Summary: An antibiotic mixture of two components, A and B, obtained from Nocardia lurida (or the same substance produced by any other means). It is no longer used clinically because of its toxicity. It causes platelet agglutination and blood coagulation and is used to assay those functions in vitro.

Top Publications

  1. Di Stasio E, Romitelli F, Lancellotti S, Arcovito A, Giardina B, De Cristofaro R. Kinetic study of von Willebrand factor self-aggregation induced by ristocetin. Biophys Chem. 2009;144:101-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Likewise, the binding of the glycopeptide antibiotic ristocetin to VWF triggers hemostatically relevant conformational transitions...
  2. Riddell A, Jenkins P, Nitu Whalley I, McCraw A, Lee C, Brown S. Use of the collagen-binding assay for von Willebrand factor in the analysis of type 2M von Willebrand disease: a comparison with the ristocetin cofactor assay. Br J Haematol. 2002;116:187-92 pubmed
    This study compares the utility of two functional assays for von Willebrand factor (VWF), the ristocetin cofactor assay (VWF:RCo) and the collagen-binding assay (VWF:CBA)...
  3. Flood V, Friedman K, Gill J, Morateck P, Wren J, Scott J, et al. Limitations of the ristocetin cofactor assay in measurement of von Willebrand factor function. J Thromb Haemost. 2009;7:1832-9 pubmed publisher
    ..by a qualitative defect in von Willebrand factor (VWF) and diagnosed by a disproportionate decrease in VWF ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:RCo) as compared with VWF antigen (VWF:Ag)...
  4. Casonato A, Pontara E, Bertomoro A, Sartorello F, Cattini M, Girolami A. Von Willebrand factor collagen binding activity in the diagnosis of von Willebrand disease: an alternative to ristocetin co-factor activity?. Br J Haematol. 2001;112:578-83 pubmed
    ..platelet glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) and promote platelet plug formation is currently evaluated in vitro using the ristocetin co-factor activity (VWF:RCo) assay...
  5. Wanner J, Tang D, McComas C, Crowley B, Jiang W, Moss J, et al. A new and improved method for deglycosidation of glycopeptide antibiotics exemplified with vancomycin, ristocetin, and ramoplanin. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003;13:1169-73 pubmed
    A general method for the deglycosidation of glycopeptide antibiotics has been developed. Treatment of vancomycin, ristocetin, and ramoplanin with anhydrous HF results in efficient cleavage of the sugars to provide the corresponding ..
  6. Dong J, Berndt M, Schade A, McIntire L, Andrews R, Lopez J. Ristocetin-dependent, but not botrocetin-dependent, binding of von Willebrand factor to the platelet glycoprotein Ib-IX-V complex correlates with shear-dependent interactions. Blood. 2001;97:162-8 pubmed
    ..region of GP Ibalpha (His-1-Glu-282), and it can also be induced under static conditions by the modulators ristocetin and botrocetin...
  7. Jy W, Jimenez J, Mauro L, Horstman L, Cheng P, Ahn E, et al. Endothelial microparticles induce formation of platelet aggregates via a von Willebrand factor/ristocetin dependent pathway, rendering them resistant to dissociation. J Thromb Haemost. 2005;3:1301-8 pubmed
    ..EMP were incubated with normal washed platelets in the presence or absence of ristocetin, then platelet aggregates were measured by flow cytometry...
  8. Crowley B, Mori Y, McComas C, Tang D, Boger D. Total synthesis of the ristocetin aglycon. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:4310-7 pubmed
    The first total synthesis of the ristocetin aglycon is described employing a modular and highly convergent strategy...
  9. Turecek P, Siekmann J, Schwarz H. Comparative study on collagen-binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and ristocetin cofactor activity assays for detection of functional activity of von Willebrand factor. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2002;28:149-60 pubmed
    For more than two decades, the ristocetin cofactor (RCo) assay, which measures the von Willebrand factor (vWF)-mediated agglutination of platelets in the presence of the antibiotic ristocetin, has been the most common method for measuring ..

More Information


  1. Favaloro E. A duplex issue: (i) time to re-appraise the diagnosis and classification of von Willebrand disorder, and (ii) clarification of the roles of von Willebrand factor collagen binding and ristocetin cofactor activity assays. Haemophilia. 2002;8:828-31 pubmed
  2. Ewenstein B. Use of ristocetin cofactor activity in the management of von Willebrand disease. Haemophilia. 2001;7 Suppl 1:10-5 pubmed
    ..that treatment with factor VIII/vWF concentrates based upon the content of vWF activity as reflected in the ristocetin cofactor assay is practicable, safe and efficacious...
  3. Flood V, Gill J, Morateck P, Christopherson P, Friedman K, Haberichter S, et al. Common VWF exon 28 polymorphisms in African Americans affecting the VWF activity assay by ristocetin cofactor. Blood. 2010;116:280-6 pubmed publisher
    ..relies on abnormalities in specific tests of von Willebrand factor (VWF), including VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) and VWF ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:RCo). When examining healthy controls enrolled in the T. S...
