Summary: Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a lactose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in lactosylceramide beta-galactosidase, is the cause of lactosylceramidosis.

Top Publications

  1. Choudhury A, Dominguez M, Puri V, Sharma D, Narita K, Wheatley C, et al. Rab proteins mediate Golgi transport of caveola-internalized glycosphingolipids and correct lipid trafficking in Niemann-Pick C cells. J Clin Invest. 2002;109:1541-50 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate a role for Rab7 and Rab9 in the Golgi targeting of glycosphingolipids and suggest a new therapeutic approach for restoring normal lipid trafficking in NP-C cells...
  2. te Vruchte D, Lloyd Evans E, Veldman R, Neville D, Dwek R, Platt F, et al. Accumulation of glycosphingolipids in Niemann-Pick C disease disrupts endosomal transport. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:26167-75 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that accumulating GSL is part of a mislocalized membrane microdomain and is responsible for the deficit in endocytic trafficking found in NPC disease...
  3. Choudhury A, Sharma D, Marks D, Pagano R. Elevated endosomal cholesterol levels in Niemann-Pick cells inhibit rab4 and perturb membrane recycling. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:4500-11 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that abnormal membrane recycling in NPFs results from specific inhibition of rab4 function by excess cholesterol in EEs. ..
  4. Kaga N, Kazuno S, Taka H, Iwabuchi K, Murayama K. Isolation and mass spectrometry characterization of molecular species of lactosylceramides using liquid chromatography-electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem. 2005;337:316-24 pubmed
    ..ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MSn) was established for identification of the molecular species of lactosylceramides. Lactosylceramides derived from porcine blood cells were separated on a CapcellPak C8 column using a mixture ..
  5. Garner B, Mellor H, Butters T, Dwek R, Platt F. Modulation of THP-1 macrophage and cholesterol-loaded foam cell apolipoprotein E levels by glycosphingolipids. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;290:1361-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the efflux of glycosphingolipids from macrophage foam cells to HDL could indicate a potential pathway for their removal from the artery wall and subsequent delivery to the liver. ..
  6. Yeh L, Kinsey A, Chatterjee S, Alevriadou B. Lactosylceramide mediates shear-induced endothelial superoxide production and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression. J Vasc Res. 2001;38:551-9 pubmed
    ..and O2(-.) mediates the shear-induced increase in ICAM-1 expression. Thus, LacCer may play an important role in hemodynamic force-induced pathological conditions, such as atherosclerosis and ischemia/reperfusion injury. ..
  7. De Rosa M, Sillence D, Ackerley C, Lingwood C. Role of multiple drug resistance protein 1 in neutral but not acidic glycosphingolipid biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:7867-76 pubmed
    ..These studies identify MDR1 as the major glucosyl ceramide flippase required for neutral glycosphingolipid anabolism and demonstrate a previously unappreciated dichotomy between neutral and acid glycosphingolipid synthesis. ..
  8. Pannu R, Won J, Khan M, Singh A, Singh I. A novel role of lactosylceramide in the regulation of lipopolysaccharide/interferon-gamma-mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression: implications for neuroinflammatory diseases. J Neurosci. 2004;24:5942-54 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge this is the first report of a role of LacCer in iNOS expression and the advantage of GSL depletion in attenuating post-SCI inflammation to improve the outcome of SCI. ..
  9. Sillence D, Puri V, Marks D, Butters T, Dwek R, Pagano R, et al. Glucosylceramide modulates membrane traffic along the endocytic pathway. J Lipid Res. 2002;43:1837-45 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that both increases and decreases in glucosylceramide levels can dramatically alter the endocytic targeting of lactosylceramide and suggest a role for glucosylceramide in regulation of membrane transport. ..

More Information


  1. Malinina L, Malakhova M, Teplov A, Brown R, Patel D. Structural basis for glycosphingolipid transfer specificity. Nature. 2004;430:1048-53 pubmed
  2. Kirkham M, Fujita A, Chadda R, Nixon S, Kurzchalia T, Sharma D, et al. Ultrastructural identification of uncoated caveolin-independent early endocytic vehicles. J Cell Biol. 2005;168:465-76 pubmed
    ..These carriers contained GPI-anchored proteins and fluid phase markers and represented the major vehicles mediating CTB uptake in both WT and caveolae-null cells. ..
