranous lipids, while the effect of calcium was not inhibited by digitonin...
  29. Tudella V, Curti C, Soriani F, Santos A, Uyemura S. In situ evidence of an alternative oxidase and an uncoupling protein in the respiratory chain of Aspergillus fumigatus. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004;36:162-72 pubmed
    ..fumigatus in situ, after permeabilization with digitonin. Firstly, a functional respiratory chain (complex I-V) was demonstrated: adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) induced ..
  30. Burkart A, Samii B, Corvera S, Shpetner H. Regulation of the SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase by a novel cholesterol- and cell confluence-dependent mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:18360-7 pubmed
    ..These studies reveal a novel, cholesterol-dependent mechanism for the recruitment of signaling proteins to specific plasma membrane domains via their interactions with annexin II. ..
  31. Barel M, Meibom K, Charbit A. Nucleolin, a shuttle protein promoting infection of human monocytes by Francisella tularensis. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14193 pubmed publisher
    ..tularensis during infection continues intracellularly after endocytosis of the bacteria. The present work therefore unravels for the first time the presence of nucleolin in the phagosomal compartment of macrophages. ..
  32. Pirutin S, Turovetskiĭ V, Druzhko A, Kudriashov I. [Damaging effect of digitonin on macrophage plasma membranes exposed to UV-irradiation]. Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2007;47:247-9 pubmed
    ..So as detergent digitonin treatment (without irradiation) in 3 mkg/ml concentration doesn't lead to substantial cell damage...
  33. Drahota Z, Krivakova P, Cervinkova Z, Kmoníčková E, Lotkova H, Kucera O, et al. Tert-butyl hydroperoxide selectively inhibits mitochondrial respiratory-chain enzymes in isolated rat hepatocytes. Physiol Res. 2005;54:67-72 pubmed
    ..various mitochondrial enzymes to oxidative damage was tested on isolated rat liver hepatocytes permeabilized by digitonin. In permeabilized hepatocytes normal respiratory control values were obtained and mitochondrial membranes ..
  34. Ryan J, Letai A. BH3 profiling in whole cells by fluorimeter or FACS. Methods. 2013;61:156-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Described here are optimized conditions for both plate-based and FACS-based BH3 profiling for homogeneous and heterogeneous samples. ..
  35. Taniai H, Hines I, Bharwani S, Maloney R, Nimura Y, Gao B, et al. Susceptibility of murine periportal hepatocytes to hypoxia-reoxygenation: role for NO and Kupffer cell-derived oxidants. Hepatology. 2004;39:1544-52 pubmed
    ..Selective destruction of PP or PV sites was achieved by digitonin perfusion into the portal or inferior vena cava, and was confirmed by histological evaluations and zone-specific ..
  36. Kawashima T, Kitamura T. Rac and nuclear translocation of signal transducers and activators of transcription factors. Methods Enzymol. 2008;439:171-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Although this chapter focuses on STATs, Rac, and MgcRacGAP the methods described here can be adapted easily to other nuclear factors and their regulators. ..
  37. Rexroth S, Meyer Zu Tittingdorf J, Krause F, Dencher N, Seelert H. Thylakoid membrane at altered metabolic state: challenging the forgotten realms of the proteome. Electrophoresis. 2003;24:2814-23 pubmed
    ..Applying BN-PAGE to the thylakoid membranes after mild solubilization with digitonin we succeeded in displaying the response of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to altered culture ..
  38. O Connell G, Douglas S, Bunn S. The involvement of specific phospholipase C isozymes in catecholamine release from digitonin permeabilized bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells. Neurosci Lett. 2003;342:1-4 pubmed
    The role of phospholipase C (PLC) in exocytosis has been investigated using digitonin permeabilized, [(3)H]noradrenaline ([(3)H]NA) loaded, bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells...
  39. Enoksson M, Robertson J, Gogvadze V, Bu P, Kropotov A, Zhivotovsky B, et al. Caspase-2 permeabilizes the outer mitochondrial membrane and disrupts the binding of cytochrome c to anionic phospholipids. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:49575-8 pubmed
    ..notably cardiolipin, and thereby enhance the release of the hemoprotein caused by treatment of mitochondria with digitonin or the proapoptotic protein Bax...
  40. Acosta H, Dubourdieu M, Quiñones W, Caceres A, Bringaud F, Concepcion J. Pyruvate phosphate dikinase and pyrophosphate metabolism in the glycosome of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;138:347-56 pubmed
    ..First, we show by digitonin titration and cell fractionation that the enzyme was essentially present in the glycosome matrix of the ..