  4. Jung F, Schulz C, Blaschke F, Muller D, Mrowietz C, Franke R, et al. Effect of cytochrome P450-dependent epoxyeicosanoids on Ristocetin-induced thrombocyte aggregation. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2012;52:403-16 pubmed publisher
    ..To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the effects of 11,12-EET, 17,18-EEQ and 19,20-EDP on Ristocetin-induced thrombocyte aggregation (RITA), a process that mimics thrombocyte adhesion to the vascular wall...
  5. Vanhoorelbeke K, Cauwenberghs N, Vauterin S, Schlammadinger A, Mazurier C, Deckmyn H. A reliable and reproducible ELISA method to measure ristocetin cofactor activity of von Willebrand factor. Thromb Haemost. 2000;83:107-13 pubmed
    The ristocetin induced binding of vWF to GPIb, which is routinely tested in a platelet agglutination assay, can be reproducibly studied in an ELISA where plasma vWF binds to a captured rGPIb alpha-fragment (His1-Val289) in the presence of ..
  6. Chen J, Ling M, Fu X, Lopez J, Chung D. Simultaneous exposure of sites in von Willebrand factor for glycoprotein Ib binding and ADAMTS13 cleavage: studies with ristocetin. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:2625-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Because ristocetin induces VWF to bind glycoprotein Ib? in the absence of shear stress, we evaluated whether it could also enhance ..
  7. Papi M, Maulucci G, De Spirito M, Missori M, Arcovito G, Lancellotti S, et al. Ristocetin-induced self-aggregation of von Willebrand factor. Eur Biophys J. 2010;39:1597-603 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ristocetin also promotes the interaction of VWF with GpIb and is able to induce platelet aggregation, and thus is largely ..
  8. Coller B, Peerschke E, Scudder L, Sullivan C. Studies with a murine monoclonal antibody that abolishes ristocetin-induced binding of von Willebrand factor to platelets: additional evidence in support of GPIb as a platelet receptor for von Willebrand factor. Blood. 1983;61:99-110 pubmed
    ..F(ab')2 fragments and/or intact antibody completely blocked the agglutination of platelets induced by both ristocetin and bovine von Willebrand factor and the binding of von Willebrand factor antigen to platelets...
  9. Favaloro E, Bonar R, Chapman K, Meiring M, Funk Adcock D. Differential sensitivity of von Willebrand factor (VWF) 'activity' assays to large and small VWF molecular weight forms: a cross-laboratory study comparing ristocetin cofactor, collagen-binding and mAb-based assays. J Thromb Haemost. 2012;10:1043-54 pubmed publisher
    ..VWF activity is classically assessed by using VWF ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:RCo), although VWF collagen-binding (VWF:CB) and VWF mAb-based (VWF activity [VWF:Act]) ..
  10. McCarty O, Calaminus S, Berndt M, Machesky L, Watson S. von Willebrand factor mediates platelet spreading through glycoprotein Ib and alpha(IIb)beta3 in the presence of botrocetin and ristocetin, respectively. J Thromb Haemost. 2006;4:1367-78 pubmed
    ..platelet adhesion and lamellipodia formation on immobilized VWF in the presence of the biochemical modulators, ristocetin and botrocetin...
  11. Scott J, Montgomery R, Retzinger G. Dimeric ristocetin flocculates proteins, binds to platelets, and mediates von Willebrand factor-dependent agglutination of platelets. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:8149-55 pubmed
    b>Ristocetin in aqueous solution dimerizes with an equilibrium dissociation constant of 5.0 x 10(-4) M, i.e. approximately 1.1 mg ml-1 (Waltho, J.P., and Williams, D. H. (1989) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111, 2475-2480). At concentrations of about 1...
  12. Rabinowitz I, Tuley E, Mancuso D, Randi A, Firkin B, Howard M, et al. von Willebrand disease type B: a missense mutation selectively abolishes ristocetin-induced von Willebrand factor binding to platelet glycoprotein Ib. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:9846-9 pubmed
    ..For human vWF, this interaction can be induced in vitro by the antibiotic ristocetin or the snake venom protein botrocetin...
  13. Ihara A, Suzuki N, Matsushita T, Ichinose A. [Acquired von Willebrand syndrome in a patient with immune thrombocytopenic purpura]. Rinsho Ketsueki. 2015;56:901-4 pubmed publisher
    ..2×10(4)/μl). Analysis of hemostatic parameters showed very low (<6%) von Willebrand factor ristocetin cofactor (vWF: Rco), and low VIII: C (22%), but elevated (276%) von Willebrand antigen...
  14. Zhu H, Wang Y, Jiang M, Ji S, Bai X, Ruan C. Generation and characterization of a recombinant single chain Fv antibody to von Willebrand factor A1 domain from phage display library. Thromb Res. 2005;116:385-91 pubmed
    ..It inhibited ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation with an IC50 of 0.75 micromol/l, and its maximal extent of inhibition is 62.5%...
  15. Bartoli C, Kang J, Restle D, Zhang D, Shabahang C, Acker M, et al. Inhibition of ADAMTS-13 by Doxycycline Reduces von Willebrand Factor Degradation During Supraphysiological Shear Stress: Therapeutic Implications for Left Ventricular Assist Device-Associated Bleeding. JACC Heart Fail. 2015;3:860-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Platelet aggregometry was performed with adenosine 5'-diphosphate, collagen, and ristocetin (vWF-platelet pathway) agonism (n = 10). Doxycycline significantly decreased plasma ADAMTS-13 activity (p = 0...
