Summary: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.

Top Publications

  1. Galimand M, Courvalin P, Lambert T. RmtF, a new member of the aminoglycoside resistance 16S rRNA N7 G1405 methyltransferase family. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:3960-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The deduced RmtF protein had 25 to 46% identity with members of the N7 G1405 family of aminoglycoside resistance 16S rRNA methyltransferases...
  2. Li J, Li L, Feng C, Chen Y, Tan H. Novel polyoxins generated by heterologously expressing polyoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in the sanN inactivated mutant of Streptomyces ansochromogenes. Microb Cell Fact. 2012;11:135 pubmed publisher
    ..Polyoxin P showed potent antifungal activity,while the activity of polyoxin O was weak. The strategy presented here may be available for other antibiotics producers. ..
  3. Munoz Price L, Poirel L, Bonomo R, Schwaber M, Daikos G, Cormican M, et al. Clinical epidemiology of the global expansion of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13:785-96 pubmed publisher
    ..KPC is high, perhaps as a result of the limited antibiotic options remaining (often colistin, tigecycline, or aminoglycosides)...
  4. Nigro S, Farrugia D, Paulsen I, Hall R. A novel family of genomic resistance islands, AbGRI2, contributing to aminoglycoside resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates belonging to global clone 2. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013;68:554-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the context and location of antibiotic resistance genes in carbapenem- and aminoglycoside-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii global clone 2 (GC2) isolates carrying a class 1 integron...
  5. Ogawa T, Sato M, Yonekawa S, Nakagawa C, Uno K, Kasahara K, et al. Infective endocarditis caused by Enterococcus faecalis treated with continuous infusion of ampicillin without adjunctive aminoglycosides. Intern Med. 2013;52:1131-5 pubmed
    b>Aminoglycosides are useful antimicrobial agents for treating infective endocarditis; however, they occasionally cause troublesome side effects, such as nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity...
  6. Gutiérrez Moreno N, Medrano F, Yatsimirsky A. Schiff base formation and recognition of amino sugars, aminoglycosides and biological polyamines by 2-formyl phenylboronic acid in aqueous solution. Org Biomol Chem. 2012;10:6960-72 pubmed publisher
    Interactions of 2-, 3- and 4-formyl phenylboronic acids (FPBAs) with sugars, amino sugars, aminoglycosides and various poly- and monoamines have been studied by UV-vis, (1)H and (11)B NMR titrations in water at variable pH...
  7. Chiang W, Nilsson M, Jensen P, Høiby N, Nielsen T, Givskov M, et al. Extracellular DNA shields against aminoglycosides in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:2352-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, it has recently been demonstrated that DNA binds positively charged antimicrobials such as aminoglycosides and antimicrobial peptides...
  8. Tada T, Miyoshi Akiyama T, Shimada K, Shimojima M, Kirikae T. novel 6'-n-aminoglycoside acetyltransferase AAC(6')-Iaj from a clinical isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:96-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Escherichia coli transformed with a plasmid containing the aac(6')-Iaj gene acquired resistance to all aminoglycosides tested except gentamicin. Of note, aac(6')-Iaj contributed to the resistance to arbekacin...
  9. Childs Disney J, Parkesh R, Nakamori M, Thornton C, Disney M. Rational design of bioactive, modularly assembled aminoglycosides targeting the RNA that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1. ACS Chem Biol. 2012;7:1984-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Modest improvement of pre-mRNA splicing defects was observed. These studies suggest that a modular assembly approach can afford bioactive compounds that target RNA...

More Information


  1. BABAKHANI F, Bouillaut L, Sears P, Sims C, Gomez A, Sonenshein A. Fidaxomicin inhibits toxin production in Clostridium difficile. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013;68:515-22 pubmed publisher
  2. Vlasits A, Simon J, Raible D, Rubel E, Owens K. Screen of FDA-approved drug library reveals compounds that protect hair cells from aminoglycosides and cisplatin. Hear Res. 2012;294:153-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The protective compounds identified in our screen will provide a starting point for studies in mammals as well as further research discovering the cellular signaling pathways that trigger hair cell death. ..
  3. Jnawali H, Yoo H, Ryoo S, Lee K, Kim B, Koh W, et al. Molecular genetics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to aminoglycosides and cyclic peptide capreomycin antibiotics in Korea. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;29:975-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Aminoglycosides are key drugs for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis...
