lipid a

Summary

Summary: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.

Top Publications

  1. Madala N, Leone M, Molinaro A, Dubery I. Deciphering the structural and biological properties of the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharides from Burkholderia cepacia strain ASP B 2D, in Arabidopsis thaliana. Glycobiology. 2011;21:184-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent findings suggest that the lipid A moiety might be partially responsible for LPSs perception...
  2. Cui Y, Kang L, Cui L, He W. Human gammadelta T cell recognition of lipid A is predominately presented by CD1b or CD1c on dendritic cells. Biol Direct. 2009;4:47 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we explored the mechanism of interaction of human gammadelta T cells in peripheral blood with Lipid A (LA)...
  3. Zenobia C, Hasturk H, Nguyen D, Van Dyke T, Kantarci A, Darveau R. Porphyromonas gingivalis lipid A phosphatase activity is critical for colonization and increasing the commensal load in the rabbit ligature model. Infect Immun. 2014;82:650-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Porphyromonas gingivalis contains lipid A with structural heterogeneity that has been postulated to contribute to the initiation of dysbiosis in oral ..
  4. Aruni A, Lee J, Osbourne D, Dou Y, Roy F, Muthiah A, et al. VimA-dependent modulation of acetyl coenzyme A levels and lipid A biosynthesis can alter virulence in Porphyromonas gingivalis. Infect Immun. 2012;80:550-64 pubmed publisher
    ..VimA mediated coenzyme A (CoA) transfer to isoleucine and reduced branched-chain amino acid metabolism. The lipid A content and associated proteins were altered in the vimA-defective mutants...
  5. Nichols F, Bajrami B, Clark R, Housley W, Yao X. Free lipid A isolated from Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide is contaminated with phosphorylated dihydroceramide lipids: recovery in diseased dental samples. Infect Immun. 2012;80:860-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipid A, lipoprotein, fimbriae, and phosphorylated dihydroceramides of P...
  6. Jenkins R, Dotson G. A continuous fluorescent enzyme assay for early steps of lipid A biosynthesis. Anal Biochem. 2012;425:21-7 pubmed publisher
    ..LpxA) and UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxyacyl)-glucosamine acyltransferase (LpxD) catalyze the first and third steps of lipid A biosynthesis, respectively...
  7. Lewis L, Shafer W, Dutta Ray T, Ram S, Rice P. Phosphoethanolamine residues on the lipid A moiety of Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharide modulate binding of complement inhibitors and resistance to complement killing. Infect Immun. 2013;81:33-42 pubmed publisher
    Loss of phosphoethanolamine (PEA) from the lipid A of gonococcal strain FA19 results in increased sensitivity to killing by the classical pathway of complement...
  8. Herath T, Darveau R, Seneviratne C, Wang C, Wang Y, Jin L. Tetra- and penta-acylated lipid A structures of Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS differentially activate TLR4-mediated NF-?B signal transduction cascade and immuno-inflammatory response in human gingival fibroblasts. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58496 pubmed publisher
    ..Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), as a key virulent attribute of P. gingivalis, possesses significant amount of lipid A heterogeneity containing tetra- (LPS1435/1449) and penta-acylated (LPS1690) structures...
  9. Pandya Jones A, Bhatt D, Lin C, Tong A, Smale S, Black D. Splicing kinetics and transcript release from the chromatin compartment limit the rate of Lipid A-induced gene expression. RNA. 2013;19:811-27 pubmed publisher
    ..By applying RNA-seq to chromatin-associated and soluble nucleoplasmic fractions of RNA from Lipid A-stimulated macrophages, we examined the timing of exon ligation and transcript release from chromatin relative to ..

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications62

  1. Stoddard M, Pinto V, Keiser P, Zollinger W. Evaluation of a whole-blood cytokine release assay for use in measuring endotoxin activity of group B Neisseria meningitidis vaccines made from lipid A acylation mutants. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:98-107 pubmed publisher
    ..of purified LPS and native outer membrane vesicle (NOMV) vaccines derived from wild-type (hexa-acylated lipid A) and genetically detoxified (penta- and tetra-acylated lipid A) group B Neisseria meningitidis...
