Summary: A number of different cardioactive glycosides obtained from Strophanthus species. OUABAIN is from S. gratus and CYMARINE from S. kombe. They are used like the digitalis glycosides.

Top Publications

  1. Pogatsa G. Potassium channels in the cardiovascular system. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1995;28 Suppl:S91-8 pubmed
    ..Further large scale prospective, randomised studies are needed to determine whether the reported effects can be verified and are sufficiently large to affect clinical prescribing. ..
  2. Wang Q. [Inotropic action of Astragalus membranaceus Bge. saponins and its possible mechanism]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1992;17:557-9, inside backcover pubmed
    ..Strophanthin K performed in a similar manner as AMS. AMS 500 micrograms/ml decreased the resting potential of cultured rat heart cells by 10 mV. The results suggest that AMS plays its inotropic role through influencing the Na-K-ATPase. ..
  3. Hu X, Peng X, Zhang C. [Diabetic myocardiopathy]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. 1994;33:18-20 pubmed
    ..The authors are, therefore, of the opinion that diabetic myocardiopathy is a specific and separate clinical entity. ..
  4. Felth J, Rickardson L, Rosén J, Wickström M, Fryknäs M, Lindskog M, et al. Cytotoxic effects of cardiac glycosides in colon cancer cells, alone and in combination with standard chemotherapeutic drugs. J Nat Prod. 2009;72:1969-74 pubmed publisher
  5. Grosa G, Allegrone G, Del Grosso E. LC-ESI-MS/MS characterization of strophanthin-K. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2005;38:79-86 pubmed
  6. Sarkar H, Misra M, Banerjee S. Biodistribution of two 99mTc-cardiac glycosides with end glucose unit: effect of lipophilicity on their relative myocardial accumulation. Int J Rad Appl Instrum B. 1989;16:41-6 pubmed
  7. Zeng Y, Jin Z, Gu P. Retinal toxicity in albino rabbits induced by intravitreal injection of strophanthin-K. J Ocul Pharmacol. 1990;6:51-60 pubmed
    ..The attenuation of amplitude in a-wave may therefore be considered as an early response to this drug. The direct pupillary response test were also done pre- and post-strophanthin-K, and the results of this test support that of F-ERG. ..
  8. Aslanian N, Samvelian V, Gasparian G. Chronopharmacology of strophanthin and inderal: an experimental study. Cor Vasa. 1990;32:421-31 pubmed
    ..The acrophases of circadian rhythms of chronotolerance to the threshold arrhythmogenic dose of strophanthin, and those of chronosensibility to inderal are virtually identical. ..
  9. Agostoni P, Doria E, Berti M, Guazzi M. Long-term use of K-strophanthin in advanced congestive heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy: a double-blind crossover evaluation versus digoxin. Clin Cardiol. 1994;17:536-41 pubmed
    ..2 ml/min/kg (p < 0.01); corresponding variations on digoxin (-0.1 and +0.3, respectively) were not significant versus run-in. These patterns were duplicated at repeated tests during follow-up.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..

More Information


  1. Chalyshev A. [Effect of strophanthin on the absorption of sodium and short chain fatty acids from the sheep rumen]. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 1999;85:1582-4 pubmed
    ..Absorption of the shortchain fatty acids was not affected. The findings suggest absence of a combined transport of sodium and short-chain fatty acids' anions in basic and lateral membranes of the reticulo-rumen apithelium in sheep. ..
  2. Qi S, Zhou S, Shen X. [Clinical evaluation of intermittent strophanthin K therapy for congestive heart failure combined coronary artery disease]. Hunan Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2001;26:448-50 pubmed
    ..ISKT for congestive heart failure combined coronary artery disease with sinus rhythm is effective and safe, with better improvement of heart function and Bp level. ..
  3. Kucukhuseyin C. The interaction of carbachol and strophantin on the electrical and mechanical events in electrically driven strips of guinea pig left atria. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2002;13:289-310 pubmed
  4. Lee F, Wei J, Wang J, Liu H, Shih T, Lin C. Electromechanical properties of Purkinje fiber strands isolated from human ventricular endocardium. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2004;23:737-44 pubmed
    ..Accumulation of excessive cytosolic Ca2+ in the presence of cardiotonic agents could lead to tachyarrhythmias in Purkinje fibers, but rarely in ventricular muscles of failing human hearts. ..
  5. Klichkhanov N, Khalilov R, Meilanov I. [The effect of hypothermia on kinetic characteristics of the rat brain synaptic membrane Na,K-ATPase]. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2007;93:248-54 pubmed
    ..There are two linear sections in Arrhenius plots ofNa,K-ATPase activity. Hypothermia does not change position of the break point in Arrhenius plots. The mechanisms and biological significance of the changes revealed are discussed. ..
  6. Forbush B. Sodium and potassium fluxes across the dialyzed giant axon of Myxicola. J Membr Biol. 1979;46:185-212 pubmed
    ..The efflux delay could only be accounted for by an extra-axonal diffusion barrier, which is probably the basement membrane surrounding the ventral nerve cord. ..
