puromycin

Summary

Summary: A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.

Top Publications

  1. Sharma D, Southworth D, Green R. EF-G-independent reactivity of a pre-translocation-state ribosome complex with the aminoacyl tRNA substrate puromycin supports an intermediate (hybrid) state of tRNA binding. RNA. 2004;10:102-13 pubmed
    ..ribosomes carrying a dipeptidyl-tRNA substrate efficiently react with the minimal A-site substrate puromycin and that following this reaction, the pre-translocation-state bound deacylated tRNA:mRNA complex remains ..
  2. Catalano A, Poloz Y, O Day D. Dictyostelium puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase A is a nucleoplasmic nucleomorphin-binding protein that relocates to the cytoplasm during mitosis. Histochem Cell Biol. 2011;136:677-88 pubmed publisher
    ..It interacts with puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase A (PsaA) which in other organisms is a Zn(2+)-metallopeptidase thought to be involved ..
  3. Ceol M, Vianello D, Schleicher E, Anglani F, Barbanti M, Bonfante L, et al. Heparin reduces glomerular infiltration and TGF-beta protein expression by macrophages in puromycin glomerulosclerosis. J Nephrol. 2003;16:210-8 pubmed
    ..that heparin might also be renoprotective by modulating the macrophages in various ways in the chronic puromycin glomerulosclerosis model...
  4. Agafonov D, Rabe K, Grote M, Voertler C, Sprinzl M. C-terminal modifications of a protein by UAG-encoded incorporation of puromycin during in vitro protein synthesis in the absence of release factor 1. Chembiochem. 2006;7:330-6 pubmed
    ..This technique allowed the antibiotic puromycin to be used as an acceptor substrate for the peptidyl residue in the peptidyl-transferase reaction...
  5. Abbate J, Lacayo J, Prichard M, Pari G, McVoy M. Bifunctional protein conferring enhanced green fluorescence and puromycin resistance. Biotechniques. 2001;31:336-40 pubmed
    ..A new genetic marker was created in which sequences from enhanced green fluorescent protein were fused to those of puromycin N-acetyl transferase...
  6. Moran D, Shen H, Maki C. Puromycin-based vectors promote a ROS-dependent recruitment of PML to nuclear inclusions enriched with HSP70 and Proteasomes. BMC Cell Biol. 2009;10:32 pubmed publisher
    ..and 20S proteasomes in human cell lines that have been transiently transfected with vectors expressing the puromycin resistance gene, puromycin n-acetyl transferase (pac)...
  7. Zhang J, Braakman I, Matlack K, Helenius A. Quality control in the secretory pathway: the role of calreticulin, calnexin and BiP in the retention of glycoproteins with C-terminal truncations. Mol Biol Cell. 1997;8:1943-54 pubmed
    ..An assortment of different fragments was generated by adding puromycin at low concentrations to influenza virus-infected tissue culture cells...
  8. Mochizuki Y, Biyani M, Tsuji Ueno S, Suzuki M, Nishigaki K, Husimi Y, et al. One-pot preparation of mRNA/cDNA display by a novel and versatile puromycin-linker DNA. ACS Comb Sci. 2011;13:478-85 pubmed publisher
    A rapid, easy, and robust preparation method for mRNA/cDNA display using a newly designed puromycin-linker DNA is presented...
  9. Croons V, Martinet W, Herman A, De Meyer G. Differential effect of the protein synthesis inhibitors puromycin and cycloheximide on vascular smooth muscle cell viability. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008;325:824-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we report that puromycin, a protein synthesis inhibitor with a different mode of action but with similar ability to inhibit de novo ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Komoda M, Kakuta H, Takahashi H, Fujimoto Y, Kadoya S, Kato F, et al. Specific inhibitor of puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase with a homophthalimide skeleton: identification of the target molecule and a structure-activity relationship study. Bioorg Med Chem. 2001;9:121-31 pubmed
    ..2: PIQ-22) was found to be a potent and specific inhibitor of puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase (PSA)...