  2. Ierano T, Cescutti P, Leone M, Luciani A, Rizzo R, Raia V, et al. The lipid A of Burkholderia multivorans C1576 smooth-type lipopolysaccharide and its pro-inflammatory activity in a cystic fibrosis airways model. Innate Immun. 2010;16:354-65 pubmed publisher
    ..endotoxins (LPSs) are among the foremost factors of pathogenesis of Gram-negative infection and, in particular, lipid A is the endotoxic portion of LPS responsible for eliciting host innate immune response...
  3. Casella C, Mitchell T. Inefficient TLR4/MD-2 heterotetramerization by monophosphoryl lipid A. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62622 pubmed publisher
    Synthetic forms of E. coli monophosphoryl lipid A (sMLA) weakly activate the MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response protein) branch of the bifurcated TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4) signaling pathway, in contrast to diphosphoryl ..
  4. Shah N, AlBitar Nehmé S, Kim E, Marr N, Novikov A, Caroff M, et al. Minor modifications to the phosphate groups and the C3' acyl chain length of lipid A in two Bordetella pertussis strains, BP338 and 18-323, independently affect Toll-like receptor 4 protein activation. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:11751-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Bordetella pertussis are important modulators of the immune system. Interaction of the lipid A region of LPS with the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) complex causes dimerization of TLR4 and activation of ..
  5. Matsuura M, Kawasaki K, Kawahara K, Mitsuyama M. Evasion of human innate immunity without antagonizing TLR4 by mutant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium having penta-acylated lipid A. Innate Immun. 2012;18:764-73 pubmed
    Modification of a lipid A moiety in Gram-negative bacterial LPS to a less acylated form is thought to facilitate bacterial evasion of host innate immunity, thereby enhancing pathogenicity...
  6. García González P, Morales R, Hoyos L, Maggi J, Campos J, Pesce B, et al. A short protocol using dexamethasone and monophosphoryl lipid A generates tolerogenic dendritic cells that display a potent migratory capacity to lymphoid chemokines. J Transl Med. 2013;11:128 pubmed publisher
    ..TolDCs from healthy donors were generated by modulation with dexamethasone plus monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA-tDCs)...
  7. Resman N, Oblak A, Gioannini T, Weiss J, Jerala R. Tetraacylated lipid A and paclitaxel-selective activation of TLR4/MD-2 conferred through hydrophobic interactions. J Immunol. 2014;192:1887-95 pubmed publisher
    LPS exerts potent immunostimulatory effects through activation of the TLR4/MD-2 receptor complex. The hexaacylated lipid A is an agonist of mouse (mTLR4) and human TLR4/MD-2, whereas the tetraacylated lipid IVa and paclitaxel activate ..
  8. Reynolds C, Raetz C. Replacement of lipopolysaccharide with free lipid A molecules in Escherichia coli mutants lacking all core sugars. Biochemistry. 2009;48:9627-40 pubmed publisher
    ..are bypassed by certain suppressor mutations or by overexpression of MsbA, the inner membrane flippase for core-lipid A. These strains grow on broth with the tetraacylated precursor lipid IV(A) replacing lipopolysaccharide [Meredith, ..
  9. Sprong T, Ley P, Abdollahi Roodsaz S, Joosten L, Meer J, Netea M, et al. Neisseria meningitidis lipid A mutant LPSs function as LPS antagonists in humans by inhibiting TLR 4-dependent cytokine production. Innate Immun. 2011;17:517-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Neisseria meningitidis H44/76 by insertional inactivation of the lpxL1 and lpxL2 genes have been created with a lipid A portion consisting of five (penta-acylated lpxL1) or four (tetra-acylated lpxL2) fatty acids connected to the ..