  3. Iwamoto T, Fukumoto S, Kanaoka K, Sakai E, Shibata M, Fukumoto E, et al. Lactosylceramide is essential for the osteoclastogenesis mediated by macrophage-colony-stimulating factor and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:46031-8 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that glycosphingolipids, especially LacCer, are necessary for the initiation step of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. ..
  4. Glaros E, Kim W, Quinn C, Wong J, Gelissen I, Jessup W, et al. Glycosphingolipid accumulation inhibits cholesterol efflux via the ABCA1/apolipoprotein A-I pathway: 1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol is a novel cholesterol efflux accelerator. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24515-23 pubmed
    ..This study reveals a novel defect in cellular cholesterol homeostasis induced by GSL storage and identifies PDMP as a new agent for enhancing cholesterol efflux via the ABCA1/apoA-I pathway...
  5. Rajesh M, Kolmakova A, Chatterjee S. Novel role of lactosylceramide in vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated angiogenesis in human endothelial cells. Circ Res. 2005;97:796-804 pubmed
    ..This finding and the reagents developed in our report may be useful as anti-angiogenic drugs for further studies in vitro and in vivo. ..
  6. Allende M, Li J, Darling D, Worth C, Young W. Evidence supporting a late Golgi location for lactosylceramide to ganglioside GM3 conversion. Glycobiology. 2000;10:1025-32 pubmed
    ..7% for the ER targeted enzyme. Thus, these data are consistent with a late Golgi location for LacCer to GM3 conversion in these cells. ..
  7. Chatterjee S. Sphingolipids in atherosclerosis and vascular biology. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1998;18:1523-33 pubmed
    ..The findings described here indicate an important role for sphingolipids in vascular biology and provide an exciting opportunity for further research in vascular disease and atherosclerosis. ..
  8. Chatterjee S, Pandey A. The Yin and Yang of lactosylceramide metabolism: implications in cell function. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1780:370-82 pubmed
  9. Puri V, Watanabe R, Singh R, Dominguez M, Brown J, Wheatley C, et al. Clathrin-dependent and -independent internalization of plasma membrane sphingolipids initiates two Golgi targeting pathways. J Cell Biol. 2001;154:535-47 pubmed
  10. Sharma D, Brown J, Cheng Z, Holicky E, Marks D, Pagano R. The glycosphingolipid, lactosylceramide, regulates beta1-integrin clustering and endocytosis. Cancer Res. 2005;65:8233-41 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest the possibility that aberrant levels of glycosphingolipids found in cancer cells may influence cell attachment events by direct effects on integrin clustering and internalization. ..
  11. Evans S, Hahn P, McCann F, Kottom T, Pavlovic Z, Limper A. Pneumocystis cell wall beta-glucans stimulate alveolar epithelial cell chemokine generation through nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent mechanisms. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2005;32:490-7 pubmed
    ..These data support a significant role for AECs in host responses during Pneumocystis pneumonia, and further indicate that beta-glucan induces inflammatory cytokine production through NF-kappaB-dependent mechanisms...
  12. Haspel J, Shaik R, Ifedigbo E, Nakahira K, Dolinay T, Englert J, et al. Characterization of macroautophagic flux in vivo using a leupeptin-based assay. Autophagy. 2011;7:629-42 pubmed
    ..These results illustrate the usefulness of our leupeptin-based assay for studying the dynamics of macroautophagy in mice. ..
  13. Essaka D, Prendergast J, Keithley R, Palcic M, Hindsgaul O, Schnaar R, et al. Metabolic cytometry: capillary electrophoresis with two-color fluorescence detection for the simultaneous study of two glycosphingolipid metabolic pathways in single primary neurons. Anal Chem. 2012;84:2799-804 pubmed publisher
    ..The detection system produced at least 6 orders of magnitude dynamic range in each spectral channel with negligible spectral crosstalk. Detection limits were 1 zmol for BODIPY-FL and 500 ymol for tetramethylrhodamine standard solutions. ..
  14. Maxzúd M, Maccioni H. Glucosylceramide synthesized in vitro from endogenous ceramide is uncoupled from synthesis of lactosylceramide in Golgi membranes from chicken embryo neural retina cells. Neurochem Res. 2000;25:145-52 pubmed
    ..This suggests that a coupling activity exists that could be relevant for regulation of the cytoplasmic levels of Cer and GlcCer. ..