  7. Lopatina E, Penniiaĭnen V, Tsyrlin V. [Comparative analysis of the cardiac glycosides action on the growth of the cardiac tissue explants]. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2005;91:1299-304 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that alpha3 isoform of Na+, K+-ATPase is a signal transducer that controls the cardiac cell metabolism and growth. ..
  8. Ignatov I, Vislobokov A, Borisova V. [Strophanthin induced changes in the ion currents of Lymnaea stagnalis and Planorbis corneus neurons]. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2008;71:8-11 pubmed
    ..In addition, strophanthin accelerated the inactivation of slow potassium ion currents. ..
  9. Zhou D, van Loon J, Wang C. Experience-based behavioral and chemosensory changes in the generalist insect herbivore Helicoverpa armigera exposed to two deterrent plant chemicals. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2010;196:791-9 pubmed publisher
  10. Bolognesi R, Cucchini F, Javernaro A, Zeppellini R, Manca C, Visioli O. Effects of acute K-strophantidin administration on left ventricular relaxation and filling phase in coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol. 1992;69:169-72 pubmed
  11. Efthymiadis A, Schwarz W. Conditions for a backward-running Na+/K+ pump in Xenopus oocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1991;1068:73-6 pubmed
    ..The pump current decreases with membrane depolarization as expected for a pump cycle that involves inward movement of positive charges during Na+ translocation. ..
  12. Misra M, Sarkar H, Chatterjee M, Banerjee S. Preparation and evaluation of technetium-99m labeled cardiac glycoside derivatives as potential myocardial imaging agent. Int J Rad Appl Instrum B. 1988;15:409-17 pubmed
  13. Kjaerulf Jensen H, Korsgaard N, Lindeberg H, Vigholt Sørensen E. Myocardial ultrastructure in the isolated rabbit heart exposed to dopamine, dobutamine, isoprenaline, G-strofanthin, xamoterol and hypoxia. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1992;71:302-4 pubmed
    ..and a significant decrease in frequency of contractions after 120 min. perfusion time, but no change in contractility was seen. We conclude that this experimental model is useful in studies of positive inotropic drugs. ..
  14. Sotonyi P, Kekesi V, Somogyi E. Experimental investigation of the effect of cardiac glycosides on the ischemic coronary circulation. Acta Morphol Hung. 1987;35:91-104 pubmed
    ..The potential clinical impact of these findings on therapy is briefly evaluated. ..
  15. Striessnig J, Meusburger E, Grabner M, Knaus H, Glossmann H, Kaiser J, et al. Evidence for a distinct Ca2+ antagonist receptor for the novel benzothiazinone compound HOE 166. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1988;337:331-40 pubmed
    ..This HOE 166-selective site is, however, allosterically linked to the other sites of the Ca2+ antagonist receptor complex. We conclude that HOE 166 is a novel calcium antagonist. ..
  16. Meijer D, van Monffoort J. Interactions of cationic drugs and cardiac glycosides at the hepatic uptake level: studies in the rat in vivo, isolated perfused rat liver, isolated rat hepatocytes and oocytes expressing oatp2. Arch Pharm Res. 2002;25:397-415 pubmed
  17. Spasov A, Iezhitsa I, Zhuravleva N, Gurova N, Sinolitskii M, Voronin S. [Comparative study of the antiarrhythmic activity of L-, D-and DL-stereoisomers of potassium magnesium aspartate]. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2007;70:17-21 pubmed
    ..At the same time K- and Mg-L-Asp was better than D- and DL-Asp with respect to acute toxicity (LD50), effective dose (ED50) and antiarrhythmic (therapeutic) ratio (LD50/ED50) in rats with aconitine-induced arrhythmia model. ..
  18. Lopatina E, Karetsky A, Penniyaynen V, Vinogradova T. Role of cardiac glycosides in regulation of the growth of retinal tissue explants. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2008;146:744-6 pubmed
    ..Ouabain (10(-13)M), strophanthin K (10(-13)M) and digoxin (10(-11)M) significantly stimulated explant growth. It was hypothesized that the physiological role of endogenous ouabain is associated with regulation of tissue modeling. ..
  19. Nöhammer C, Brunner F, Wölkart G, Staber P, Steyrer E, Gonzalez F, et al. Myocardial dysfunction and male mortality in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha knockout mice overexpressing lipoprotein lipase in muscle. Lab Invest. 2003;83:259-69 pubmed
  20. Rogozhin V, Rogozhina T. Effect of strophanthin G on peroxidase oxidation kinetics of slowly oxidizable peroxidase substrates. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2000;65:558-64 pubmed
    ..Mechanisms of oxidation of slowly and rapidly oxidizable substrates of peroxidase in the presence of strophanthin G are suggested. ..
  21. Rachkov A, Spiridonov N, Kondrashova M. Adaptogenic and cardioprotective action of Galleria mellonella extract in rats and frogs. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1994;46:221-5 pubmed
    ..Increase in catecholamine content in the heart and aortic tissues and their decrease in adrenal glands are unfavourable effects of high doses of the extract. ..