  10. Ingram B, Sohlenkamp C, Geiger O, Raetz C. Altered lipid A structures and polymyxin hypersensitivity of Rhizobium etli mutants lacking the LpxE and LpxF phosphatases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1801:593-604 pubmed publisher
    The lipid A of Rhizobium etli, a nitrogen-fixing plant endosymbiont, displays significant structural differences when compared to that of Escherichia coli. An especially striking feature of R...
  11. Meng J, Lien E, Golenbock D. MD-2-mediated ionic interactions between lipid A and TLR4 are essential for receptor activation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:8695-702 pubmed publisher
    ..MD-2 complexes to activate intracellular signaling. However, exactly how lipid A, the endotoxic moiety of LPS, activates myeloid lineage cells remains unknown...
  12. Jones J, Cohen I, Turecek F, Goodlett D, Ernst R. Comprehensive structure characterization of lipid A extracted from Yersinia pestis for determination of its phosphorylation configuration. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2010;21:785-99 pubmed publisher
    We report on comprehensive structure characterization of lipid A extracted from Yersinia pestis (Yp) for determination of its phosphorylation configuration that was achieved by combining the methods of molecular biology with high-..
  13. Meng J, Drolet J, Monks B, Golenbock D. MD-2 residues tyrosine 42, arginine 69, aspartic acid 122, and leucine 125 provide species specificity for lipid IVA. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:27935-43 pubmed publisher
    ..MD-2 complex. A synthetic lipid A precursor, lipid IV(A), induces an innate immune response in mice but not in humans...
  14. Reinés M, Llobet E, Dahlström K, Pérez Gutiérrez C, Llompart C, Torrecabota N, et al. Deciphering the acylation pattern of Yersinia enterocolitica lipid A. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002978 pubmed publisher
    ..Yersinia enterocolitica modulates its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) lipid A structure, and the key regulatory signal is temperature...
  15. Haarmann R, Ibrahim M, Stevanovic M, Bredemeier R, Schleiff E. The properties of the outer membrane localized Lipid A transporter LptD. J Phys Condens Matter. 2010;22:454124 pubmed publisher
    ..of two distinct monolayers where the outer layer contains lipopolysaccharides (LPS) with the non-phospholipid Lipid A as the core...
  16. Garçon N, Segal L, Tavares F, Van Mechelen M. The safety evaluation of adjuvants during vaccine development: the AS04 experience. Vaccine. 2011;29:4453-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss how the knowledge of adjuvant mode of action can support the current practice of safety evaluation. ..
  17. Coats S, To T, Jain S, Braham P, Darveau R. Porphyromonas gingivalis resistance to polymyxin B is determined by the lipid A 4'-phosphatase, PGN_0524. Int J Oral Sci. 2009;1:126-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined that the Tn4400' transposon was integrated into the gene encoding the lipid A 4'-phosphatase, PGN_0524, demonstrating that this insertion event was responsible for its increased ..
  18. Madsen J, Cullen T, Trent M, Brodbelt J. IR and UV photodissociation as analytical tools for characterizing lipid A structures. Anal Chem. 2011;83:5107-13 pubmed publisher
    ..6-?m infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) for the characterization of lipid A structures was assessed in an ion trap mass spectrometer...
  19. Kong Q, Six D, Roland K, Liu Q, Gu L, Reynolds C, et al. Salmonella synthesizing 1-dephosphorylated [corrected] lipopolysaccharide exhibits low endotoxic activity while retaining its immunogenicity. J Immunol. 2011;187:412-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent characterization of the lipid A 1-phosphatase, LpxE, from Francisella tularensis allowed us to construct recombinant, plasmid-free strains of ..
  20. Korsholm K, Petersen R, Agger E, Andersen P. T-helper 1 and T-helper 2 adjuvants induce distinct differences in the magnitude, quality and kinetics of the early inflammatory response at the site of injection. Immunology. 2010;129:75-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the adjuvants induced qualitatively distinct local inflammatory signals early after injection. ..
  21. Herath T, Wang Y, Seneviratne C, Lu Q, Darveau R, Wang C, et al. Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide lipid A heterogeneity differentially modulates the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in human gingival fibroblasts. J Clin Periodontol. 2011;38:694-701 pubmed publisher
    ..amount of structural heterogeneity, containing both tetra- (LPS(1435/1449) ) and penta-acylated (LPS(1690) ) lipid A structures. This study investigated the effects of the two isoforms of P...