  15. Gong N, Wei H, Chowdhury S, Chatterjee S. Lactosylceramide recruits PKCalpha/epsilon and phospholipase A2 to stimulate PECAM-1 expression in human monocytes and adhesion to endothelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:6490-5 pubmed
    ..These findings may be relevant in explaining the role of LacCer in the regulation of PECAM-1 and related pathophysiology. ..
  16. Adlercreutz D, Weadge J, Petersen B, Duus J, Dovichi N, Palcic M. Enzymatic synthesis of Gb3 and iGb3 ceramides. Carbohydr Res. 2010;345:1384-8 pubmed publisher
    ..001% of the rate obtained with a good substrate, H antigen disaccharide (octyl alpha-l-Fucp-(1-->2)-beta-d-Galp). This is too low to account for the possible formation of the iGb3 structure in humans in vivo. ..
  17. Singh R, Holicky E, Cheng Z, Kim S, Wheatley C, Marks D, et al. Inhibition of caveolar uptake, SV40 infection, and beta1-integrin signaling by a nonnatural glycosphingolipid stereoisomer. J Cell Biol. 2007;176:895-901 pubmed
    ..These experiments identify a new compound that can interfere with biological processes by inhibiting microdomain formation and also identify beta1 integrin as a potential mediator of signaling by GSLs. ..
  18. Pincus S, Moran E, Maresh G, Jennings H, Pritchard D, Egan M, et al. Fine specificity and cross-reactions of monoclonal antibodies to group B streptococcal capsular polysaccharide type III. Vaccine. 2012;30:4849-58 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies suggest caution in the development of a maternal vaccine to prevent infection by this important human pathogen. ..
  19. Malakhova M, Malinina L, Pike H, Kanack A, Patel D, Brown R. Point mutational analysis of the liganding site in human glycolipid transfer protein. Functionality of the complex. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:26312-20 pubmed
    ..Also noteworthy was the inefficient release of glycolipid by wtGLTP into phosphatidylcholine acceptor vesicles, raising the possibility of a function other than intermembrane glycolipid transfer in vivo. ..
  20. Inokuchi J, Kabayama K, Uemura S, Igarashi Y. Glycosphingolipids govern gene expression. Glycoconj J. 2004;20:169-78 pubmed
    ..Thus, the spatio-temporal, gene expression control mechanism by individual GSL molecules accumulating in the cell membrane microdomain (raft) has been proven. ..
  21. Li X, Momsen M, Brockman H, Brown R. Lactosylceramide: effect of acyl chain structure on phase behavior and molecular packing. Biophys J. 2002;83:1535-46 pubmed
    ..The results are discussed in terms of how an extended disaccharide headgroup can enhance interactions among naturally abundant LacCers with saturated acyl chains. ..
  22. Fan Y, Yu S, Ito H, Kameyama A, Sato T, Lin C, et al. Identification of further elongation and branching of dimeric type 1 chain on lactosylceramides from colonic adenocarcinoma by tandem mass spectrometry sequencing analyses. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:16455-68 pubmed publisher
    ..polyLacNAc), we have now shown that the dimeric type 1 glycan chain, as carried on the lactosylceramides of a human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line, Colo205, not only can be further extended linearly but can ..
  23. Nakayama H, Yoshizaki F, Prinetti A, Sonnino S, Mauri L, Takamori K, et al. Lyn-coupled LacCer-enriched lipid rafts are required for CD11b/CD18-mediated neutrophil phagocytosis of nonopsonized microorganisms. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;83:728-41 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these observations suggest that CD11b activation causes translocation of CD11b/CD18 into Lyn-coupled, LacCer-enriched lipid rafts, allowing neutrophils to phagocytose NOZs via CD11b/CD18. ..
  24. Chatterjee S, Kolmakova A, Rajesh M. Regulation of lactosylceramide synthase (glucosylceramide beta1-->4 galactosyltransferase); implication as a drug target. Curr Drug Targets. 2008;9:272-81 pubmed
    ..These studies will facilitate advances in discovery of drugs which mitigate diseases, such as atherosclerosis and cancer due to an aberrant regulation of these LacCer synthases. ..