  2. Thompson M, Govindaswami M, Hersh L. Mutation of active site residues of the puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase: conversion of the enzyme into a catalytically inactive binding protein. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003;413:236-42 pubmed
    The active site glutamate, Glu 309, of the puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase was mutated to glutamine, alanine, and valine...
  3. Kakuta H, Tanatani A, Nagasawa K, Hashimoto Y. Specific nonpeptide inhibitors of puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase with a 2,4(1H,3H)-quinazolinedione skeleton. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2003;51:1273-82 pubmed
    Potent, specific, chemically stable and non-peptide/small-molecular inhibitors of puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase, such as 3-(2,6-diethylphenyl)-2,4(1H,3H)-quinazolinedione (PAQ-22, 5), were prepared by the structural development of a ..
  4. Youngman E, Brunelle J, Kochaniak A, Green R. The active site of the ribosome is composed of two layers of conserved nucleotides with distinct roles in peptide bond formation and peptide release. Cell. 2004;117:589-99 pubmed
    ..the mutant ribosomes reveals substantially reduced rates of peptide bond formation using the minimal substrate puromycin, their rates of peptide bond formation are unaffected when the substrates are intact aminoacyl-tRNAs...
  5. Liu H, Bigler S, Henegar J, Baliga R. Cytochrome P450 2B1 mediates oxidant injury in puromycin-induced nephrotic syndrome. Kidney Int. 2002;62:868-76 pubmed
    Reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) are important mediators of puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) induced minimal change nephrotic syndrome (NS) in rats...
  6. Lelouard H, Ferrand V, Marguet D, Bania J, Camosseto V, David A, et al. Dendritic cell aggresome-like induced structures are dedicated areas for ubiquitination and storage of newly synthesized defective proteins. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:667-75 pubmed
    ..Here, we took advantage of an antibody recognizing the antibiotic puromycin to follow the fate of improperly translated proteins, also called defective ribosomal products (DRiPs)...
  7. Vaziri N, Liang K. Hepatic HMG-CoA reductase gene expression during the course of puromycin-induced nephrosis. Kidney Int. 1995;48:1979-85 pubmed
    ..HMG-CoAR, the rate limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis) during the induction and chronic phase of puromycin (PAN)-induced NS in rats. The rats were randomized to NS (given i.p...
  8. Cheng H, Fan X, Guan Y, Moeckel G, Zent R, Harris R. Distinct roles for basal and induced COX-2 in podocyte injury. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20:1953-62 pubmed publisher
    ..cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selectively in podocytes are more susceptible to glomerular injury by adriamycin and puromycin (PAN)...
  9. Iwaki T, Figuera M, Ploplis V, Castellino F. Rapid selection of Drosophila S2 cells with the puromycin resistance gene. Biotechniques. 2003;35:482-4, 486 pubmed
  10. Thompson M, Hersh L. Analysis of conserved residues of the human puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase. Peptides. 2003;24:1359-65 pubmed
    The puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase (ApPS) is a zinc metallopeptidase involved in the degradation of neuropeptides...
  11. Ehlers C, Weidenbach K, Veit K, Deppenmeier U, Metcalf W, Schmitz R. Development of genetic methods and construction of a chromosomal glnK1 mutant in Methanosarcina mazei strain Gö1. Mol Genet Genomics. 2005;273:290-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, we propose that the archaeal GlnK1 protein is not directly involved in the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in nitrogen metabolism, but rather affects their protein products directly...
  12. Kinugasa S, Tojo A, Sakai T, Tsumura H, Takahashi M, Hirata Y, et al. Selective albuminuria via podocyte albumin transport in puromycin nephrotic rats is attenuated by an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. Kidney Int. 2011;80:1328-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we studied mechanism of selective albuminuria in puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) nephrotic rats, a model of minimal change nephrotic syndrome...