  16. Suzuki H, Kosuge Y, Kobayashi K, Kurosaki Y, Ishii N, Aoyama N, et al. Heat-shock protein 72 promotes platelet aggregation induced by various platelet activators in rats. Biomed Res. 2017;38:175-182 pubmed publisher
    ..activators, such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen, thrombin receptor-activating peptide-6 (TRAP-6), ristocetin, and arachidonic acid...
  17. Pearson A, Heo J. Approaches to the fully functionalized DEF ring system of ristocetin A via highly selective ruthenium-promoted S(N)Ar reaction. Org Lett. 2000;2:2987-90 pubmed
    ..intramolecular S(N)Ar reaction has allowed the construction of the fully functionalized 16-membered DEF macrocycle 4 of ristocetin A that incorporates the required arylglycine and arylserine residues as the F and E ring, respectively.
  18. Sen M, Turkyilmaz Z, Sonmez K, Karabulut R, Kaya Z, Yenicesu I, et al. The Effect of Carbon Dioxide Insufflation Applied at Different Pressures and Periods on Thrombotic Factors. Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus. 2016;32:87-91 pubmed publisher
    ..subjects and fibrinogen, FII (prothrombin), FV, FVII, FVIII, FIX, FX, FXI, FXII, von willebrand's factor (vWF), ristocetin cofactor, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III (AT III) levels are studied...
  19. de Maat M, van Schie M, Kluft C, Leebeek F, Meijer P. Biological Variation of Hemostasis Variables in Thrombosis and Bleeding: Consequences for Performance Specifications. Clin Chem. 2016;62:1639-1646 pubmed
    ..6% [VWF collagen binding (CB) activity], the between-subject variation varied from 4.1% (PT) to 31.2% (VWF:ristocetin cofactor acitivity), and the assay variation from 1.3% (PT) to 12.9% (VWF:CB)...
  20. Blickstein D, Dardik R, Rosenthal E, Lahav J, Molad Y, Inbal A. Acquired thrombasthenia due to inhibitory effect of glycoprotein IIbIIIa autoantibodies. Isr Med Assoc J. 2014;16:307-10 pubmed
    ..aggregation with adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid and collagen, and normal aggregation induced by ristocetin. To study the mechanism of platelet function inhibition in a patient with acquired thrombasthenia...
  21. Schoner A, Tyrrell C, Wu M, Gelow J, Hayes A, Lindner J, et al. Endocardial Endothelial Dysfunction Progressively Disrupts Initially Anti then Pro-Thrombotic Pathways in Heart Failure Mice. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0142940 pubmed publisher
    ..vWF protein content and secretion from endocardial endothelial cells, vWF-dependent platelet agglutination (by ristocetin), and thrombin generation on the endocardial surface...
  22. Kumar R, Moake J, Nolasco L, Bergeron A, Sun C, Dong J, et al. Enhanced platelet adhesion and aggregation by endothelial cell-derived unusually large multimers of von Willebrand factor. Biorheology. 2006;43:681-91 pubmed
    ..ULVWF is also significantly more potent than P-VWF in mediating both shear-induced platelet aggregation and ristocetin-mediated platelet agglutination.
  23. Ilisz I, Berkecz R, Peter A. HPLC separation of amino acid enantiomers and small peptides on macrocyclic antibiotic-based chiral stationary phases: a review. J Sep Sci. 2006;29:1305-21 pubmed
    ..The glycopeptides avoparcin, teicoplanin, ristocetin A and vancomycin have been extensively used as chiral selectors in the form of chiral bonded phases in HPLC, and ..
  24. Cheng Z, Gao W, Fan X, Chen X, Mei H, Liu J, et al. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 associates with casein kinase II to regulate GPIb-IX-mediated platelet activation via the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway. J Thromb Haemost. 2017;15:1679-1688 pubmed publisher
    ..Methods The functions of ERK5 in GPIb-IX-mediated human platelet activation were assessed using botrocetin/VWF, ristocetin/VWF, or platelet adhesion to von Willebrand factor (VWF) under shear stress in the presence of a specific ..
  25. Choi J, Pai S. Influence of storage temperature on the responsiveness of human platelets to agonists. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2003;33:79-85 pubmed
    ..to adenosine diphosphate (ADP); there were no samples that showed impaired- or non-responsiveness to collagen or ristocetin. Among the 67 samples that showed impaired responsiveness to ADP after RT storage, 62 (93%) exhibited the loss ..
  26. Shlebak A, Poles A, Manning R, Almuhareb S, De La Funte J, Mitchell M, et al. A Novel Homozygous c.800C>G Substitution in GP1BA Exon 2 in a Kuwaiti Family with Bernard-Soulier Syndrome. Acta Haematol. 2015;134:193-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Platelet aggregation and flow cytometry studies confirmed the lack of aggregation with ristocetin and a markedly reduced GPIb/IX surface expression. Molecular analysis demonstrated a novel homozygous c...