  4. Louie T, Cannon K, Byrne B, Emery J, Ward L, Eyben M, et al. Fidaxomicin preserves the intestinal microbiome during and after treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and reduces both toxin reexpression and recurrence of CDI. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55 Suppl 2:S132-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas vancomycin and fidaxomicin are equally effective in resolving CDI symptoms, preservation of the microflora by fidaxomicin is associated with a lower likelihood of CDI recurrence. ..
  5. Hidalgo L, Hopkins K, Gutierrez B, Ovejero C, Shukla S, Douthwaite S, et al. Association of the novel aminoglycoside resistance determinant RmtF with NDM carbapenemase in Enterobacteriaceae isolated in India and the UK. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013;68:1543-50 pubmed publisher
    16S rRNA methyltransferases are an emerging mechanism conferring high-level resistance to clinically relevant aminoglycosides and have been associated with important mechanisms such as NDM-1...
  6. Artsimovitch I, Seddon J, Sears P. Fidaxomicin is an inhibitor of the initiation of bacterial RNA synthesis. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55 Suppl 2:S127-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies show that it has a mechanism distinct from that of elongation inhibitors, such as streptolydigin, and from the transcription initiation inhibitors myxopyronin and the rifamycins. ..
  7. Figueroa I, Johnson S, Sambol S, Goldstein E, Citron D, Gerding D. Relapse versus reinfection: recurrent Clostridium difficile infection following treatment with fidaxomicin or vancomycin. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55 Suppl 2:S104-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Caution in generalizing these observations is required, because the patients studied were younger and more likely to be from Canadian sites than were patients with recurrence who did not provide isolates...
  8. Ezraty B, Vergnes A, Banzhaf M, Duverger Y, Huguenot A, Brochado A, et al. Fe-S cluster biosynthesis controls uptake of aminoglycosides in a ROS-less death pathway. Science. 2013;340:1583-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that Fe-S clusters are required for killing only by aminoglycosides. In contrast to cells, using the major Fe-S cluster biosynthesis machinery, ISC, cells using the alternative ..
  9. Shulman E, Belakhov V, Wei G, Kendall A, Meyron Holtz E, Ben Shachar D, et al. Designer aminoglycosides that selectively inhibit cytoplasmic rather than mitochondrial ribosomes show decreased ototoxicity: a strategy for the treatment of genetic diseases. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:2318-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach holds promise for patients suffering from genetic diseases caused by nonsense mutations. ..
  10. Nikolaus N, Strehlitz B. DNA-aptamers binding aminoglycoside antibiotics. Sensors (Basel). 2014;14:3737-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the proof of principle of an assay for detection of kanamycin A in a real water sample is given. ..
  11. Crook D, Walker A, Kean Y, Weiss K, Cornely O, Miller M, et al. Fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection: meta-analysis of pivotal randomized controlled trials. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55 Suppl 2:S93-103 pubmed publisher
    ..01). Fidaxomicin has the potential to substantially improve outcomes from CDI...
  12. Harris P, Ferguson J. Antibiotic therapy for inducible AmpC ?-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacilli: what are the alternatives to carbapenems, quinolones and aminoglycosides?. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2012;40:297-305 pubmed publisher
    ..combination drug susceptibilities for ESCPM organisms, encouraging alternative therapy with quinolones, aminoglycosides or carbapenems...
  13. Matt T, Ng C, Lang K, Sha S, Akbergenov R, Shcherbakov D, et al. Dissociation of antibacterial activity and aminoglycoside ototoxicity in the 4-monosubstituted 2-deoxystreptamine apramycin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:10984-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Aminoglycosides are potent antibacterials, but therapy is compromised by substantial toxicity causing, in particular, irreversible hearing loss...
  14. Wachino J, Arakawa Y. Exogenously acquired 16S rRNA methyltransferases found in aminoglycoside-resistant pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria: an update. Drug Resist Updat. 2012;15:133-48 pubmed publisher
    ..16S rRNA methyltransferase (16S-RMTase) genes responsible for a very high level of resistance against various aminoglycosides have been widely distributed among Enterobacteriaceae and glucose-nonfermentative microbes recovered from ..
  15. Frase H, Toth M, Vakulenko S. Revisiting the nucleotide and aminoglycoside substrate specificity of the bifunctional aminoglycoside acetyltransferase(6')-Ie/aminoglycoside phosphotransferase(2'')-Ia enzyme. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:43262-9 pubmed publisher
    ..among aminoglycoside phosphotransferases, having the ability to inactivate an unusually broad spectrum of aminoglycosides, including 4,6- and 4,5-disubstituted and atypical...