  41. Wittig I, Schagger H. Advantages and limitations of clear-native PAGE. Proteomics. 2005;5:4338-46 pubmed
    ..CN-PAGE is milder than BN-PAGE. Especially the combination of digitonin and CN-PAGE can retain labile supramolecular assemblies of membrane protein complexes that are dissociated under ..
  42. Marbois B, Gin P, Faull K, Poon W, Lee P, Strahan J, et al. Coq3 and Coq4 define a polypeptide complex in yeast mitochondria for the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:20231-8 pubmed
    ..Separation of digitonin-solubilized mitochondrial extracts in one- and two-dimensional Blue Native PAGE analyses shows that Coq3 and ..
  43. Nargang F, Rapaport D. Neurospora crassa as a model organism for mitochondrial biogenesis. Methods Mol Biol. 2007;372:107-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe some of the advantages of N. crassa as a model organism and present methods for isolation of mitochondria, fractionation of these organelles, and disruption of essential genes in this organism. ..
  44. Cabib E, Farkas V, Kosík O, Blanco N, Arroyo J, McPhie P. Assembly of the yeast cell wall. Crh1p and Crh2p act as transglycosylases in vivo and in vitro. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:29859-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The linking reaction was also shown in digitonin-permeabilized cells, with UDP-N-acetylglucosamine as the substrate for nascent chitin production...
  45. Koutzamani E, Loborg H, Sarg B, Lindner H, Rundquist I. Linker histone subtype composition and affinity for chromatin in situ in nucleated mature erythrocytes. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:44688-94 pubmed
    ..Our data also indicate a lack of correlation between linker histone affinity and chromatin condensation. ..
  46. Zhang S, Scheller H. Light-harvesting complex II binds to several small subunits of photosystem I. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:3180-7 pubmed
    ..The PSI preparations were made using digitonin. Chemical cross-linking using dithio-bis(succinimidylpropionate) followed by diagonal electrophoresis and ..
  47. Parker M, Sah R, Parker S. Surface masking shapes the traffic of the neuropeptide Y Y2 receptor. Peptides. 2012;37:40-8 pubmed publisher
    ..now demonstrate that unmasking by permeabilizing but non-detaching treatment with cholesterol-binding detergents digitonin and edelfosine compares with and overlaps that of PAO...
  48. Krause F, Reifschneider N, Vocke D, Seelert H, Rexroth S, Dencher N. "Respirasome"-like supercomplexes in green leaf mitochondria of spinach. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:48369-75 pubmed
    ..We show that digitonin treatment of mitochondria contaminated with chloroplasts from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) green leaves at two ..
  49. Modderman P, Admiraal L, Sonnenberg A, von dem Borne A. Glycoproteins V and Ib-IX form a noncovalent complex in the platelet membrane. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:364-9 pubmed
    ..by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against GPV, GPIb, or GPIX when platelets are solubilized in the mild detergent, digitonin. Treatment of digitonin immunopreciptates with the nonionic detergent, Nonidet P-40, released GPV from anti-GPIb ..
  50. Jiang C, Shoji K, Matsuki R, Baba A, Inagaki N, Ban H, et al. Molecular cloning of a novel importin alpha homologue from rice, by which constitutive photomorphogenic 1 (COP1) nuclear localization signal (NLS)-protein is preferentially nuclear imported. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:9322-9 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that each of the different rice importin alpha proteins carry distinct groups of nuclear proteins, such that multiple isoforms of importin alpha contribute to the regulation of plant nuclear protein transport. ..
  51. Hirata H, Machado L, Okuno C, Brasolin A, Lopes G, Smaili S. Apoptotic effect of ethanol is potentiated by caffeine-induced calcium release in rat astrocytes. Neurosci Lett. 2006;393:136-40 pubmed
    ..It is possible that Eth induces cell death by activation of more than one pathway and Ca2+ might be one of the elements involved. The present work indicates that Ca2+ can potentiate death by ethanol in rat astrocytes. ..
  52. Wang Y, Lee H, Lee H, Du Y, Yamaguchi H, Hung M. Membrane-bound trafficking regulates nuclear transport of integral epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB-2. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:16869-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, we found that digitonin permeabilization, which selectively releases soluble nuclear transporters from the cytoplasm and has been shown ..
  53. Piro G, Zuppa A, Dalessandro G, Northcote D. Glucomannan synthesis in pea epicotyls: the mannose and glucose transferases. Planta. 1993;190:206-20 pubmed
    Membrane fractions and digitonin-solubilized enzymes prepared from stem segments isolated from the third internode of etiolated pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. cv...