  27. Just S. Laboratory Testing for von Willebrand Disease: The Past, Present, and Future State of Play for von Willebrand Factor Assays that Measure Platelet Binding Activity, with or without Ristocetin. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2017;43:75-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Two of these tests are based on ristocetin, one being ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (RIPA) and the other the von Willebrand factor (VWF) ..
  28. Nahoum V, Spector S, Loll P. Structure of ristocetin A in complex with a bacterial cell-wall mimetic. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2009;65:832-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ristocetin A is a class III glycopeptide antibiotic that is used in the diagnosis of von Willebrand disease and which has ..
  29. Castaman G, Lethagen S, Federici A, Tosetto A, Goodeve A, Budde U, et al. Response to desmopressin is influenced by the genotype and phenotype in type 1 von Willebrand disease (VWD): results from the European Study MCMDM-1VWD. Blood. 2008;111:3531-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Complete response to desmopressin was defined as an increase of both ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:RCo) and factor VIII coagulant activity (FVIII:C) to 50 IU/dL or higher and partial ..
  30. D Souza P, Blostein M. Diagnosis of Heyde's syndrome by abnormal closure times despite normal von Willebrand's activity. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2011;22:622-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present a case of Heyde's syndrome diagnosed with abnormal closure times and normal vWF Ristocetin cofactor activity (vWF:Rco)...
  31. Williams D, Davies N, Zerella R, Bardsley B. Noncovalent interactions: defining cooperativity. Ligand binding aided by reduced dynamic behavior of receptors. Binding of bacterial cell wall analogues to ristocetin A. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:2042-9 pubmed
    Changes in the relative populations of the monomer and asymmetric dimer forms of ristocetin A, upon binding of two molecules of ligand, suggest that ligand binding is negatively cooperative with respect to dimerization...
  32. Boeckelmann D, Hengartner H, Greinacher A, Nowak Gottl U, Sachs U, Peter K, et al. Patients with Bernard-Soulier syndrome and different severity of the bleeding phenotype. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2017;67:69-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Typical are thrombocytopenia, giant platelets and impaired agglutination after stimulation with ristocetin. In populations in which consanguineous marriages are common the frequency of the disorder is increased because ..
  33. Hilbert L, Gaucher C, Mazurier C. Effects of different amino-acid substitutions in the leucine 694-proline 708 segment of recombinant von Willebrand factor. Br J Haematol. 1995;91:983-90 pubmed
    ..V694rvWF and V706rvWF displayed decreased ristocetin-induced GpIb binding showing that it is not always the presence of a valine residue that may explain the ..
  34. Passam F, Rahgozar S, Qi M, Raftery M, Wong J, Tanaka K, et al. Redox control of ?2-glycoprotein I-von Willebrand factor interaction by thioredoxin-1. J Thromb Haemost. 2010;8:1754-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Platelet adhesion to ristocetin-activated VWF was studied in the presence of reduced ?(2) GPI...
  35. Silverio C, Azad M, Gomez F. On-column derivatization of the antibiotics teicoplanin and ristocetin coupled to affinity capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis. 2003;24:808-15 pubmed
    Binding constants between the glycopeptides teicoplanin (Teic) and ristocetin (Rist) and their derivatives to D-Ala-D-Ala terminus peptides were determined by on-column receptor synthesis coupled to partial-filling affinity capillary ..
  36. Ribba A, Hilbert L, Lavergne J, Fressinaud E, Boyer Neumann C, Ternisien C, et al. The arginine-552-cysteine (R1315C) mutation within the A1 loop of von Willebrand factor induces an abnormal folding with a loss of function resulting in type 2A-like phenotype of von Willebrand disease: study of 10 patients and mutated recombinant vo. Blood. 2001;97:952-9 pubmed
    ..study identified 10 patients from 6 families with prolonged bleeding time, decreased von Willebrand factor (vWF) ristocetin cofactor activity (RCoF) to vWF:Ag (antigen) ratio, and reduced ristocetin-induced platelet agglutination as ..
  37. Wang Z, Shi J, Han Y. [A novel point mutation in the transmembrane domain of platelet glycoprotein IX gene identified in a Bernard-Soulier syndrome patient]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2001;22:464-6 pubmed
    ..The patient had thrombocytopenia with giant platelets. Ristocetin-induced platelet agglutination was absent...
  38. Shenkman B, Einav Y, Salomon O, Varon D, Savion N. Testing agonist-induced platelet aggregation by the Impact-R [Cone and plate(let) analyzer (CPA)]. Platelets. 2008;19:440-6 pubmed publisher
    ..2 +/- 2.6% while LTA induced by ADP, ristocetin, epinephrine, collagen and arachidonic acid (AA) yielded maximal aggregation (81% to 93%)...
  39. Kamiguti A, Laing G, Lowe G, Zuzel M, Warrell D, Theakston R. Biological properties of the venom of the Papuan black snake (Pseudechis papuanus): presence of a phospholipase A2 platelet inhibitor. Toxicon. 1994;32:915-25 pubmed
    ..to its anticoagulant activity, powerfully inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP, adrenaline, collagen, ristocetin and thrombin. High levels of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity were detected...