  16. Kandasamy J, Atia Glikin D, Shulman E, Shapira K, Shavit M, Belakhov V, et al. Increased selectivity toward cytoplasmic versus mitochondrial ribosome confers improved efficiency of synthetic aminoglycosides in fixing damaged genes: a strategy for treatment of genetic diseases caused by nonsense mutations. J Med Chem. 2012;55:10630-43 pubmed publisher
    ..a series of biochemical assays, we provide proof of principle that antibacterial activity and toxicity of aminoglycosides can be dissected from their suppression activity...
  17. Hanberger H, Edlund C, Furebring M, G Giske C, Melhus A, Nilsson L, et al. Rational use of aminoglycosides--review and recommendations by the Swedish Reference Group for Antibiotics (SRGA). Scand J Infect Dis. 2013;45:161-75 pubmed publisher
    ..against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli than other aminoglycosides, making it a better option in cases of suspected infection caused by multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae...
  18. Tsai A, Uemura S, Johansson M, Puglisi E, Marshall R, Aitken C, et al. The impact of aminoglycosides on the dynamics of translation elongation. Cell Rep. 2013;3:497-508 pubmed publisher
    ..have circumvented these limitations with a multifaceted approach to investigate three structurally distinct aminoglycosides that bind to the aminoacyl-transfer RNA site (A site) in the prokaryotic 30S ribosomal subunit: apramycin, ..
  19. Boyer A, Gruson D, Bouchet S, Clouzeau B, Hoang Nam B, Vargas F, et al. Aminoglycosides in septic shock: an overview, with specific consideration given to their nephrotoxic risk. Drug Saf. 2013;36:217-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on nephrotoxicity associated with aminoglycosides in the subset of patients with septic shock or severe sepsis...
  20. Mendes R, Sader H, Farrell D, Jones R. Update on the telavancin activity tested against European staphylococcal clinical isolates (2009-2010). Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;71:93-7 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus infections in Europe, including those infections caused by strains with decreased susceptibility to vancomycin and/or teicoplanin. ..
  21. Brendel C, Belakhov V, Werner H, Wegener E, Gartner J, Nudelman I, et al. Readthrough of nonsense mutations in Rett syndrome: evaluation of novel aminoglycosides and generation of a new mouse model. J Mol Med (Berl). 2011;89:389-98 pubmed publisher
    ..and mouse ear fibroblasts isolated from the new mouse model were treated with gentamicin and the novel aminoglycosides NB30, NB54, and NB84. The localization of the readthrough product was tested by immunofluorescence...
  22. Jager E, van der Velden V, Te Marvelde J, Walter R, Agur Z, Vainstein V. Targeted drug delivery by gemtuzumab ozogamicin: mechanism-based mathematical model for treatment strategy improvement and therapy individualization. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24265 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that incorporation of our results in clinical practice can serve identification of the subpopulation of elderly patients who can benefit most of the GO treatment and enable return of the currently suspended drug to clinic. ..
  23. Ramirez M, Tolmasky M. Aminoglycoside modifying enzymes. Drug Resist Updat. 2010;13:151-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Aminoglycosides have been an essential component of the armamentarium in the treatment of life-threatening infections. Unfortunately, their efficacy has been reduced by the surge and dissemination of resistance...
  24. Hirsch E, Tam V. Detection and treatment options for Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs): an emerging cause of multidrug-resistant infection. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65:1119-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Tigecycline and the aminoglycosides were associated with positive outcomes in the majority of cases...
  25. Liao G, Li J, Li L, Yang H, Tian Y, Tan H. Cloning, reassembling and integration of the entire nikkomycin biosynthetic gene cluster into Streptomyces ansochromogenes lead to an improved nikkomycin production. Microb Cell Fact. 2010;9:6 pubmed publisher
    ..ansochromogenes. The strategies presented here could be applicable to other bacteria to improve the yields of secondary metabolites. ..
  26. Miropolskaya N, Artsimovitch I, Klimasauskas S, Nikiforov V, Kulbachinskiy A. Allosteric control of catalysis by the F loop of RNA polymerase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18942-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that the F loop is essential for proper folding of the trigger loop during nucleotide addition and governs the temperature adaptivity of RNAPs in different bacteria...
  27. Lingala H, Penagaluru P. Role of connexin 26 (GJB2) & mitochondrial small ribosomal RNA (mt 12S rRNA) genes in sporadic & aminoglycoside-induced non syndromic hearing impairment. Indian J Med Res. 2009;130:369-78 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the role of connexin 26 and mitochondrial 12S rRNA genes in hearing which will be helpful for better understanding of genes in sporadic and aminoglycoside-induced non syndromic hearing impairment. ..