  22. Moricke R, Kiesewetter M, Koszeghy A, Krause E, Pogatsa G, Beyerdörfer I. Effects of computer controlled submaximal glucose utilization on myocardial energy potential and on survival time during acute strophantin intoxication in dogs. Biomed Biochim Acta. 1987;46:S580-3 pubmed
  23. Usanova I, Khushbaktova Z, Syrov V, Azizov D, Mirzaakhmedov S, Soliev A, et al. [Cardiotropic activity of total bufadienolides from the poison of Central Asian toad Bufo viridis]. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2002;65:23-7 pubmed
  24. Iskenderov B. [Tolerance to cardiotoxic effect of strophanthane K in experimental total heart block and electrocardiostimulation]. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2001;64:34-6 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that the basic mechanisms of the arrhythmogenic effect of strophanthin K under the conditions studied are the trigger activity in dogs with ECS and the increased peacemaker's activity in dogs with CHB. ..
  25. Matiushichev V, Shamratova V, Akhunova A. [Effect of strophanthin on the electrophoretic mobility of blood erythrocytes in adults and children]. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2001;87:248-53 pubmed
    ..The data obtained suggest existence of difference in quality of functional condition of the erythrocytes with normal as well as reduced mobility in children and in adults. ..
  26. Penniyainen V, Lopatina E, Tsyrlin V, Krylov B. The effects of sodium pump inhibitors on sensory ganglion neurite growth. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2009;39:301-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide evidence that cardiac glycosides can produce the directed regulation of nervous tissue growth by affecting the signal transducer Na+, K+-ATPase. ..
  27. Alabovskii V, Khamburov V, Vinokurov A. [Some mechanisms of adenosine protective effect in the "calcium paradox"]. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2004;90:889-901 pubmed
    ..Also a protective effect of adenosine in inhibition of Na+, K+ -ATPhase with Strophantinum, was studied. ..
  28. Penniiaĭnen V, Lopatina E, Tsyrlin V, Krylov B. [Effect of Na(+), K(+)-pump inhibitors on the sensory ganglia neurite growth]. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2008;94:326-30 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that cardiac glycoside have the down-regulation effect on the neurite growth. The data obtained indicate that the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is involved in the control of the process of neurite growth as a signal transducer. ..
  29. Anner B, Moosmayer M. Mercury inhibits Na-K-ATPase primarily at the cytoplasmic side. Am J Physiol. 1992;262:F843-8 pubmed
    ..The results show that the metal-binding interface of Na-K-ATPase molecule is profoundly implicated in active ion transport and that the intracellular part of the Na-K-ATPase molecule presents the primary target for mercury action. ..
  30. Riedel A, Schneider S, Mest H. [The effectiveness of trapidil and trapidil derivatives on drug-induced heart arrhythmias in the rat and guinea pig]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1987;37:923-6 pubmed
    ..On aconitine induced arrhythmia all derivatives of trapidil were less effective in elevating the threshold of arrhythmia than trapidil itself, but three derivatives showed antiarrhythmic properties. ..
  31. Dressel H. [False positive and false negative results in testing for pyrogenic impurities]. Pharmazie. 1991;46:582-6 pubmed
    ..Possibilities of excluding pyrogenic impurities in the preparations concerned and of avoiding false-positive and false-negative results in the pyrogen test are discussed. ..
  32. Cen W, Cheng S, Li J. [Sodium nitroprusside in treating acute high-altitude pulmonary edema]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. 1991;30:412-4, 455-6 pubmed
    ..Vasodilator therapy is a new method for AHPE treatment and this study shows that the NP is an ideal drug in treating AHPE and that dilation of the small pulmonary arteries by NP may explain its efficacy. ..
  33. Wittmann I, Puppi A, Dely M. Changes in autorhythmic heart frequency elicited by redox agents. Chem Biol Interact. 1987;63:115-25 pubmed
    ..In light of the increase in passive K+ fluxes after oxidant treatment and the decrease in this parameter following reductant treatment an effect of redox agents on the characteristics of the K+-channel is also postulated. ..
  34. Nagy Z, Virag L, Toth A, Biliczki P, Acsai K, Banyasz T, et al. Selective inhibition of sodium-calcium exchanger by SEA-0400 decreases early and delayed after depolarization in canine heart. Br J Pharmacol. 2004;143:827-31 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that, through the reduction of calcium overload, specific inhibition of the NCX current by SEA-0400 may abolish triggered arrhythmias. ..
  35. Liu Q, Wang C. [Effects of xin-fu-ning IV on experimental congestive heart failure in rabbits]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1991;11:482-3, 454 pubmed
    ..The results showed that XFN IV had elevated ANF levels of the rabbits with CHF. It showed that XFN IV could improve endocrine function of heart, and it also showed good curative effect on CHF. ..
  36. Synek P. [The past and the present of cardiac glycosides. III. Pharmacokinetics]. Cas Lek Cesk. 1991;130:148-51 pubmed
    ..The onset of action is prompt, elimination half time short and about half the injected amount is excreted extrarenally. ..
  37. Ruiz G, Torres J, Michel O, Navarro R. Homeopathic effect on heart rate variability. Br Homeopath J. 1999;88:106-11 pubmed