  40. Ji S, Jiang M, Yan B, Shen F, He Y, Wan A, et al. The chimeric monoclonal antibody MHCSZ-123 against human von Willebrand factor A3 domain inhibits high-shear arterial thrombosis in a Rhesus monkey model. J Hematol Oncol. 2017;10:111 pubmed publisher
    ..9%, and 73.1%, respectively. When 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg MHCSZ-123 were administered, 46.6%-65.8% inhibition of ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation was observed between 15 and 30 min after injection...
  41. Li S, Wang Z, Liao Y, Zhang W, Shi Q, Yan R, et al. The glycoprotein Ibalpha-von Willebrand factor interaction induces platelet apoptosis. J Thromb Haemost. 2010;8:341-50 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ristocetin-induced GPIbalpha-VWF interaction elicited apoptotic events in platelets, including phosphatidylserine exposure, ..
  42. Xiao T, Rozhkov R, Larock R, Armstrong D. Separation of the enantiomers of substituted dihydrofurocoumarins by HPLC using macrocyclic glycopeptide chiral stationary phases. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2003;377:639-54 pubmed
    ..HPLC using the macrocyclic glycopeptides teicoplanin (Chirobiotic T), teicoplanin aglycon (Chirobiotic TAG), and ristocetin A (Chirobiotic R) chiral stationary phases (CSP) have been achieved on a unique series of potentially ..
  43. Bolton Maggs P, Favaloro E, Hillarp A, Jennings I, Kohler H. Difficulties and pitfalls in the laboratory diagnosis of bleeding disorders. Haemophilia. 2012;18 Suppl 4:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Factor XIII deficiency is a rare, but important bleeding disorder, which may be missed or diagnosed late. A discussion and update on this diagnosis is considered in the final section of our review. ..
  44. Chen Q, Cui S, Shen H, Chen X, Li Y, Wu Q, et al. Dual inhibition of HY023016 based on binding properties of platelet membrane receptor subunit glycoprotein Ib? and thrombin exosites. Eur J Pharmacol. 2018;822:51-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, a solid phase binding assay revealed that HY023016 inhibited ristocetin-induced washed platelets bind to von Willebrand factor (vWF)...
  45. Djunic I, Elezovic I, Ilic V, Tomin D, Suvajdzic Vukovic N, Bila J, et al. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome in multiple myeloma. Hematology. 2011;16:209-12 pubmed publisher
    ..level of paraprotein, platelet adhesion on glass pearls, plasma von Willebrand factor antigen concentration, and ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (RIPA) were measured initially...
  46. Vaschenko V, Samonin V, Popov V, Antonenkova E, Nikonova V, Vilyaninov V, et al. Effects of fullerene C60 nanocomposites on human platelet aggregation. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2012;152:624-6 pubmed
    The effects of fullerene C(60) nanocomposites on human platelet aggregation induced by ADP, ristocetin, and collagen were studied...
  47. Akay O, Mutlu F, Gülbaş Z. Platelet Dysfunction in Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: Does Imatinib Mesylate Improve It?. Turk J Haematol. 2016;33:127-30 pubmed publisher
    ..0 mM adenosine diphosphate, 0.5 mM arachidonic acid, 1.0 mg/mL ristocetin, and 2 µg/mL collagen were studied by whole blood platelet lumi-aggregometer in 20 newly diagnosed chronic ..
  48. Wakamoto S, Fujihara M, Abe H, Sakai H, Takeoka S, Tsuchida E, et al. Effects of poly(ethyleneglycol)-modified hemoglobin vesicles on agonist-induced platelet aggregation and RANTES release in vitro. Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol. 2001;29:191-201 pubmed
    ..8 mg/dl of Hb did not affect platelet aggregation induced by collagen, thrombin and ristocetin. The pretreatment of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) with PEG-HbV at concen trations up to 2 g/dl of Hb had no ..
  49. Lancellotti S, De Filippis V, Pozzi N, Peyvandi F, Palla R, Rocca B, et al. Formation of methionine sulfoxide by peroxynitrite at position 1606 of von Willebrand factor inhibits its cleavage by ADAMTS-13: A new prothrombotic mechanism in diseases associated with oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;48:446-56 pubmed publisher
    ..but did not alter their electrophoretic pattern nor their ability to induce platelet agglutination by ristocetin. Moreover, VWF purified from type 2 diabetic patients showed oxidative damage, as revealed by enhanced carbonyl, ..
  50. Favaloro E, Patterson D, Denholm A, Mead S, Gilbert A, Collins A, et al. Differential identification of a rare form of platelet-type (pseudo-) von Willebrand disease (VWD) from Type 2B VWD using a simplified ristocetin-induced-platelet-agglutination mixing assay and confirmed by genetic analysis. Br J Haematol. 2007;139:623-6 pubmed
  51. Martinez de Lizarrondo S, Gakuba C, Herbig B, Repesse Y, Ali C, Denis C, et al. Potent Thrombolytic Effect of N-Acetylcysteine on Arterial Thrombi. Circulation. 2017;136:646-660 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide evidence that NAC is an effective and safe alternative to currently available antithrombotic agents to restore vessel patency after arterial occlusion. ..