  22. Cai L, Li Y, Tao G, Guo W, Zhang C, Wang X. Identification of three genes encoding for the late acyltransferases of lipid A in Cronobacter sakazakii. Mar Drugs. 2013;11:377-86 pubmed publisher
    b>Lipid A, the hydrophobic anchor of lipopolysaccharide, is an essential component in the outer membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria...
  23. Garate J, Oostenbrink C. Lipid A from lipopolysaccharide recognition: structure, dynamics and cooperativity by molecular dynamics simulations. Proteins. 2013;81:658-74 pubmed publisher
    Molecular dynamics simulations of Lipid A and its natural precursor Lipid IVA from E...
  24. Peters N, Bertholet S, Lawyer P, Charmoy M, Romano A, Ribeiro Gomes F, et al. Evaluation of recombinant Leishmania polyprotein plus glucopyranosyl lipid A stable emulsion vaccines against sand fly-transmitted Leishmania major in C57BL/6 mice. J Immunol. 2012;189:4832-41 pubmed publisher
    ..recombinant Leishmania polyproteins delivered in a stable emulsion (SE) with the TLR4 agonists monophosphoryl lipid A or glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA) have shown protection in animal models...
  25. ten Brinke A, van Schijndel G, Visser R, de Gruijl T, Zwaginga J, Van Ham S. Monophosphoryl lipid A plus IFNgamma maturation of dendritic cells induces antigen-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells with high cytolytic potential. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2010;59:1185-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, we showed that the combination of monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) with IFNgamma generates mature DCs that produce IL-12 and polarize CD4(+) T cells towards a Th1 phenotype...
  26. Yamamoto M, Akira S. Lipid A receptor TLR4-mediated signaling pathways. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;667:59-68 pubmed publisher
    b>Lipid A is a strong activator of monocytes to release immune stimulators such as proinflammatory cytokines...
  27. Cluff C. Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) as an adjuvant for anti-cancer vaccines: clinical results. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;667:111-23 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Lipid A, the biologically active portion of the gram-negative bacterial cell wall constituent lipopolysaccharide (LPS), ..
  28. Ingram B, Masoudi A, Raetz C. Escherichia coli mutants that synthesize dephosphorylated lipid A molecules. Biochemistry. 2010;49:8325-37 pubmed publisher
    The lipid A moiety of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide is a hexaacylated disaccharide of glucosamine that is phosphorylated at the 1 and 4' positions. Expression of the Francisella novicida lipid A 1-phosphatase FnLpxE in E...
  29. Coler R, Bertholet S, Moutaftsi M, Guderian J, Windish H, Baldwin S, et al. Development and characterization of synthetic glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant system as a vaccine adjuvant. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16333 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here on the characterization of a synthetic hexaacylated lipid A derivative, denoted as glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant (GLA)...
  30. Söderberg M, Cianciotto N. Mediators of lipid A modification, RNA degradation, and central intermediary metabolism facilitate the growth of Legionella pneumophila at low temperatures. Curr Microbiol. 2010;60:59-65 pubmed publisher
    ..implicated in low-temperature growth included components of the type II secretion system (LspE, LspG, LspH), a lipid A biosynthetic enzyme (LpxP), a ribonuclease (RNAse R), an RNA helicase (CsdA/DeaD), TCA cycle enzymes (citrate ..
  31. Li Y, Powell D, Shaffer S, Rasko D, Pelletier M, Leszyk J, et al. LPS remodeling is an evolved survival strategy for bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:8716-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a well-characterized model of lipid A diversification (Francisella), we demonstrate temperature-regulated membrane remodeling directed by multiple ..
  32. Gaekwad J, Zhang Y, Zhang W, Reeves J, Wolfert M, Boons G. Differential induction of innate immune responses by synthetic lipid a derivatives. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:29375-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Heterogeneity in the structure of lipid A (the active component of LPS) and possible contaminations with other inflammatory components have made it ..