  25. Conboy J, McReynolds K, Gervay Hague J, Saavedra S. Quantitative measurements of recombinant HIV surface glycoprotein 120 binding to several glycosphingolipids expressed in planar supported lipid bilayers. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124:968-77 pubmed
    ..The results of this work should aid efforts to design anti-HIV-1 agents based on membrane-tethered, carbohydrate-based receptors for rgp120. ..
  26. Wallner S, Grandl M, Liebisch G, Peer M, Orso E, Sigrüner A, et al. oxLDL and eLDL Induced Membrane Microdomains in Human Macrophages. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0166798 pubmed publisher
    ..Levels of total sphingomyelin and total ceramide remained unchanged, while lactosylceramides, cholesterylesters and free cholesterol decreased...
  27. Ardail D, Popa I, Alcantara K, Pons A, Zanetta J, Louisot P, et al. Occurrence of ceramides and neutral glycolipids with unusual long-chain base composition in purified rat liver mitochondria. FEBS Lett. 2001;488:160-4 pubmed
    ..In contrast, 3-ketosphinganine was the only base of glucosylceramide and lactosylceramide of inner membranes, whereas d18:1 sphingosine was the major long-chain base of glucosylceramide of outer membranes. ..
  28. García Álvarez I, Egido Gabás M, Romero Ramirez L, Doncel Perez E, Nieto Sampedro M, Casas J, et al. Lipid and ganglioside alterations in tumor cells treated with antimitotic oleyl glycoside. Mol Biosyst. 2011;7:129-38 pubmed publisher
    ..These biochemical changes were ascribed to activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways. ..
  29. Buschard K, Fredman P, Bøg Hansen E, Blomqvist M, Hedner J, Rastam L, et al. Low serum concentration of sulfatide and presence of sulfated lactosylceramid are associated with Type 2 diabetes. The Skaraborg Project. Diabet Med. 2005;22:1190-8 pubmed
    ..The associations were also independent of other known diabetes risk factors. ..
  30. Gray Edwards H, Jiang X, Randle A, Taylor A, Voss T, Johnson A, et al. Lipidomic Evaluation of Feline Neurologic Disease after AAV Gene Therapy. Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev. 2017;6:135-142 pubmed publisher
    ..cats, significant alterations were noted in 16 sphingolipid species, including gangliosides (GM1 and GM3), lactosylceramides, ceramides, sphingomyelins, monohexosylceramides, and sulfatides...
  31. Wang Z, Wen L, Ma X, Chen Z, Yu Y, Zhu J, et al. High expression of lactotriaosylceramide, a differentiation-associated glycosphingolipid, in the bone marrow of acute myeloid leukemia patients. Glycobiology. 2012;22:930-8 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Our results suggest that AML-associated GSLs Lc3, GM3 and nLc4 are possibly involved in initiation and differentiation of AML. ..
  32. Skorve J, Hilvo M, Vihervaara T, Burri L, Bohov P, Tillander V, et al. Fish oil and krill oil differentially modify the liver and brain lipidome when fed to mice. Lipids Health Dis. 2015;14:88 pubmed publisher
    ..In the brain, diacylglycerols were decreased, more by KO than FO, while ceramides and lactosylceramides were increased, more by FO than KO...
  33. Komiya K, Uchida T, Ueno T, Koike M, Abe H, Hirose T, et al. Free fatty acids stimulate autophagy in pancreatic ?-cells via JNK pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;401:561-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Considered together, our study suggested that FFA stimulated functional autophagy possibly through the PKR-JNK1 pathway independent of ER or oxidative stress. ..
  34. Nishie T, Hikimochi Y, Zama K, Fukusumi Y, Ito M, Yokoyama H, et al. Beta4-galactosyltransferase-5 is a lactosylceramide synthase essential for mouse extra-embryonic development. Glycobiology. 2010;20:1311-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that beta4GalT-5 is essential for extra-embryonic development during early mouse embryogenesis. ..
  35. Vercauteren D, Vandenbroucke R, Jones A, Rejman J, Demeester J, De Smedt S, et al. The use of inhibitors to study endocytic pathways of gene carriers: optimization and pitfalls. Mol Ther. 2010;18:561-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that any inhibitory effects are highly cell line dependent. Overall, the data question the significance of performing endocytosis studies with these agents in the absence of very stringent controls. ..
  36. Irie T, Watarai S, Iwasaki T, Kodama H. Binding of Vibrio anguillarum to neutral glycosphingolipids from intestinal mucosa of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). J Vet Med Sci. 2004;66:205-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that N-1 is GalCer (Gal beta 1-1Cer) and also that N-1 (GalCer) on rainbow trout intestinal mucosa act as a receptor for V. anguillarum. ..