  52. Gadisseur A, Hermans C, Berneman Z, Schroyens W, Deckmyn H, Michiels J. Laboratory diagnosis and molecular classification of von Willebrand disease. Acta Haematol. 2009;121:71-84 pubmed publisher
    ..time, PFA-100 closure times, factor VIII (FVIII) coagulant activity (FVIII:C), von Willebrand factor (VWF) ristocetin cofactor (VWF:RCo), collagen binding (VWF:CB), antigen (VWF:Ag) and propeptide (VWFpp), ristocetin-induced ..
  53. Sarode R, Goldstein J, Sussman I, Nagel R, Tsai H. Role of A and B blood group antigens in the expression of adhesive activity of von Willebrand factor. Br J Haematol. 2000;109:857-64 pubmed
    ..or B antigen with alpha-galactosidase did not affect its multimer size or antigenic level, but decreased the ristocetin cofactor (RCoF) activity of the respective VWF by 33-39% (P < 0.01-0.002)...
  54. Williams D, Davies N, Koivisto J. Importance of structural tightening, as opposed to partially bound States, in the determination of chemical shift changes at noncovalently bonded interfaces. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:14267-72 pubmed
    ..Model B accounts for the process of positively cooperative binding, in which noncovalent bonds are reduced in length and thereby increase the stability of the organized state. ..
  55. Donadio S, Sosio M, Stegmann E, Weber T, Wohlleben W. Comparative analysis and insights into the evolution of gene clusters for glycopeptide antibiotic biosynthesis. Mol Genet Genomics. 2005;274:40-50 pubmed
    ..In addition, the synthesis of the structurally similar compounds A40926 and teicoplanin appears as the result of convergent evolution. ..
  56. Guerrero J, Shafirstein G, Russell S, Varughese K, Kanaji T, Liu J, et al. In vivo relevance for platelet glycoprotein Ibalpha residue Tyr276 in thrombus formation. J Thromb Haemost. 2008;6:684-91 pubmed publisher
    ..alpha-thrombin but displayed normal binding to type I fibrillar collagen and human VWF in the presence of ristocetin. In vivo thrombus formation as a result of chemical damage (FeCl(3)) demonstrated that hTg(Y276F) mice have a ..
  57. Schrijver E, Deenik W, Chon H, Koedam N, Spoelstra de Man A. An unusual case of abdominal arterial thrombosis in a young woman using desmopressin. Clin Biochem. 2012;45:165-7 pubmed publisher
    ..hypothesis, we found remarkably high levels of factor VIII activity, Von Willebrand factor (vWF) antigen and vWF ristocetin cofactor activity (268%, 740%, 590% respectively)...
  58. Mischke R, Schulze U. Studies on platelet aggregation using the Born method in normal and uraemic dogs. Vet J. 2004;168:270-5 pubmed
    ..5-50 micromol/L; n = 75 healthy dogs), collagen (0.5-20 mg/mL; n = 75), thrombin (0.1-5 IU/mL; n = 75), ristocetin (1-10 mg/mL; n = 10), and epinephrine (5-50 micromol/L; n = 10)...
  59. Rodeghiero F, Castaman G, Tosetto A. How I treat von Willebrand disease. Blood. 2009;114:1158-65 pubmed publisher
    ..that has been condensed into a final bleeding score and a few widely available laboratory tests, such as VWF ristocetin cofactor activity, VWF antigen and factor VIII...
  60. Kermode J, Milner E, Zheng Q. Release from intracellular stores is responsible for calcium signaling with von Willebrand factor in human platelets. Thromb Haemost. 2002;87:699-705 pubmed
    ..Platelet [Ca2+]i was monitored with Fura-PE3. Ristocetin-mediated binding of VWF transiently elevated [Ca2+]i after a lag phase...
  61. Hübner U, Böckel Frohnhöfer N, Hummel B, Geisel J. The effect of a pneumatic tube transport system on platelet aggregation using optical aggregometry and the PFA-100. Clin Lab. 2010;56:59-64 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that the pneumatic tube sample transport impairs the platelet aggregation. Therefore, we recommend the manual transport of whole blood samples which are collected for optical aggregometry or PFA-100 analysis. ..
  62. Graham S, Gonchoroff N, Miller J. Infusible platelet membranes retain partial functionality of the platelet GPIb/IX/V receptor complex. Am J Clin Pathol. 2001;115:144-7 pubmed
    ..IPMs did not spontaneously bind von Willebrand factor (vWF), but saturable binding could be induced by ristocetin, with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.31 +/- 0.03 microgram/mL at 1.0 mg/mL of ristocetin...
  63. Hilbert L, Jenkins P, Gaucher C, Meriane E, Collins P, Pasi K, et al. Type 2M vWD resulting from a lysine deletion within a four lysine residue repeat in the A1 loop of von Willebrand factor. Thromb Haemost. 2000;84:188-94 pubmed
    ..The patients who have a discrepancy between vWF antigen level and vWF ristocetin cofactor activity exhibited decreased ristocetin-induced binding but only a slight decrease in the percentage of ..