  13. Calabria A, Weidenfeller C, Jones A, de Vries H, Shusta E. Puromycin-purified rat brain microvascular endothelial cell cultures exhibit improved barrier properties in response to glucocorticoid induction. J Neurochem. 2006;97:922-33 pubmed
    ..To address these problems, the translation inhibitor puromycin was used to purify rat BMEC cultures. BMEC purities of 99...
  14. Balg C, Huot J, Lapointe J, Chênevert R. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori aminoacyl-tRNA amidotransferase by puromycin analogues. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:3264-5 pubmed publisher
  15. Hobbs S, Jitrapakdee S, Wallace J. Development of a bicistronic vector driven by the human polypeptide chain elongation factor 1alpha promoter for creation of stable mammalian cell lines that express very high levels of recombinant proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;252:368-72 pubmed
    ..In this vector, designated pEFIRES-P, both the recombinant cDNA and the puromycin resistant gene (pac) are transcribed as a single message driven by the strong human polypeptide chain elongation ..
  16. Bischof O, Kruft V, Wittmann Liebold B. Analysis of the puromycin binding site in the 70 S ribosome of Escherichia coli at the peptide level. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:18315-9 pubmed
    Photoinduced cross-linking of Escherichia coli 70 S ribosomes with [3H]puromycin has led to the labeling of ribosomal proteins S7, S14, S18, L18, and L29...
  17. Akada T, Yamazaki T, Miyashita H, Niizeki O, Abe M, Sato A, et al. Puromycin insensitive leucyl-specific aminopeptidase (PILSAP) is involved in the activation of endothelial integrins. J Cell Physiol. 2002;193:253-62 pubmed
    We previously reported that mouse orthologue of puromycin insensitive leucyl-specific aminopeptidase (mPILSAP) played an important role in angiogenesis by regulating the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells (ECs) (Miyashita ..
  18. Grygielko E, Martin W, Tweed C, Thornton P, Harling J, Brooks D, et al. Inhibition of gene markers of fibrosis with a novel inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta type I receptor kinase in puromycin-induced nephritis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005;313:943-51 pubmed
    ..In view of this profile, SB-525334 was used to investigate the role of TGF-beta1 in the acute puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) rat model of renal disease, a model of nephritis-induced renal fibrosis...
  19. Lourdel S, Loffing J, Favre G, Paulais M, Nissant A, Fakitsas P, et al. Hyperaldosteronemia and activation of the epithelial sodium channel are not required for sodium retention in puromycin-induced nephrosis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16:3642-50 pubmed
    ..In puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-induced nephrosis, increased Na+ reabsorption is associated with increased activity of the ..
  20. Koh W, Jeong S, Lee H, Ryu H, Lee E, Ahn K, et al. Melatonin promotes puromycin-induced apoptosis with activation of caspase-3 and 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase-alpha in human leukemia HL-60 cells. J Pineal Res. 2011;50:367-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the potentiating effect of melatonin was evaluated on the apoptosis induced by puromycin as an anticancer drug in acute promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells...
  21. Björnson A, Moses J, Ingemansson A, Haraldsson B, Sorensson J. Primary human glomerular endothelial cells produce proteoglycans, and puromycin affects their posttranslational modification. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2005;288:F748-56 pubmed
    ..Primary human glomerular endothelial cells (HGEC) in culture were treated with the nephrosis-inducing agent puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)...
  22. Watanabe S, Iwamoto M, Suzuki S, Fuchimoto D, Honma D, Nagai T, et al. A novel method for the production of transgenic cloned pigs: electroporation-mediated gene transfer to non-cultured cells and subsequent selection with puromycin. Biol Reprod. 2005;72:309-15 pubmed
    b>Puromycin N-acetyl transferase gene (pac), of which the gene product catalyzes antibiotic puromycin (an effective inhibitor of protein synthesis), has been widely used as a dominant selection marker in embryonic stem (ES) cell-mediated ..