  37. Rusciani A, Duca L, Sartelet H, Chatron Colliet A, Bobichon H, Ploton D, et al. Elastin peptides signaling relies on neuraminidase-1-dependent lactosylceramide generation. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14010 pubmed publisher
    ..As a consequence, we propose that LacCer is an early messenger for this receptor. ..
  38. Kasbi Chadli F, Ferchaud Roucher V, Krempf M, Ouguerram K. Direct and maternal n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation improved triglyceridemia and glycemia through the regulation of hepatic and muscle sphingolipid synthesis in offspring hamsters fed a high-fat diet. Eur J Nutr. 2016;55:589-599 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are probably related to a decrease in both lipogenesis and sphingolipid contents in liver and muscle. ..
  39. Vitner E, Platt F, Futerman A. Common and uncommon pathogenic cascades in lysosomal storage diseases. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:20423-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We now review how these cascades impact upon LSD pathology and suggest how intervention in the pathways may lead to novel therapeutic approaches...
  40. Zhang H, Wang H, Xiao X, Zhang T. Melamine Alters Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission of CA3-CA1 Synapses Presynaptically Through Autophagy Activation in the Rat Hippocampus. Neurotox Res. 2016;29:135-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our results show that melamine presynaptically alters glutamatergic synaptic transmission of hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses in vitro and this is likely associated with autophagy alteration. ..
  41. Marazziti D, Di Pietro C, Golini E, Mandillo S, Matteoni R, Tocchini Valentini G. Induction of macroautophagy by overexpression of the Parkinson's disease-associated GPR37 receptor. FASEB J. 2009;23:1978-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that GPR37 overexpression per se can induce cellular autophagy, which may prevent the selective degeneration of GPR37-expressing neurons, as reported for Parkinson's and related neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  42. Tokuda N, Numata S, Li X, Nomura T, Takizawa M, Kondo Y, et al. ?4GalT6 is involved in the synthesis of lactosylceramide with less intensity than ?4GalT5. Glycobiology. 2013;23:1175-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that ?4GalT6 plays a role as a LacCer synthase, whereas ?4GalT5 acts as a main enzyme for LacCer biosynthesis in these tissues and cells. ..
  43. Mizrahi M, Lalazar G, Ben Ya acov A, Livovsky D, Horowitz Y, Zolotarov L, et al. Beta-glycoglycosphingolipid-induced augmentation of the anti-HBV immune response is associated with altered CD8 and NKT lymphocyte distribution: a novel adjuvant for HBV vaccination. Vaccine. 2008;26:2589-95 pubmed publisher
  44. Greer A, Yong T, Fennell K, Moustafa Y, Fowler M, Galiano F, et al. Knockdown of core binding factor? alters sphingolipid metabolism. J Cell Physiol. 2013;228:2350-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Substantial increases in ceramide species and decreases in lactosylceramides were identified...
  45. Nakamura H, Moriyama Y, Makiyama T, Emori S, Yamashita H, Yamazaki R, et al. Lactosylceramide interacts with and activates cytosolic phospholipase A2?. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:23264-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphatidylcholine vesicles containing LacCer increased cPLA2? activity. LacCer bound to cPLA2? and its C2 domain in a Ca(2+)-independent manner. Thus, we propose that LacCer is a direct activator of cPLA2?. ..
  46. Dubois C, Manuguerra J, Hauttecoeur B, Maze J. Monoclonal antibody A2B5, which detects cell surface antigens, binds to ganglioside GT3 (II3 (NeuAc)3LacCer) and to its 9-O-acetylated derivative. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:2797-803 pubmed
    ..Antibody 18B8 does not bind to 9-O-acetylated GT3 or GT3 oxidized by sodium periodate. ..
  47. Won J, Singh A, Singh I. Lactosylceramide: a lipid second messenger in neuroinflammatory disease. J Neurochem. 2007;103 Suppl 1:180-91 pubmed
  48. Iwabuchi K, Nagaoka I. Lactosylceramide-enriched glycosphingolipid signaling domain mediates superoxide generation from human neutrophils. Blood. 2002;100:1454-64 pubmed
  49. Martin S, Williams N, Chatterjee S. Lactosylceramide is required in apoptosis induced by N-Smase. Glycoconj J. 2006;23:147-57 pubmed
    ..But it is not sufficient to induce apoptosis. Rather, the conversion of ceramide to LacCer and ROS generation are critical for apoptosis. ..