  64. Feuring M, Harenberg J, Peiter A, Ganschow A, Ruf A, Losel R, et al. Impact of ABO blood groups on tirofiban mediated inhibition of platelet function. Platelets. 2005;16:430-4 pubmed
    ..223.9 +/- 81.9 s, p = 0.96) could be found in the presence of tirofiban (0.1 microg/ml). Thus, tirofiban mediated GP IIb/IIIa receptor antagonism as determined with the PFA-100 seems to be independent on plasma concentration of vWF. ..
  65. Adelman B, Michelson A, Greenberg J, Handin R. Proteolysis of platelet glycoprotein Ib by plasmin is facilitated by plasmin lysine-binding regions. Blood. 1986;68:1280-4 pubmed
    ..The addition of 4.5 X 10(-7) mol/L plasmin to washed platelets caused a time-dependent decrease in ristocetin-induced, vWF-dependent platelet agglutination...
  66. Flood V, Gill J, Morateck P, Christopherson P, Friedman K, Haberichter S, et al. Gain-of-function GPIb ELISA assay for VWF activity in the Zimmerman Program for the Molecular and Clinical Biology of VWD. Blood. 2011;117:e67-74 pubmed publisher
    ..challenging because of issues with the current von Willebrand factor (VWF) assays, VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) and VWF ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:RCo), used for diagnosis...
  67. Yoshida H, Okamura Y, Watanabe N, Ikeda Y, Handa M. Shear-dependent suppression of platelet thrombus formation by phosphodiesterase 3 inhibition requires low levels of concomitant Gs-coupled receptor stimulation. Thromb Haemost. 2011;105:487-95 pubmed publisher
    ..vitro effects of K-134 (a PDE3 inhibitor), tirofiban (a GPIIb/IIIa inhibitor) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation and platelet thrombus formation on VWF or collagen surfaces under flow conditions...
  68. Dai K, Wang Y, Yan R, Shi Q, Wang Z, Yuan Y, et al. Effects of microgravity and hypergravity on platelet functions. Thromb Haemost. 2009;101:902-10 pubmed
    ..Here we show that platelet aggregation induced by ristocetin or collagen and platelet adhesion to von Willebrand factor (VWF) were significantly decreased after platelets ..
  69. Hillarp A, Stadler M, Haderer C, Weinberger J, Kessler C, Romisch J. Improved performance characteristics of the von Willebrand factor ristocetin cofactor activity assay using a novel automated assay protocol. J Thromb Haemost. 2010;8:2216-23 pubmed publisher
    BACKGROUND, OBJECTIVES AND METHODS:?An accurate, sensitive and precise assay for reliable determination of the ristocetin cofactor activity of von Willebrand factor (VWF:RCo) in plasma and von Willebrand Factor (VWF)-containing ..
  70. Rabinowitz I, Randi A, Shindler K, Tuley E, Rustagi P, Sadler J. Type IIB mutation His-505-->Asp implicates a new segment in the control of von Willebrand factor binding to platelet glycoprotein Ib. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:20497-501 pubmed
    ..by a lifelong bleeding disorder, mild thrombocytopenia, normal levels of factor VIII, vWF antigen, and ristocetin cofactor activity but increased ristocetin-induced platelet agglutination at low concentrations of ristocetin...
  71. Takata Y, Kanaji T, Moroi M, Seki R, Sano M, Nakazato S, et al. Platelets with a W127X mutation in GPIX express sufficient residual amounts of GPIb? to support adhesion to von Willebrand factor and collagen. Int J Hematol. 2012;96:733-42 pubmed publisher
    ..platelets was sufficient to support adhesion to immobilized von Willebrand factor and type III collagen and ristocetin-induced platelet agglutination...
  72. Wong T, Pedvis L, Frojmovic M. Platelet size affects both micro- and macro-aggregation: contributions of platelet number, volume fraction and cell surface. Thromb Haemost. 1989;62:733-41 pubmed
    ..activators, namely a stable thromboxane A2 analogue (U46619) and platelet activating factor (PAF), but not for ristocetin-induced agglutination...
  73. Lassila R, Lindstedt K, Kovanen P. Native macromolecular heparin proteoglycans exocytosed from stimulated rat serosal mast cells strongly inhibit platelet-collagen interactions. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997;17:3578-87 pubmed
    ..Although platelet adhesion at high shear rate and vWf binding to GP Ib after ristocetin stimulation were not markedly affected, HEP-PGs reduced thrombin-induced aggregation and vWf binding to GP IIb/..
  74. Awidi A, Maqablah A, Dweik M, Bsoul N, Abu Khader A. Comparison of platelet aggregation using light transmission and multiple electrode aggregometry in Glanzmann thrombasthenia. Platelets. 2009;20:297-301 pubmed publisher
    ..the changes in light absorbance that occurred in response to adenosine 5-diphosphate (ADP), collagen and ristocetin. To measure platelet aggregation in whole blood, we used multiple electrode Impedance aggregometry using the ..
  75. Azad M, Brown A, Silva I, Gomez F. Estimation of binding constants between ristocetin and teicoplanin and peptides using on-column ligand derivatization coupled to affinity capillary electrophoresis. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2004;379:149-55 pubmed
    ..constants ( K(b)) of 9-flourenylmethyloxy carbonyl (Fmoc)-amino acid derivatives to the glycopeptide antibiotics ristocetin (Rist) and teicoplanin (Teic)...