  28. Chang M, Kish T, Fung H. Telavancin: a lipoglycopeptide antimicrobial for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by gram-positive bacteria in adults. Clin Ther. 2010;32:2160-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In clinical trials, the effectiveness of telavancin was not significantly different from that of vancomycin in the treatment of cSSSIs, and telavancin was generally well tolerated. ..
  29. Zilberberg A, Lahav L, Rosin Arbesfeld R. Restoration of APC gene function in colorectal cancer cells by aminoglycoside- and macrolide-induced read-through of premature termination codons. Gut. 2010;59:496-507 pubmed publisher
    ..A potential therapeutic approach for treatment of this subset of patients is the use of aminoglycosides and macrolides that induce nonsense mutation read-through and restore levels of full-length protein...
  30. Binet R, Maurelli A. The chlamydial functional homolog of KsgA confers kasugamycin sensitivity to Chlamydia trachomatis and impacts bacterial fitness. BMC Microbiol. 2009;9:279 pubmed publisher
    ..It also confirms the existence of S-adenosyl-methionine--dependent methylation reactions in Chlamydia raising the question of how these organisms acquire this cofactor...
  31. Chen Y, Smanski M, Shen B. Improvement of secondary metabolite production in Streptomyces by manipulating pathway regulation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;86:19-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Efforts to improve the titers of fredericamycin, C-1027, platensimycin, and platencin in our lab are highlighted. ..
  32. Houghton J, Green K, Chen W, Garneau Tsodikova S. The future of aminoglycosides: the end or renaissance?. Chembiochem. 2010;11:880-902 pubmed publisher
    Although aminoglycosides have been used as antibacterials for decades, their use has been hindered by their inherent toxicity and the resistance that has emerged to these compounds...
  33. Finkel R. Read-through strategies for suppression of nonsense mutations in Duchenne/ Becker muscular dystrophy: aminoglycosides and ataluren (PTC124). J Child Neurol. 2010;25:1158-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Small-molecule drugs (aminoglycosides and ataluren [PTC124]) have been developed and are in clinical testing in patients with nonsense mutations ..
  34. Ding W, Lei C, He Q, Zhang Q, Bi Y, Liu W. Insights into bacterial 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase and its engineering to orsellinic acid synthase for spirotetronate generation. Chem Biol. 2010;17:495-503 pubmed publisher
    ..The resulting spirotetronates, which bear an OSA-derived aryl group, exhibited antibacterial activities comparable to those of the parent products. ..
  35. Martinez J, Cobos Trigueros N, Soriano A, Almela M, Ortega M, Marco F, et al. Influence of empiric therapy with a beta-lactam alone or combined with an aminoglycoside on prognosis of bacteremia due to gram-negative microorganisms. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:3590-6 pubmed publisher
    Evidence supporting the combination of aminoglycosides with beta-lactams for gram-negative bacteremia is inconclusive...
  36. Prayle A, Watson A, Fortnum H, Smyth A. Side effects of aminoglycosides on the kidney, ear and balance in cystic fibrosis. Thorax. 2010;65:654-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Observational studies suggest that the morbidity from side effects of aminoglycosides is disturbingly common, and that aggressive treatment may lead to more side effects...
  37. Goldmann T, Rebibo Sabbah A, Overlack N, Nudelman I, Belakhov V, Baasov T, et al. Beneficial read-through of a USH1C nonsense mutation by designed aminoglycoside NB30 in the retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:6671-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Read-through of p.R31X by three commercial, clinically applied aminoglycosides and the synthetic derivative NB30 was validated in vitro, in cell culture, and in retinal explants...
  38. Lopez Novoa J, Quiros Y, Vicente L, Morales A, Lopez Hernandez F. New insights into the mechanism of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity: an integrative point of view. Kidney Int. 2011;79:33-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, it discusses therapeutic perspectives for prevention of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity derived from the pathophysiological knowledge. ..
  39. Svenda J, Hill N, Myers A. A multiply convergent platform for the synthesis of trioxacarcins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:6709-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The brevity of the sequence arises from strict adherence to a plan in which strategic bond-pair constructions are staged at or near the end of the synthetic route. ..
  40. Stryjewski M, Barriere S, O Riordan W, Dunbar L, Hopkins A, Genter F, et al. Efficacy of telavancin in patients with specific types of complicated skin and skin structure infections. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012;67:1496-502 pubmed publisher
    ..2 to 8.2). Cure rates were similar for telavancin and vancomycin in patients with different types of cSSSIs, including infections caused by MRSA and PVL-positive strains of MRSA. ..