  23. Miyamoto Sato E, Takashima H, Fuse S, Sue K, Ishizaka M, Tateyama S, et al. Highly stable and efficient mRNA templates for mRNA-protein fusions and C-terminally labeled proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:e78 pubmed
    ..an efficient single-strand ligation (90% of the input mRNAs) using a fluorescein-conjugated polyethylene glycol puromycin (Fluor-PEG Puro) spacer...
  24. Muto H, Ito K. Peptidyl-prolyl-tRNA at the ribosomal P-site reacts poorly with puromycin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;366:1043-7 pubmed
    ..tRNA-attached amino acids in the P-site of the Escherichia coli ribosome and compared their reactivity with puromycin, a rapidly A-site-accessing analog of aminoacyl-tRNAs...
  25. Söderlund G, Haarhaus M, Chisalita S, Arnqvist H. Inhibition of puromycin-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells by IGF-I occurs simultaneously with increased protein synthesis. Neoplasma. 2004;51:1-11 pubmed
    The objective of the following work was to study the apoptosis inducing effect of puromycin in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and compare this effect with cycloheximide and emetine, 2 other inhibitors of protein synthesis...
  26. Van Coppenolle F, Vanden Abeele F, Slomianny C, Flourakis M, Hesketh J, Dewailly E, et al. Ribosome-translocon complex mediates calcium leakage from endoplasmic reticulum stores. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:4135-42 pubmed
    ..molecules, we hypothesized that the ribosome-bound translocon would be permeable to calcium after treatment with puromycin, a translation inhibitor that specifically releases polypeptide chains...
  27. Theile D, Staffen B, Weiss J. ATP-binding cassette transporters as pitfalls in selection of transgenic cells. Anal Biochem. 2010;399:246-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Puromycin, hygromycin, and geneticin (G418) are antibiotics frequently used to select genetically engineered eukaryotic cells after transfection or transduction...
  28. Angel Rubio M, Barrado P, Carlos Espinosa J, Jimenez A, Fernández Lobato M. The pur6 gene of the puromycin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces alboniger encodes a tyrosinyl-aminonucleoside synthetase. FEBS Lett. 2004;577:371-5 pubmed
    The pur6 gene of the puromycin biosynthetic gene (pur) cluster from Streptomyces alboniger is shown to be essential for puromycin biosynthesis...
  29. Perriere N, Demeuse P, Garcia E, Regina A, Debray M, Andreux J, et al. Puromycin-based purification of rat brain capillary endothelial cell cultures. Effect on the expression of blood-brain barrier-specific properties. J Neurochem. 2005;93:279-89 pubmed
    ..cells, we have tested the effect of five P-glycoprotein substrates (vincristine, vinblastine, colchicine, puromycin and doxorubicin) on RBEC cultures, assuming that RBECs would resist the treatment with these toxic compounds ..
  30. Asada M, Honda E, Imamura T. Construction of pcDNA3.1-based vectors with blasticidin and puromycin resistance markers. Anal Biochem. 2006;352:305-7 pubmed
  31. Tabuchi I. Next-generation protein-handling method: puromycin analogue technology. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;305:1-5 pubmed
    b>Puromycin is a well-known antibiotic that inhibits protein synthesis by competitive incorporation against an aminoacyl tRNA on the ribosome A site...
  32. Nishimura M, Matsuo H, Nakamura A, Sugiyama M. Purification and characterization of a puromycin-hydrolyzing enzyme from blasticidin S-producing Streptomyces morookaensis. J Biochem. 1998;123:247-52 pubmed
    Blasticidin S-producing Streptomyces morookaensis JCM4673 produces an enzyme which inactivates puromycin (PM) by hydrolyzing an amide linkage between its aminonucleoside and O-methyl-L-tyrosine moieties [Nishimura et al...
  33. Cheng Z, Pätäri A, Aalto Setala K, Novikov D, Schlondorff D, Holthofer H. Hypercholesterolemia is a prerequisite for puromycin inducible damage in mouse kidney. Kidney Int. 2003;63:107-12 pubmed
    The mouse, as opposed to the rat, is relatively resistant to the experimental nephrosis induced by puromycin aminonucleoside. The reason for this species specificity is not known...