  76. Sloand E, Sloand J, Prodouz K, Klein H, Yu M, Harvath L, et al. Reduction of platelet glycoprotein Ib in uraemia. Br J Haematol. 1991;77:375-81 pubmed
    ..Using the slope of agglutination of formalin-fixed platelets as an index of response to ristocetin (with a constant amount of normal plasma as a source of vWF), we found the response of platelets from uraemic ..
  77. Kroll M, Harris T, Moake J, Handin R, Schafer A. von Willebrand factor binding to platelet GpIb initiates signals for platelet activation. J Clin Invest. 1991;88:1568-73 pubmed
    ..We measured the biochemical responses of intact human platelets treated with ristocetin plus vWF multimers purified from human cryoprecipitate...
  78. Miller C, Rice A, Garrett K, Stein S. Gender, race and diet affect platelet function tests in normal subjects, contributing to a high rate of abnormal results. Br J Haematol. 2014;165:842-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Epinephrine AGG and REL were significantly reduced in males (P < 0·0001). Ristocetin AGG and collagen and thrombin REL were significantly reduced in Blacks (P < 0·0001)...
  79. Krischek B, Brannath W, Klinkhardt U, Graff J, Wieding U, Nemeh A, et al. Role of the retention test Homburg in evaluating platelet hyperactivity and in monitoring therapy with antiplatelet drugs. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2005;31:458-63 pubmed
    ..acid, Prostaglandin and ReoPro in various concentrations, the adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen, ristocetin, or suprarenin increased retention can be reduced...
  80. Guermazi S, Conard J, Samama M, Dellagi K. [Type 2B and pseudo type 2B Von Willebrand disease; a report of three cases]. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2006;54:159-65 pubmed
    ..time, fluctuating thrombocytopenia, decreased factor VIII-VWF complex, and an increased response to low dose of ristocetin in platelets rich plasma. High molecular weight VWF multimers are decreased...
  81. Zhong S, Jin Y, Wu J, Chen R, Jia Y, Wang W, et al. Characterization and molecular cloning of dabocetin, a potent antiplatelet C-type lectin-like protein from Daboia russellii siamensis venom. Toxicon. 2006;47:104-12 pubmed
    ..Whereas, dabocetin inhibited ristocetin-induced platelet agglutination in platelet-rich plasma in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 0...
  82. Kirichuk V, Voskoboi I. [Platelet aggregability in apparently healthy humans of different ages]. Fiziol Cheloveka. 2006;32:116-20 pubmed
  83. Bowyer A, Shepherd F, Kitchen S, Makris M. A rapid, automated VWF ristocetin cofactor activity assay improves reliability in the diagnosis of Von Willebrand disease. Thromb Res. 2011;127:341-4 pubmed publisher
    The effective diagnosis and monitoring of Von Willebrand Disease (VWD) requires an accurate assessment of ristocetin co-factor activity (VWF:RCo)...
  84. Jaime Perez J, Gomez Almaguer D. Platelet refractoriness to classical agonists in a child with essential thrombocythemia. Platelets. 2005;16:61-2 pubmed
    ..Aggregation ranged from 5% for adrenaline, 8% for collagen, 12% for ristocetin, to 25% with adenosine diphosphate, followed by complete disaggregation...
  85. Neugebauer B, Goy C, Budek I, Seitz R. Comparison of two von Willebrand factor collagen-binding assays with different binding affinities for low, medium, and high multimers of von Willebrand factor. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2002;28:139-48 pubmed
    ..by heparin affinity chromatography and analyzed by vWF antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), ristocetin cofactor activity test, both vWF:CBAs, and a multimer analysis...
  86. Gokce M, Kaplan S, Tekelioglu Y, Erdogan T, Kucukosmanoglu M. Platelet function disorder in patients with coronary slow flow. Clin Cardiol. 2005;28:145-8 pubmed
    ..Platelet aggregability induced by use of ristocetin, collagen, and adenosine diphosphate (ADP), was measured from all blood samples in both control and patient ..
  87. Rayes J, Hollestelle M, Legendre P, Marx I, de Groot P, Christophe O, et al. Mutation and ADAMTS13-dependent modulation of disease severity in a mouse model for von Willebrand disease type 2B. Blood. 2010;115:4870-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Both mutations allow normal multimerization but are associated with enhanced ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation, typical for VWD-type 2B...
  88. Hayward C, Moffat K, Pai M, Liu Y, Seecharan J, McKay H, et al. An evaluation of methods for determining reference intervals for light transmission platelet aggregation tests on samples with normal or reduced platelet counts. Thromb Haemost. 2008;100:134-45 pubmed
    ..With ristocetin, it proved feasible to test samples with very low platelet counts to exclude Bernard-Soulier syndrome and type ..
  89. Just S. Methodologies and clinical utility of ADAMTS-13 activity testing. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2010;36:82-90 pubmed publisher
    ..It also reviews the consistency of results among various methods and discusses the clinical utility of ADAMTS-13 testing in TTP, TMA, and other disease conditions. ..