  41. Leonard S, Szeto Y, Zolotarev M, Grigoryan I. Comparative in vitro activity of telavancin, vancomycin and linezolid against heterogeneously vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA). Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2011;37:558-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Linezolid was not bactericidal against any strain at either concentration or inoculum. In conclusion, the killing activity of telavancin against hVISA was found to be superior to vancomycin and linezolid. ..
  42. Lee H, Chen C, Baasov T, Ron Y, Dougherty J. Post-transcriptionally regulated expression system in human xenogeneic transplantation models. Mol Ther. 2011;19:1645-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These results strongly support the contention that this system should have important clinical applications when tight control of gene expression is required. ..
  43. Vecsler M, Ben Zeev B, Nudelman I, Anikster Y, Simon A, Amariglio N, et al. Ex vivo treatment with a novel synthetic aminoglycoside NB54 in primary fibroblasts from Rett syndrome patients suppresses MECP2 nonsense mutations. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20733 pubmed publisher
    ..Naturally occurring aminoglycosides, such as gentamicin, have been shown to enable partial suppression of nonsense mutations related to several ..
  44. Stepanyan R, Indzhykulian A, Vélez Ortega A, Boger E, Steyger P, Friedman T, et al. TRPA1-mediated accumulation of aminoglycosides in mouse cochlear outer hair cells. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2011;12:729-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The exact route of entry of aminoglycosides into the hair cells in vivo is still unknown...
  45. Tkachenko A, Akhova A, Shumkov M, Nesterova L. Polyamines reduce oxidative stress in Escherichia coli cells exposed to bactericidal antibiotics. Res Microbiol. 2012;163:83-91 pubmed publisher
    Bactericidal antibiotics (fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and cephalosporins) at their sublethal concentrations were able to produce hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anions (ROS) in Escherichia coli cells, which ..
  46. Horna D, Gomez C, Olano C, Palomino Schätzlein M, Pineda Lucena A, Carbajo R, et al. Biosynthesis of the RNA polymerase inhibitor streptolydigin in Streptomyces lydicus: tailoring modification of 3-methyl-aspartate. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:2647-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Inactivation of slgZ led to a novel streptolydigin derivative. Overexpression of slgZ, slgM, or both in S. lydicus led to a considerable increase in streptolydigin production...
  47. Nigro S, Post V, Hall R. Aminoglycoside resistance in multiply antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii belonging to global clone 2 from Australian hospitals. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011;66:1504-9 pubmed publisher
    ..genes, including the sul2 sulphonamide resistance gene, but varied in their pattern of resistance to aminoglycosides. The aminoglycoside resistance profiles of isolates were accounted for by four resistance genes-aadB, aacC1, ..
  48. Rubinstein E, Corey G, Stryjewski M, Kanafani Z. Telavancin for the treatment of serious gram-positive infections, including hospital acquired pneumonia. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2011;12:2737-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Telavancin is a lipoglycopeptide antibiotic with rapid, bactericidal activity against MRSA, and may provide another option for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia, owing to Gram-positive pathogens. ..
  49. Pagkalis S, Mantadakis E, Mavros M, Ammari C, Falagas M. Pharmacological considerations for the proper clinical use of aminoglycosides. Drugs. 2011;71:2277-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Aminoglycosides constitute one of the oldest classes of antimicrobials...
  50. Carlson J, Fortman J, Anzai Y, Li S, Burr D, Sherman D. Identification of the tirandamycin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces sp. 307-9. Chembiochem. 2010;11:564-72 pubmed publisher
  51. Vaziri F, Peerayeh S, Nejad Q, Farhadian A. The prevalence of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes (aac (6')-I, aac (6')-II, ant (2")-I, aph (3')-VI) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2011;66:1519-22 pubmed
    ..aeruginosa) is one of the primary opportunistic pathogens responsible for nosocomial infections. Aminoglycosides are an import ant component of antipseudomonal chemotherapy...
  52. Li H, Steyger P. Systemic aminoglycosides are trafficked via endolymph into cochlear hair cells. Sci Rep. 2011;1:159 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo, it remains unknown whether systemically-administered aminoglycosides cross the blood-labyrinth barrier into endolymph and enter hair cells...
  53. Smith C, Toth M, Frase H, Byrnes L, Vakulenko S. Aminoglycoside 2''-phosphotransferase IIIa (APH(2'')-IIIa) prefers GTP over ATP: structural templates for nucleotide recognition in the bacterial aminoglycoside-2'' kinases. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:12893-903 pubmed publisher