  33. Haag A, Wehmeier S, Muszynski A, Kerscher B, Fletcher V, Berry S, et al. Biochemical characterization of Sinorhizobium meliloti mutants reveals gene products involved in the biosynthesis of the unusual lipid A very long-chain fatty acid. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:17455-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The lipid A species of S...
  34. John C, Liu M, Phillips N, Yang Z, Funk C, Zimmerman L, et al. Lack of lipid A pyrophosphorylation and functional lptA reduces inflammation by Neisseria commensals. Infect Immun. 2012;80:4014-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that phosphoethanolamine on the lipid A portion of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) plays an important role in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling...
  35. Beasley A, Cotter R, Vogel S, Inzana T, Qureshi A, Qureshi N. A variety of novel lipid A structures obtained from Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain. Innate Immun. 2012;18:268-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Its LPS has nominal biological activity. Currently, there is controversy regarding the structure of the lipid A obtained from F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS)...
  36. Jenkins R, Dotson G. Dual targeting antibacterial peptide inhibitor of early lipid A biosynthesis. ACS Chem Biol. 2012;7:1170-7 pubmed publisher
    UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxyacyl)GlcN N-acyltransferase (LpxD) has been shown to be essential to survival of lipid A producing Gram-negative bacteria...
  37. Embry C, Franchi L, Nunez G, Mitchell T. Mechanism of impaired NLRP3 inflammasome priming by monophosphoryl lipid A. Sci Signal. 2011;4:ra28 pubmed publisher
    Monophosphoryl lipid A (MLA), a nontoxic derivative of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), has been approved in the United States for use as a vaccine adjuvant...
  38. Tan L, Yang A, Kishore U, Sim R. Interactions of complement proteins C1q and factor H with lipid A and Escherichia coli: further evidence that factor H regulates the classical complement pathway. Protein Cell. 2011;2:320-32 pubmed publisher
    ..To extend this finding, we examined interactions of C1q and factor H with lipid A, a well-characterized activator of the classical pathway...
  39. Cullen T, Giles D, Wolf L, Ecobichon C, Boneca I, Trent M. Helicobacter pylori versus the host: remodeling of the bacterial outer membrane is required for survival in the gastric mucosa. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002454 pubmed publisher
    Modification of bacterial surface structures, such as the lipid A portion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is used by many pathogenic bacteria to help evade the host innate immune response...
  40. Gautier T, Paul C, Deckert V, Desrumaux C, Klein A, Labbé J, et al. Innate immune response triggered by triacyl lipid A is dependent on phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) gene expression. FASEB J. 2010;24:3544-54 pubmed publisher
    Hexaacyl lipopolysaccharide (LPS) aggregates in aqueous media, but its partially deacylated lipid A moiety forms monomers with weaker toxicity...
  41. Li C, Guan Z, Liu D, Raetz C. Pathway for lipid A biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana resembling that of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:11387-92 pubmed publisher
    The lipid A moiety of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide is a hexa-acylated disaccharide of glucosamine that makes up the outer monolayer of the outer membrane...
  42. Matyas G, Mayorov A, Rice K, Jacobson A, Cheng K, Iyer M, et al. Liposomes containing monophosphoryl lipid A: a potent adjuvant system for inducing antibodies to heroin hapten analogs. Vaccine. 2013;31:2804-10 pubmed publisher
    ..create an effective immunization approach for a potential vaccine to heroin, liposomes containing monophosphoryl lipid A [L(MPLA)] were tested as an adjuvant system to induce antibodies to heroin hapten analogs...
  43. Cigana C, Curcurù L, Leone M, Ierano T, Lorè N, Bianconi I, et al. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exploits lipid A and muropeptides modification as a strategy to lower innate immunity during cystic fibrosis lung infection. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8439 pubmed publisher
    ..5 years from a CF patient. Chemical structure by MS spectrometry defined lipopolysaccharide (LPS) lipid A and peptidoglycan (PGN) muropeptides with specific structural modifications temporally associated with CF lung ..