  50. Grandl M, Bared S, Liebisch G, Werner T, Barlage S, Schmitz G. E-LDL and Ox-LDL differentially regulate ceramide and cholesterol raft microdomains in human Macrophages. Cytometry A. 2006;69:189-91 pubmed
    ..Formation of different rafts may have consequences for raft associated signaling in cholesterol homeostasis and apoptosis in human macrophages. ..
  51. Wakshull E, Brunke Reese D, Lindermuth J, Fisette L, Nathans R, Crowley J, et al. PGG-glucan, a soluble beta-(1,3)-glucan, enhances the oxidative burst response, microbicidal activity, and activates an NF-kappa B-like factor in human PMN: evidence for a glycosphingolipid beta-(1,3)-glucan receptor. Immunopharmacology. 1999;41:89-107 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that PGG-Glucan enhances neutrophil anti-microbial functions and that interaction between this beta-glucan and human neutrophils is mediated by the glycosphingolipid lactosylceramide present at the cell surface. ..
  52. Halter D, Neumann S, van Dijk S, Wolthoorn J, De Mazière A, Vieira O, et al. Pre- and post-Golgi translocation of glucosylceramide in glycosphingolipid synthesis. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:101-15 pubmed
    ..FAPP2 knockdown strongly reduces GM3 synthesis. Overall, we show that newly synthesized GlcCer enters two pathways: one toward the noncytosolic surface of a post-Golgi membrane and one via the ER toward the Golgi lumen LacCer synthase. ..
  53. Sullards M, Wang E, Peng Q, Merrill A. Metabolomic profiling of sphingolipids in human glioma cell lines by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2003;49:789-97 pubmed
    ..twice the sphingosine 1-phosphate of LN18 and T98G; LN229 and LN319 have more monohexosylceramides than lactosylceramides, whereas the opposite is the case for LN18 and T98G; and the fatty acyl chain distributions of the ..
  54. Aouali N, El Btaouri H, Dumontet C, Eddabra L, Malagarie Cazenave S, Madoulet C, et al. Accumulation of lactosylceramide and overexpression of a PSC833-resistant P-glycoprotein in multidrug-resistant human sarcoma cells. Oncol Rep. 2011;25:1161-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest a possible relationship between lactosylceramide levels and the resistance of P-glycoprotein to modulation by MDR modulators. ..
  55. Liang Y, Kuo H, Lin C, Chen Y, Yang B, Cheng Y, et al. Switching of the core structures of glycosphingolipids from globo- and lacto- to ganglio-series upon human embryonic stem cell differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:22564-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, unique glycan structures uncovered by MS analyses may serve as surface markers for further delineation of hESCs and help identify of their functional roles not only in hESCs but also in cancers. ..
  56. Zuolo M, Toledo M, Nogueira H, Straus A, Takahashi H. Identification of GM3 as a marker of therapy-resistant periradicular lesions. J Endod. 2001;27:107-9 pubmed
    ..In contrast lesion tissues express GM3, which is conspicuously absent in normal tissues. ..
  57. Kolmakova A, Chatterjee S. Platelet derived growth factor recruits lactosylceramide to induce cell proliferation in UDP Gal:GlcCer: beta1 --> 4Galactosyltransferase (GalT-V) mutant Chinese hamster ovary cells. Glycoconj J. 2005;22:401-7 pubmed
    ..Moreover, this enzyme alone can mediate PDGF induced activation of a signal transduction cascade involving superoxide generation, p44MAPK activation, phosphorylation of Akt and cell proliferation. ..
  58. Lavieu G, Scarlatti F, Sala G, Carpentier S, Levade T, Ghidoni R, et al. Regulation of autophagy by sphingosine kinase 1 and its role in cell survival during nutrient starvation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:8518-27 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these results show that SK1(S1P)-induced autophagy protects cells from death with apoptotic features during nutrient starvation. ..