  34. Sengupta S, Horowitz P, Karsten S, Jackson G, Geschwind D, Fu Y, et al. Degradation of tau protein by puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase in vitro. Biochemistry. 2006;45:15111-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, proteases that normally degrade tau are of great interest. A recent genetic screen identified puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase (PSA) as a potent modifier of tau-induced pathology and suggested PSA as a possible tau-..
  35. Rodriguez Fonseca C, Phan H, Long K, Porse B, Kirillov S, Amils R, et al. Puromycin-rRNA interaction sites at the peptidyl transferase center. RNA. 2000;6:744-54 pubmed
    The binding site of puromycin was probed chemically in the peptidyl-transferase center of ribosomes from Escherichia coli and of puromycin-hypersensitive ribosomes from the archaeon Haloferax gibbonsii...
  36. Zheng G, Lyons J. Cyclosporin A improves the selection of cells transfected with the puromycin acetyltransferase gene. Biotechniques. 2002;33:32, 34, 36 pubmed
  37. Meyer Schwesinger C, Lange C, Bröcker V, Agustian P, Andina Agustian P, Lehmann U, et al. Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells do not contribute to podocyte turnover in the puromycin aminoglycoside and renal ablation models in rats. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:494-9 pubmed publisher
    ..bone marrow transplant can replace podocytes under normal circumstances and in 3 different rat models of FSGS: puromycin aminoglycoside nephropathy, subtotal nephrectomy, and uninephrectomy...
  38. Schmidt E, Clavarino G, Ceppi M, Pierre P. SUnSET, a nonradioactive method to monitor protein synthesis. Nat Methods. 2009;6:275-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate here, using mouse dendritic and T cells as a model, that SUnSET offers a technical alternative to classical radioactive labeling methods for the study of mRNA translation and cellular activation. ..
  39. Schomburg L, Kollmus H, Friedrichsen S, Bauer K. Molecular characterization of a puromycin-insensitive leucyl-specific aminopeptidase, PILS-AP. Eur J Biochem. 2000;267:3198-207 pubmed
    ..was inhibited by chelators of bivalent cations and by other known aminopeptidase inhibitors, but surprisingly puromycin was without effect...
  40. Tabuchi I, Soramoto S, Nemoto N, Husimi Y. An in vitro DNA virus for in vitro protein evolution. FEBS Lett. 2001;508:309-12 pubmed
    ..The first in vitro virus was realized by bonding a nascent protein with its coding mRNA via puromycin in in vitro translation. We report a new construct of in vitro DNA virus...
  41. David A, Dolan B, Hickman H, Knowlton J, Clavarino G, Pierre P, et al. Nuclear translation visualized by ribosome-bound nascent chain puromycylation. J Cell Biol. 2012;197:45-57 pubmed publisher
    ..chain elongation inhibitors followed by detection of puromycylated ribosome-bound nascent chains with a puromycin (PMY)-specific monoclonal antibody in fixed and permeabilized cells...
  42. Kakuta H, Koiso Y, Nagasawa K, Hashimoto Y. Fluorescent bioprobes for visualization of puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase in living cells. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003;13:83-6 pubmed
    Non-peptide, small-molecular, non-competitive inhibitors of puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase (PSA), that is, 3-(2,6-diethylphenyl)-2,4(1H,3H)-quinazolinedione (PAQ-22, 3) and its 1N-methyl analogue (MPAQ-22 4), were structurally ..
  43. Starck S, Green H, Alberola Ila J, Roberts R. A general approach to detect protein expression in vivo using fluorescent puromycin conjugates. Chem Biol. 2004;11:999-1008 pubmed
    ..To do this, we constructed a series of puromycin conjugates bearing various fluorescent and biotin moieties...
  44. Liu J, Xu Y, Stoleru D, Salic A. Imaging protein synthesis in cells and tissues with an alkyne analog of puromycin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:413-8 pubmed publisher
    ..method to image and affinity-purify nascent proteins in cells and in animals, based on an alkyne analog of puromycin, O-propargyl-puromycin (OP-puro)...