  44. Treanor J, Essink B, Hull S, Reed S, Izikson R, Patriarca P, et al. Evaluation of safety and immunogenicity of recombinant influenza hemagglutinin (H5/Indonesia/05/2005) formulated with and without a stable oil-in-water emulsion containing glucopyranosyl-lipid A (SE+GLA) adjuvant. Vaccine. 2013;31:5760-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The rHA vaccine was tested with and without the adjuvant glucopyranosyl lipid A/stable emulsion (GLA/SE)...
  45. Steers N, Peachman K, McClain S, Alving C, Rao M. Liposome-encapsulated HIV-1 Gag p24 containing lipid A induces effector CD4+ T-cells, memory CD8+ T-cells, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Vaccine. 2009;27:6939-49 pubmed publisher
    Liposomal lipid A is an effective adjuvant for the delivery of antigens and for the induction of both cellular and humoral immunity...
  46. Michaud J, Halle M, Lampron A, Theriault P, Prefontaine P, Filali M, et al. Toll-like receptor 4 stimulation with the detoxified ligand monophosphoryl lipid A improves Alzheimer's disease-related pathology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:1941-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) is an LPS-derived Toll-like receptor 4 agonist that exhibits unique immunomodulatory properties at doses ..
  47. Cullen T, Trent M. A link between the assembly of flagella and lipooligosaccharide of the Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter jejuni. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:5160-5 pubmed publisher
    ..pEtN) transferase (Cj0256) that serves a dual role in modifying not only the lipooligosaccharide lipid anchor lipid A with pEtN, but also the flagellar rod protein FlgG. Generation of a mutant in C...
  48. Rein s M, Llobet E, Llompart C, Moranta D, P rez Guti rrez C, Bengoechea J. Molecular basis of Yersinia enterocolitica temperature-dependent resistance to antimicrobial peptides. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:3173-88 pubmed publisher
    ..In the case of gram-negative bacteria, APs interact with the anionic lipid A moiety of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In yersiniae most virulence factors are temperature regulated...
  49. Pérez Gutiérrez C, Llobet E, Llompart C, Reinés M, Bengoechea J. Role of lipid A acylation in Yersinia enterocolitica virulence. Infect Immun. 2010;78:2768-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that Y. enterocolitica 8081 serotype O:8 synthesized tetra-acylated lipid A at 37 degrees C but that hexa-acylated lipid A predominated at 21 degrees C...
  50. Carillo S, Pieretti G, Parrilli E, Tutino M, Gemma S, Molteni M, et al. Structural investigation and biological activity of the lipooligosaccharide from the psychrophilic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAB 23. Chemistry. 2011;17:7053-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the complete structure of the LOS from P. haloplanktis TAB 23. The lipid A was characterized by MALDI-TOF MS analysis and was tested in vitro showing a significant inhibitory effect on the ..
  51. Miki T, Holst O, Hardt W. The bactericidal activity of the C-type lectin RegIII? against Gram-negative bacteria involves binding to lipid A. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:34844-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that RegIII? can bind directly to LPS by recognizing the carbohydrate moiety of lipid A via a novel motif that is indispensable for its bactericidal activity...
  52. Ravindran R, Bhowmick S, Das A, Ali N. Comparison of BCG, MPL and cationic liposome adjuvant systems in leishmanial antigen vaccine formulations against murine visceral leishmaniasis. BMC Microbiol. 2010;10:181 pubmed publisher
    ..to compare the effectiveness of two very promising adjuvants, Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) plus trehalose dicorynomycolate (TDM) with cationic liposomes, in combination with LAg, to confer ..
  53. Romero C, Varma T, Hobbs J, Reyes A, Driver B, Sherwood E. The Toll-like receptor 4 agonist monophosphoryl lipid a augments innate host resistance to systemic bacterial infection. Infect Immun. 2011;79:3576-87 pubmed publisher
    Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) is a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist that is currently used as a vaccine adjuvant in humans...