  59. Li L, Dongari Bagtzoglou A. Epithelial GM-CSF induction by Candida glabrata. J Dent Res. 2009;88:746-51 pubmed publisher
    ..beta-glucans did not stimulate GM-CSF synthesis, suggesting that the CDw17/NF-kappaB/GM-CSF pathway may be beta-glucan-independent. This study provides new insights into the mechanism of GM-CSF induction by C. glabrata. ..
  60. Fantini J, Garmy N, Yahi N. Prediction of glycolipid-binding domains from the amino acid sequence of lipid raft-associated proteins: application to HpaA, a protein involved in the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to gastrointestinal cells. Biochemistry. 2006;45:10957-62 pubmed
    ..Our method could be used to identify glycolipid-binding domains in microbial and cellular proteins interacting with lipid shells, rafts, and other specialized membrane microdomains. ..
  61. Vassilieva E, Ivanov A, Nusrat A. Flotillin-1 stabilizes caveolin-1 in intestinal epithelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;379:460-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that flotillin-1 regulates caveolin-1 level by preventing its lysosomal degradation in intestinal epithelial cells. ..
  62. Sonnino S, Prinetti A, Nakayama H, Yangida M, Ogawa H, Iwabuchi K. Role of very long fatty acid-containing glycosphingolipids in membrane organization and cell signaling: the model of lactosylceramide in neutrophils. Glycoconj J. 2009;26:615-21 pubmed publisher
  63. Fujimoto T. GPI-anchored proteins, glycosphingolipids, and sphingomyelin are sequestered to caveolae only after crosslinking. J Histochem Cytochem. 1996;44:929-41 pubmed
    ..The results show that not only GPI-anchored proteins but also glycosphingolipids and sphingomyelin are sequestered in caveolae only after crosslinking, and that the sequestration does not require the intact cytoskeleton. ..
  64. Sun X, Marks D, Park W, Wheatley C, Puri V, O Brien J, et al. Niemann-Pick C variant detection by altered sphingolipid trafficking and correlation with mutations within a specific domain of NPC1. Am J Hum Genet. 2001;68:1361-72 pubmed
    ..Our findings should be useful for the detection of NPC variants and also may provide significant new insight regarding NPC1 genotype/phenotype correlations. ..
  65. Pedrosa L, van Hell A, Süss R, van Blitterswijk W, Seynhaeve A, van Cappellen W, et al. Improving intracellular doxorubicin delivery through nanoliposomes equipped with selective tumor cell membrane permeabilizing short-chain sphingolipids. Pharm Res. 2013;30:1883-95 pubmed publisher
    ..C?-GluCer or C?-GalCer incorporated in DoxNL selectively improved intracellular drug delivery upon transfer to tumor cell membranes by local enhancement of cell membrane permeability. ..
  66. Bailly P, Piller F, Gillard B, Veyrières A, Marcus D, Cartron J. Biosynthesis of the blood group Pk and P1 antigens by human kidney microsomes. Carbohydr Res. 1992;228:277-87 pubmed
    ..The results suggested that the Pk and P1 glycolipids are synthesized by two distinct enzymes. ..
  67. Sala G, Dupre T, Seta N, Codogno P, Ghidoni R. Increased biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids in congenital disorder of glycosylation Ia (CDG-Ia) fibroblasts. Pediatr Res. 2002;52:645-51 pubmed
  68. Iwabuchi K, Nakayama H, Masuda H, Kina K, Ogawa H, Takamori K. Membrane microdomains in immunity: glycosphingolipid-enriched domain-mediated innate immune responses. Biofactors. 2012;38:275-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The detailed molecular mechanisms of these membrane microdomain-associated host-pathogen interactions remain to be elucidated. ..
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    ..01) and that this effect depends on Src pathway activation-mediated caveolar endocytosis. The therapeutic and biological implications of our findings are discussed. ..
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    ..These analogues will be used to probe the role of stereochemistry in the long-chain base of LacCer in the mechanism of endocytic uptake. ..
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    ..Collectively, our results demonstrate that trichodermol and 8-deoxy-trichothecin inhibit LacCer synthase activity in a cell-type-specific manner. ..
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    ..On the basis of our results, we propose MAM as a privileged compartment in providing GSLs for mitochondria. ..
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    ..Together, these results suggest that lacto/neolacto-series GSLs play an important role in clustering of GEMs and tether-specific proteins, such as BCR, CD19, and related signaling molecules to the GEMs. ..
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    ..b>Lactosylceramides from human leukocytes were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography in order to analyze the ..