  45. Breiteneder Geleff S, Matsui K, Soleiman A, Meraner P, Poczewski H, Kalt R, et al. Podoplanin, novel 43-kd membrane protein of glomerular epithelial cells, is down-regulated in puromycin nephrosis. Am J Pathol. 1997;151:1141-52 pubmed
    b>Puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis (PAN), a rat model of human minimal change nephropathy, is characterized by extensive flattening of glomerular epithelial cell (podocyte) foot processes and by severe proteinuria...
  46. Robins M, Miles R, Samano M, Kaspar R. Syntheses of puromycin from adenosine and 7-deazapuromycin from tubercidin, and biological comparisons of the 7-aza/deaza pair. J Org Chem. 2001;66:8204-10 pubmed
    ..with N,N'-bis[(dimethylamino)methylene]hydrazine, and nucleophilic aromatic substitution with dimethylamine gave puromycin aminonucleoside [9-(3-amino-3-deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-6-(dimethylamino)purine] and its 7-deaza analogue...
  47. Ueno S, Kimura S, Ichiki T, Nemoto N. Improvement of a puromycin-linker to extend the selection target varieties in cDNA display method. J Biotechnol. 2012;162:299-302 pubmed publisher
    cDNA display using a puromycin-linker to covalently bridge a protein and its coding cDNA is a stable and efficient in vitro protein selection method. The optimal design of the often-used puromycin-linker is vital for effective selection...
  48. de Koning Ward T, Waters A, Crabb B. Puromycin-N-acetyltransferase as a selectable marker for use in Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2001;117:155-60 pubmed
    ..In this paper, we demonstrate that P. falciparum is highly sensitive to the drug puromycin, but that transgenic expression of the puromycin-N-acetyltransferase (PAC) gene from Streptomyces alboninger ..
  49. Su L, Lee G, Huang Y, Chen Y, Sun C. Neomycin and puromycin affect gene expression in Giardia lamblia stable transfection. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2007;156:124-35 pubmed
    Two systems for stable transfection of Giardia have been established using selection either by neomycin or by puromycin. We asked if these selection systems themselves influenced expression of endogenous giardial genes...
  50. Biyani M, Husimi Y, Nemoto N. Solid-phase translation and RNA-protein fusion: a novel approach for folding quality control and direct immobilization of proteins using anchored mRNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:e140 pubmed
    ..A newly constructed biotinylated linker-DNA which enables puromycin-assisted RNA-protein fusion is ligated to the 3' ends of the mRNA molecules to attach the mRNA-template on a ..
  51. Miyashita H, Yamazaki T, Akada T, Niizeki O, Ogawa M, Nishikawa S, et al. A mouse orthologue of puromycin-insensitive leucyl-specific aminopeptidase is expressed in endothelial cells and plays an important role in angiogenesis. Blood. 2002;99:3241-9 pubmed
    ..an HEXXH(X)18E consensus sequence of the M1 aminopeptidase family, and is thought to be a mouse orthologue of puromycin-insensitive leucyl-specific aminopeptidase (mPILSAP)...
  52. Nguyen Trung N, Botta O, Terenzi S, Strazewski P. A practical route to 3'-amino-3'-deoxyadenosine derivatives and puromycin analogues. J Org Chem. 2003;68:2038-41 pubmed
    3'-aminoacylamino-3'-deoxyadenosines, analogues of the antibiotic puromycin, have been synthesized from adenosine. They key 3'-azido derivative 10 was obtained through a 3'-oxidation/reduction/substitution procedure...
  53. Starck S, Qi X, Olsen B, Roberts R. The puromycin route to assess stereo- and regiochemical constraints on peptide bond formation in eukaryotic ribosomes. J Am Chem Soc. 2003;125:8090-1 pubmed
    We synthesized a series of puromycin analogues to probe the chemical specificity of the ribosome in an intact eukaryotic translation system...